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Full text of "The British dominions in North America, or, A topographical and statistical description of the provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Islands of Newfoundland, Prince Edward, and Cape Breton [microform] : including considerations on land-granting and emigration : to which are annexed, statistical tables and tables of distances, &c."

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THE 



BRITISH DOMINIONS 



IN 



NORTH AMERICA; 



<»K A 



TOPOGRAPHICAL AXD STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION 



OF THE PIIOVINCES OF 



LOWER AND UPPER CANADA, 

NEW BEUNSWICK, NOVA SCOTIA, 
THE ISLANDS OF XEA\TOUXDLAXD, PRINCE EDA^'ARD, AND CAPE BRETON 



INCLUDING 



COXSIDERATIOXS ON LAXD-GRANTING AND EMIGRATION. 



TO WHICH ARE ANNEXED, 



.STATISTICAL TABLES AND TABLES OP DISTANCES, &c. 



BY JOSEPH BOUCHETTE, ESQ 



iimbrlliBfjrlr toitfi Ftrlus. iJIaiis of JTotonB, llMcftoiiis, iic. 



I.y TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. I. 



LOXDOX : 
PUBLISHED BY HENRY COLBURN AND RICHARD BENTLEY, 

NEW BfULINGTON-STREET. 

1831. 



m 



/ L 






i'i:.':y 



LONDON: 

I'lllNTlI) IIY THOMAS nAVI«O.V, " H III: r II I AllS. 



'^■■'^'>k 



TO 
HIS MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, 

WILLIAM IV, 

OI' THE UNITED KINGDOM OF CIREAT lUUTAIN AND IRELAND 
KINO, DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, 

F/rC. ETC. KTC. ETC. 

SIRE, 

In approaching your JMajesty, with feehngs of the most i)r()- 
fbiind veneration and respect, to depose, for the second time, the 
result of my humble topographical and statistical colonial labours, 
at the foot of the throne ; 1 feel deeply penetrated by a sense of 
gratitude for your ^Majesty's condescension in graciously permitting 
that my work should appear under your jNIajesty's exalted patronage 
and royal auspices. 



This distinguished honour, whilst it sheds lustre upon my 
humble, but zealous endeavours, to develop the many natural re- 
sources and improvable advantages of your ]Majesty's flourishing 
trans-atlantic dominions, must conspicuously mark your Majesty's 



IV 



DEDICATION. 



palfiiial M)li('itu(le for their loyal inliabitajits, and add a fnrtlicr 
inctMitivo to the ap})roved devotion and attachment that have ever 
characterized your ^Majesty's loyal subjects in that distant part of 
the empire, where the recollection of your iMajcsty's visit, in 
early life, is still alive in the breasts of the peo})le, and has doubly 
become the theme of congratulation since your ^Majesty's liappy 
accession to the throne of these realms. 






^Vith sentiments of the deepest respect, attachment, and 
>ratitude, 

1 am, 

SIRE, 

Your ^Majesty's most loyal, and most devoted, 

obedient subject and servant, 

JOSEPH bouchettj:. 



.>£?* 



PREFACE. 

ANTF.cr-nENTrA' to tilt? year 1759, the dominion of North 
Americ'i was (Hvided ahnost exehisively hetween the Kin^s of 
England and France ; the former possessing the innnense Atlantic 
seal)oard of the continent, the latter the territories along the horders 
of the gigantic " Flcuvc du Ctnittda,'' or River St. Lawrence. Ihit the 
con(|uest, gallantly achieved by A\'olfe on the memorable })lains of 
Abr'am, near Qnebec, left, subsequently to that event, but a slender 
footing to the French crown in America, whilst it at once extended 
the empire of Cireat ]3ritain from the Atlantic Ocean to the shores 
of the Pacific, and rendered it almost co-cxtensive with the whole 
northern division of the New World. England continued in the 
undisputed possession of these her immense dominions for a period 
of nearly sixteen years, when those revolutionary discontents broke 
out in the old colonies, which ended in the declaration of their 
independence, and the acknowledgment «^*i' the American con- 
federation as a free and independent state, b the treaty of Paris, 
,'3rd of September, 1783. 

Whether the reduction of Canada accelerated the separation 
of the original British North American Plantations, by removing 
the check which the relative geographical position of the surround- 
ing French possessions w as calculated to produce upon the colonists, 

b 






VI 



pht:i'A("i:. 



it is difficult to say; but it is, perhaiJS, less pr()l)leniati('al ^vlictlicr 
Enj^land would lliis day have had to boast of her valuable trans- 
atlantic dominions, had not the victory of the Jhitish hero, who 
fell in the consunnnation of the con([ucst of Canada, preceded the 
birth of the United States of iVmerica, as one of the independent 
nations of the world. Certain it is, however, that the severe con- 
sequences of the loss of the British plantations were greatly miti- 
gated by A\'olfe's victory and the accession of the French colonies 
to the British empire, to which, not only from their intrinsic worth, 
but because of the political power and the connnercial advantages 
incidental to the possession of them, they have since become im- 
portant appendages. 

In the war waged by the colonies against the mother country, 
the people of Canada, although so recently become British subjects, 
resisted with fidelity every attempt that was made to seduce them , 
from their new allegiance, and with bravery repulsed every en- 
deavour to subdue them. Such devotedness was highly appre- 
ciated ; and England, at the termination of the revolutionary war, 
directed her attention towards giving increased consequence to 
her remaining possessions, with the design of drawing from them 
some of the supplies she had been accustomed to receive from the 
countries recently dismembered from the empire. It was some time, 
however, before the efforts of the mother country were attended 
with any degree of success, and a new order of things established, 
by which the languor that marked the growth of the colonies, as 
French plantations, gradually gave place to a system of more vigour 



iMiKrAn:. 



Vll 



in the a^ricultiival improvomoiit of the couiitiy, and a more active 
(level(»iKMnei\t of its coinnicrcial it'souvces. Yet, iftlic miineious 
oidinaiK'es of tlie Kiiifi; of T ranee, for the ene()ura«j;einent of aj^ri- 
culture and tiie re«i;ulation of comnierce, >vhieh are still extant, cjui 
be admitted as evidence of the interest with which the colony was 
then viewed, no solicitude a})pears to have been Maiiting on the 
part of the French gov(>rnment towards promoting the welfare of 
Canada. The slow advancements may fairly bo ascribed to the 
destructive wars of the aborio;ines, to the difficulties and embar- 
rassmcnts of incipient colonization, and the remote situation of 
the country (at that time no inconsiderable obstacle), rather 
than to any neglect or mis-government of her distant dominions 
on the part of France. 

If the British dominions in Xorth America be viewed merely 
in relation to their vast superficies, which exceeds 4,000,000 of geo- 
graphical square miles, their importance will become apparent, more 
especially when the manifold advantages of their geographical jio- 
sition are properly estimated. Cj lancing at the map, we see I3ritish 
sovereignty on the shores of the Atlantic, commanding the mouth 
of the most splendid river on the globe ; and, sweeping across the 
whole continent of America, it is found again on the coasts of the 
Pacific Ocean, thus embracing an immense section of the New 
"World in the northern hemisphere, reaching at some points as far 
south as 41° of north latitude, and stretching northward thence 
to the polar regions. But the importance of these possessions 
should be estimated less by their territorial extent than by the 

b2 



VUI 



PREFACE. 



1' 
,11 



jj'. 






resources they offer, their eapaljilitics of improvement, the «;reat 
iiiereiis(! ot'ulueh their eonmierce is suseeptihle, ami the extensive 
field tliey present for emif^ialion. 

I'hc Ihitish Xorth American provinces occupy hut a com- 
paratively small portion ol' the a^<;'re;i;ate superficies of tlie whole 
of the Ihitish dominions in the ^vestern hemisphere; yet they 
cover ahout "iOOjOOO «feo^i'aphical s((uare miles, and contain a po- 
pulation which in roiuul nund)ers amounts to nearly a million and 
a half of souls (strictly 1,'>7. >,<)()()), and this |)0})ulation, takin<i' the 
average ratio of increase of all the colonies, douhles itself evervsixteen 
or eighteen years. The colonies viewed in their true light are essen- 
tially agricultural, and it is in this point of view that they ought 
properly to he considered as ])rimarily important to the mother 
country. AN'hatevcr may now he the extent and value of their timhet 
trade, or the weight so deservedly attached to that flourisliing hranch 
of the colonial conuneree, the agricultural produce of their soil, and 
the products of their fisheries, must eventually yield the chief i)art 
of the exports of the country. That it would he sound policy 
to check, directly, the progress of an extensive hranch of a staple 
trade, may indeed be doubtful; but measures, calculated gradually 
to divert commercial capital into other channels besides those of the 
timber trade, must, on the contrary, have a beneficial tendency, espe- 
cially if that diversion take place in favour of some other colonial 
staple of more permanency, such as the commerce of hemp, ffax, 
wheat, &c. Staples are either temporary or permanent, and although, 
from the vastness of Canadian forests, timber may be considered an 



1 






riiKrAcK. 



IX 



aliuoNt cxIiaUfitU'ss fiiiul ot' the colonial rxpoit tradi', luvcrtlieloss, 
it, to a certain decree, Ik'Iom^s to the first class of* staples, from its 
necessarily becoinin'; more scarce, as the settlenieiits of the countrv 
spread abroad, and the Ibrests recede. 

J*ossessin^', indeed, a soil witii propertii'softhe hijilu'st I'ertility. 
and enjoying a climate extremely sahd)rious, althou<;h ri/^orous in 
winter, the llritish provinces in America are, uitliout a doubt, the 
most flourish inj;' and interestinji; section of the Ihitish Colonial 
Ilmpire; and, if consiilered under a political aspect, probably the 
most iniportant of her trans-marine possessions, since, independently 
of their intrinsic value to the parent state, they are intimately 
connected with the preservation of the West Indian plantations, 
and the control of the invaluable fisheries of the (iulf of St. 
Lawrence and the banks of Newfoundland. 

The trade of these provinces now employs annually upwards 
of 1.800 sail of Jiritish shipping, exceeding in aggregate burden 
470,000 tons, and recpiiring more than 20,000 seamen : this tonnage 
is e(|ual to about l-5th of the whole of the IJritish shipping: it is 
nine times greater than the amount of Ihitish tons employed in 
the trade with the United States of America, anil about double that 
used in the West India trade*; and, comparing the ratio of in- 
crease from the year 177'i to the present time, we rind that the 
whole increase on the aggregate of Jhitish shipping has been about 
1G7 per cent. ; the decrease of tonnage with the United States LM 



Morcair.s Tiiblcs, and Official Uetunis. 



X 



niEFACE. 



PI 



I I 



r i' 



j)ei' cent.; the increase with the West Indies 189 per cent.; and 
with tlie North American colonies 'J,.'37() per cent. The vahie of 
the exports, from Great ]hitain to the Ihitisli provinces, amounts to 
more than 'J,00(),()()0/. sterling, which is an increase of ahout 455 per 
cent, upon the amount of the exports of 1774; wliilst the increase 
in the value of exports to the United States did not exceed 245 
per cent, during that jjcriod, and to the ^\'est Indies SOO per cent., 
demonstrating clearly the accelerated ratio in which the commercial 
prosperity of these provinces is advancing, their vast importance and 
incalculahle resources. 

It cannot he douhtcd that the liberal and eidightened com- 
mercial policy of the Ihitish government, has given renewed vigour 
to the commerce of Great Ihitain, nor can it be denied that the 
success of that })olicy much depended upon the wide range of 
her emi)ire, the magnitude and variety of her colonies. To this 
increasing prosperity of England, an able statesman* happily 
alludes, when comparing the commerce of the United States with 
that of the United Kingdoms. " We had not supposed,'' says he, 
" that a young, rising, and naturally commercial country, whose 
j)opulation and agriculture are growing with unequalled rapidity, 
could, under any policy, he outstrii)ped in a race by a nation, whose 
navigation was j)resumed to have reached its maximum, and whose 
naval power was supposed to be at least stationary in its meridian, 
if it was not already in its decline. But Great JJritain has granted 



* Mr. CainbtM-leiig, Chairinaii of the I'nited States' Committee of Commerce uiul 
Navigation. 



! I 






_>4^' 



PREFACE. 



XI 



commercial liberty to her vast empire, at home and abroad, and has 
taken a new start in the race of nations ; whilst we, on the other 
hand, professing to be free, have restricted our own citizens in their 
intercourse with all the world *." 

To the importance of the colonies, in an agricultural and com- 
mercial point of view, has l»een superadded of later years, another 
consideration of no minor interest, which still further enhances 
their value to the parent state. The almost exhaustless field ottered 
in thel3ritish North American provinces for fresh colonization, points 
them out as the goal of emigration from the United Kingdoms, 
and they have in consecjuence become the favourite resort of tlu^ 
redundant population of the mother country. 'Ihousands of the 
sons of Ihitain arc, therefore, seen every year leaving their native 
shores to venture their fortunes in a more remote section of his 
Majesty's dominions, bearing in their breasts this inspiring consola- 
tion, that, although removed from the land of home — the protecting 
ivgis of a free, powerful, and happy constitution and government, 
is extended to the most distant as well as to the metropolitan 
regions of this vast empire. Indeed so generally and broadly has 
the tide of emigration flowed towards the Canadas, New lirunswick, 
and Nova Scotia, that a considerable portion of their population 
is composed of the natives of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and 
the interests of those provinces have become proportionately iden- 
tified with those of the British isles. 

* Cambcrleng's Report to Congress, 1830, j). '2(). 



I 



XII 



PREFACE. 



1 I. 






i ill 

ft: 
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'These various considerations combined, have incited the author 
of these vohimes to present to his Majesty's government, both at 
home and abroad, and to the j)ubHc of tlie empire, a Topogra- 
phical and Statistical Description of the British Dominions in 
North i\nicrica, together witli 'J'opographical Maps of Lower Ca- 
nada, and a Geographical ]Map of the Jh-itish Provinces in America. 
It is proper, however, to observe that he has far exceeded the plan 
which he originally contemplated ; his design having, in the outset, 
been confined to the publication of a Topogrtii)hical and Statistical 
Description of the ^ro^ ince of Lower Canada, with Mai)S. IJut 
having, in the prosecution of this design, discovered that, in the 
course of the Ion"- series of vears durino' Avhich he had been oc- 
cupied in collecting materials for this work, he had amassed and 
methodized a body of valuable statistical and geographical in- 
formation, relative to L'^pper Canada and the sister provinces of 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick ; and, deeply impressed with the 
utility of a work which should embody every possible degree of in- 
formation as to the British North American colonies collectively, he 
ventured, though not without sensations of the greatest diffidence, 
to push his project to a general consideration of the topography and 
statistics of the continental section of the Ihitish enipire in the 
New "World. 

In the general framework of the maps of I-ower Canada, Avhich 
are upon a large and explanatory scale, the author was materially 
aided by his previous topographical exhibit of that province, pub- 
lished in 1815, under the exalted patronage of his late IMajesty, then 



Mi 



i ; 



PREFACE. 



Xlll 



Prince Ecgcnt of tlie kingdom * : but the details are entirely new 
and compiled, with the greatest care, from numerous original sur- 
veys and documents of indubitable authenticity, that have enabled 
him to lay down every niinutia of topography. Jn adverting to the 
l)eriod of his former publication, the author feels impelled, alike by 
a sense of duty and of gratitude, to record, as a very feeble tribute 
of his respect for the cherished memory of his late lloyal Highness 
the Duke of Kent, the many and deep obligations under which he 
lies to that much lamented prince and munificent patron, whose 
characteristic urbanity of manners so miu'h endeared him to all 
who liad the honour of being known to him. 

The geogra[)hical maj) of the Jh-itish provinces, and of a section 
of the adjacent states of the American luiioii, accompanying the work, 
will, it is hoped, be found an interesting adjunct, from the scope of 
the country it embraces, as well as on account of the sources of in- 
formation w hence it was compiled. This map was constructed by the 
author's eldest son, Joseph IJouchette, Es([,, Deputy Surveyor-Ge- 
neral of Lower Canada, and must, like the other maps, be left in a 



* The followiiij^ uiianiinoiis resolve of the house of assembly of Lower Canada is 
a testimony of the eharacter of that work, whieh the author liopes he will he pardoned 
for inserting- here : 

" Resolved, That an humble address be presented to his spruce the o^overnor-in- 
chief, representing- the importance of the geographical and topographical maps of Joseph 
Bouchette, Esquire, Surveyor-General, and the losses he has sustained in pul)lishing 
them ; representing also the imporiance of those maps, both to his Ma jest if s government 
unci to the province at large ,• and praying his grace would be pleased to take the whole 
into consideration, and would also be pleased to indentnifij him for his services and 
losses by sucli grant of tlie lands of the crown as his grace in his wisdom may think fit."' 



I 



XIV 



PREFACE. 



:iii 



''■II 
liPli 



'f 



;^:ii" 



great measure to speak for itself. It is but justice to the compiler, 
liowevcr, to mention the extreme laboriousncss \vith which, during 
three years, he attached himself to its construction, in the midst of 
active professional duties — the close investigation as to the correct- 
ness of documents that preceded their application, and the science 
with which he was capable of graphically ai)i)lying the information 
these documents contained. To this gentleman the author is also 
indebted for his scientific aid in the compilation of several parts of 
the topographical maps ; and it is a source of congratulation to him 
to have likewise to note the services of his third son, John Francis 
Houchette, Lieutenant, 68th Light Infantry, whose able draftsman- 
ship has so much contributed to the nicety of delineation, and to 
any degree of elegance the topograjihical maps of Lower Canada may 
be deemed to possess. 

Having said thus much in regard to the graphical part of the 
work now presented to the public, it may not be inexpedient to 
say something of the following volumes, and to give some account 
of the plan and division of the subject-matter they embrace, and 
the sources whence the information is derived. Upon the latter 
point the author may perhaps be pardoned for indulging in a little 
self-gratulation, from the confidence he must necessarily have in 
the correctness of the materials he had to work upon (especially 
as respects the local and statistical circumstances of the Canadas), 
as well from his constant residence in the country, as from the fa- 
cilities aiforded by the department over which he has, for thirty 
years, had the honour to preside. The valuable documents and 



LilJ 



VJ.IW**' 



PREFACE. 



XV 



official rccovds of the survey or-gcneral's office, which constituted 
tlie principal })ortion of the nuiterials used in the composition of 
his former work, and the free use of which he was })ermitted hy his 
INJajesty's colonial government, have heen again consulted, together 
with such new matter, arising from surveys since 1815, as has heen 
superadded to the topograj)hical information already recorded. 
These documents, however, were chiefly useful in the grai)hical 
part of the work, and furnished the mean^ of a correct deline- 
ation of the townships of the province. The feudal lands of Lower 
Canada, a large and important section of the colony, are delineated 
and described from original plans and documents in the possession 
of the seigneurs of the province, and to which the author has had 
free access. To tlu'se valuable materials were added the results of 
three official tours in 1820, 1824, and 18;37, the last of which em- 
braced the extremities of the settled parts of the country, and 
enabled him to enter minutely into an investigation of the statistics, 
and to collect important subject-matter for the topography of 
the province*. The replies of the gentlemen of the lloman 
catholic clergy to queries proposed to them on the state and re- 
sources of their respective parishes, and the explanatory answers of 



* The following extract may not prol)al)ly be deemed inadmissible, as a testimo- 
nial of the mode in which this branch of the author's public duties was discharged : — 



Sir, 



Castle of St. Lewis, Quebec, 8th July, Is'^S. 



1 have not failed to lay before his excellency the governor-in-chief yoiu- letter of 
the od instant, transmitting the report of your proceedings, and the statistical returns 
prepared by you in consequence of his excellency's instructions conveyed to you by my 

C 2 






XVI 



PREFACE. 



k 



the seigneurs, to circulars transmitted to them, relative to the 
settlements and statistics of their several seigncurial properties, 
have also proved of invaluahle assistance in the completion of the 
statistical department of the hook. 

These sources of information have furnished the General De- 
scription of the province of Lower Canada as well as the Topo. 
graphical Dictionary. There are many minute points connected 
with the topography of the country of perliaps less interest to the 
general reader, but of the first imj)ortance to those seeking for 
complete information as to the resources of the j)rovince, for the 
arrangement of which, as well as for the facility of reference, the 
alphabetical form affords distinguished advantages ; and this has 
induced the author to adopt the somewhat unusual plan of a dic- 
tionary, but which he confidently presumes will be found to com- 
bine many and important advantages, no less in comprising under 
one view all the particulars that can be required on any one point, 
than as leaving the general description unencumbered by matter, 
which to some might seem tediously minute, whilst the body of 
the work presents a summary account of the province, its resources, 



letter of the 10th August hist. And I am directed by his excellency to convey to you 
his approbation of the zeal and laborious diligence exhibited by you in collecting and 
condensing the multifarious, interesting, and useful information contained in the report 

and tables which you have now submitted. 

♦ * * * ## * « « 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
(Signed) A. W. Cochhane, Sccrctarij. 

To Joseph Bouchette, Esq. 
Surveyor-GenvraL 



\V{ 



:i'l 



PREFACE. 



XV 11 



and all that general information desirable to the more cursory class 
of readers. 

The description of the province of L pper Canada is derived 
from the substance of notes and memoranda made in that country 
during the late war, and from the knowledge obtained of it tluring 
an anterior service of six years, as an officer of the provincial Navy 
upon the lakes. To the information arising from these sources 
considerable additions have been made from documents that may 
be relied upon, both published and manuscript. The latter are 
chiefly of an official character, the former are to be found in ( lourlay's 
Statistics of Upper Canada, the reports of commissioners of roads 
and canals, public statistical returns, &c. 

The extensive field operations performed by the author on 
the frontier of New Brunswick in 1817, as his ^Majesty's surveyor- 
general, under the 4tli and 5th articles of the Treaty of Ghent, and 
several excursions into the colony connected therewith, sup})lied 
the bulk of the materials for the account of that province, though 
some obligations must be acknowledged to the author of a pamphlet, 
descriptive of the province, and published there, as well as to the 
intelligent sketches of ]Mr. jM'Gregor. The statistical branch of 
the description is principally derived from the public returns and 
statistical statements, framed under the direction of his Majesty's 
government, and subsequently published. The statistics of Nova 
Scotia are parti}' taken from the same source, and also from Halli- 
burton's history of that province, from which, in the historical 
sketch and general description of that country, considerable aid has 



•n — 



l! 



Hi 



Hi'. 






■''Hi 
!'ti , 

Mil! 

fill 



XVI II 



rilKl'ACE. 



been (U'lived. I'lie notes niade by the autbor uj)on tlio soil, surtacc, 
and cHniatc of tbe ])rovin('e in 18 If), and memoranda ecllected an- 
teriorly to tbat j)eriod, wbile at Halifax on military service, bave 
furtber enabled tbe autbor, irom a i)ersonal kn<nvledj;e of tbat i)art 
of our colonial dominions, to enter more satisfactorily upon its 
description. lie iias also great pleasure in acknowledginji; tbe 
valuable information be bas obtained, on tbe subject of tbe settle- 
ments botb of New JJrunswick and of Nova Scotia, from tbe j)rinted 
rei)ort of Colonel Cockburn to bis jVIajesty's government, wbicb 
contains documents of great interest and bigb autbority, relative 
to tbe lands, settlements, and resources of tbose provinces. 

Tbe Island of Xcwibundland is tbe only part of tbe colonized 
Ikitisb possessions in ^Vmerica of ubicb tbe autbor bas it not in bis 
power to give any personal account, and be tberefore is tbrown 
upon public records and official papers for tbe means of describing 
tbe local, agricultural, and statistical state of tbat insular section of 
tbe ]Jritisb Nortb American Dominions, so important wben viewed 
in conjunction witb tbe extensive fisberies of tbe Great JJanks and 
of tbe Gulf of St. Lawrence. In tbe description of tbe Island of 
Prince Edward or St. Jobn, be derived considerable information 
from tbe official plan, witb abundant notes and remarks, of bis re- 
lation and predecessor, tbe late INIajor Holland, recorded in bis 
office, as well as from several private documents and plans acquired 
wben in tbe island, at wbicb time be bad an opportunity of visiting 
tbe most interesting parts of it, and of recording notes descriptive 
of its geograpby and topography. 



1 



I, II 



;:i; 



^ 



S{.W 



] 



I'llErACK, 



XIX 



Such are the sourcos of iufonniition, and such the means and 
iho materials whicli have furnislied tlie sid)ject-matter of the fol- 
lowinj>' vohimes, and however the autlior may i'eel conscious of the 
imperfect manner in which the task lias been executed, he caiuiot 
repress the hope, that the defects of the performance will stand 
excused by the utility of the matter and the motive which in- 
volved liim in so arduous an undertaking'. The })rospect of li- 
terary fame, so powerful an incentive to many writers, yet so often 
illusory, oven when founded upon great erudition and classical 
attainments, has had no share in bringinfj? the autlior before tlu' 
tribunal of public opinion. His sole object is to be useful, by 
communicating to the world the substance of long and variously 
accumulated information, relative to the Ibitish trinis-atlantic do- 
minions, which he would have conceived it a dereliction of duty 
and of patriotism to withhold from the ])rcss ; feeling as lie does an 
additional incentive and encouragement from that liberal and en- 
lightened system of colonial policy that has conspicuously distin- 
guished the IJritish cabinet, and struck an im))ulse from the very 
centre of national prosperity to its remotest branches. 

lie has to lament, however, that the scope of his ai)ilities, even 
when aided by the pen of another of his sons, Robert S. ]\1. liouchette, 
Esq., a member of the Canadian bar, whose able assistance in the 
composition of the general work, he feels it alike a duty and a 
pleasure candidly and cordially to acknowledge, should have been 
insufficient to enable him to send forth the work clothed with all 
those advantages of arrangement, style, and illustration which might 



nil 



XX 



PUKFACE. 



I)c I'XjK'cU'd I'roin tliosc whose time and talents have been devoted 
to literary pursuits. Forty years of his lite have been passed in 
the service of his Majesty's <i;overiHnent, in the naval, military, 
and eivil departments, the duties of which, though atfoidin/^' him 
()pi)c)rtunities of collectin<j; abundant materials for a work of this 
nature, have yet allowed him but little leisure for cultivating^' those 
graces of composition by which a writer most readily reconniiends 
himself to the reader's favourable opinion. .Vl)and()nin<>; then 
all hopes which mi^ht be founded on such advantages, he relies on 
his honest though luunble zeal to lay open, as far as his capabilities 
permitted, the vast, natural, and im})roval)le resources of a flourishing 
section of the liritisli eni})ire ; and should ins feeble endeavours 
have the good fortune to obtain ai)probation, for the design if not 
for the execution, his liighest ambition will be attained, and Iul 
dearest wishes amply gratified. 



h'i 



. ^i.i'i 



i 



COM i:nts 



or 



VOL. 1. 



CHAPTER I. 

Discovery of Aniorica by Columbus, Vora/zani, Caliot, and Cartior — Foundation of Quebec — 
Grant of Nova Scotia bv James I.— Surrendered to France UiIVJ — Yielded to Cromwell l(ir)4 
— Ajiain jriveu u}) to France in Kiltli — And finally ceded to (Jreat IJritain IJl-' — Houinlarics 
of Canada and the United States in 17JIH — IKaiiularies as settled IttlO — Pretensions of 
Russia, and Convention with the United Stales, .Itli April, ]H;2I, instead of Hilt, as stated 
by error in note, jiage 1 1 — Present Houndar} of tlie Rritisli Possessions in North America 
— Thi' British Claim to the Houndary Line uo\\- under Umiiire advocated — American Pre- 
tensions confuted — Authorities referred to .... • Paj^e 1 

CHAPTER II. 

Boundaries again geographically stated — Extent and Divisions of the British North American 
Possessions lying between the Parallels of Latitude 41" 47 and 7'!' north, and between tlieiV2nd 
and I41st Degrees of west Longitude — Face of the Ciajutrv comprehensively described — Di- 
vision into Provinces or Separate Governments — Indian Ciiuntry — Its Boundaries — Those of 
the Hudson's Bay Territory — Divisiim of Indian Country into Sections — § I. Ihulson's Bay 
— Southampton Island — Other Islands of the Bay — Its Shores — East IMain — Its Rivers and 
Lakes — Soil of this Tract — New South Wales — Its Rivers — Face of the Country — Trading 
Posts — § II. Lake Winnipeg— Other Lakes aiul Rivers — Trading Posts— Face of the 
Country, and Geological Peculiarities — Tract sold to the Earl of Selkirk — ^ HI. Its Bounda- 
ries, Lakes, and Rivers — Face of the Country and Soil — § IV. Extent and General De- 
scription — Polar Regions — Franklin quoted — Summary of principal Features — § V. Its 
Peculiarities succinctly described— The Rocky Mountains — Supposed a Continuation of the 
Andes — Comparison of tht IMountains of North America with those of other Parts of the 
Globe — Effects of a north-west Passage — Of a Canal across the Isthmus of Panama 27 

r 

CHAPTER III. 

Upper Canada — History of its Settlement — And Separation as a distinct Province — Its present 
Boundaries and Division— Tabular Statement of its various Subdivisions — General Character 
of the Country . . . . . . . . .61 






XXll 



CO.\Ti:.NI\S. 



I 



ij'l! 



w 



h 






CIIAPTEH IV. 

NiUiirnl DivisiiiiiN of tin' Pruviiicf — Hidm'H uf lii^li or Tablo Lund iliviiliiig tin- .Sources of 
Stri'iinis — Iiiiiij{iiiury Division into Si'itioiiH — ^ I. Enstcrn Si-ction, i-oinpriNiiijf Kimti'm, 
Ottawii, .lolinstowii, .Midliind, iind Itatlnirst DiNtricts — Uh Waters — Qnality of Moil — Itonds 

— I'oimlation— Towns — Kingston- Its Situation •Coninu'rci' — Ilarlionr — Navy May— Hay 
of (juiniti — I'crtli — Uy-To\vn — ^11. ('(ntral Section, Districts of I lonn- and Xeweastle — 
Waters and \\'ater-coniiii\inicati(mi«— Qinility of the Lands on tlieir Hanks — Population of 
till' Districts — York — Its Situation and Huildin^s— The ("tdlep- — Ilarliour — I'o|iu]ation — 
Hoads— § III. (iore, Xiajiara, London, and Western Districts — .\(.'};ref;ate l'o|iulatiou — .Si- 
tuation. Climate, Moundaries- Face of the (,'ountry — Soil — Forest Trees — Hivers — Indian 
•Settlements — Himds — Niajfara— Welliuid t'anal — Favourable geojirajjliical Position of tho 
Nia;{ara District— Lake Krie— Its .Sjinres. IFarlioiir^, Points, and .Settlements — Talliot .Set- 
tlement — Audierstl)Ur;{h— (ieneral statistical Summary of the Province — Tabular .Statements 
of Pojjulation — Table of Property and Produce — Prodigiously rapid Improvement of the 
Colony ......... Page 70 

CIIAPTKH V. 

The ( anada Company- Charter and Cin'nts to the Company — Terms of the Grant — The Huron 
Tract — Its Townships— General Features — Town of Goderich — (fuel|)ii — General Distri- 
bution of the Canada Company's Territory throughout the Province .113 

CIIAPTFH \ I. 

Government nd Constitution of I'pper Canada — Council and Legislative Assembly — Quali- 
fications of Alcmbers and of Electors — Courts of Law . .121 

CHAPTER All. 

Princi[ial Waters of tlii' Canadiis —River .St. Lawrence — Its Course and Extent — Variou.s 
Nanu's of its ditrerent Parts — The (treat Lakes — Lake .Superior — Its tributary .Streams 
and I.slands — .Strait of .St. Mary — Falls— Lake Huron — Its .Shores traced — Islands — Tri- 
butary .Streams— Lake iNIichigan — River and Lake St. Clair — Strait or River Detroit — Its 
Islands— Lake Erie — Course of its Currents — Islands — Town of Erie — Roads in its Vicinity 

— Niagara River — Its Course traced — Falls of Niagara — ^Minutely described — The Whirl- 
j)()(d — Further Course of tlie River — The ^^'elland Canal — Eric Canal — Lake Ontario — The 
Rideau Caiuil — (ireuville Canal — Tiie .St. Lawrence below Kingston — The St. Lawrence 
Canal — Rights of Navigation on the .St. Lawrence — The St. Lawrence below St. Regis — 
The La Chine Canal — Montreal — The St. Lawrence below Montreal — lielow Quebec — The 
Traverse — Channels of the .St. Lawrence — Islands — The St. Lawrence in Winter — The (iulf 
—St. Paul's Island .120 



; I'ff; 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Lower Canada — Its geographical Position — Boundaries — Tabular .Statement of Divisions 
and Subdivisions — Superficial Extent — Tenure of Lands — Proprietary Division — General 
Character of the Country . . . . . .177 



111 



iril 



^_>5J^ 



COMKNTS. 



XMll 



( IIAl'Ti:i« IX. 

(ii'iicml Fucc t)f tlir Cniintry— Natural D(»i»i«>iis by tin- Hiilno of Ili'.'li IauuU — Tin- Province 
iiiirtlMif tli<> St. r«;i\vrt'iici' — Diviili'il into iiii.iniiiiir\ Sect inns —'I'lu' l'ro\iiu'c suiitli ci|' tlii' 
St. I,;n\ rciii'c simihiilv 'lividol — Jj I North ot' tlic St. fiiiwrt'iit'c - Coiiiitrv lirlwcni tlii' 
Otliiwii iiiid the St. Maiiric'i'— Coiirw of tlit' Ottawa— Mct'iifry on its Hanks Likis— I)i>m 
CliutH — Cliuiiilii re — KiiIIh of tlu' (in-al and Fiittlo lUiaiidii re — I'nion llridncs — ('ImnictiT of 
t!u> Country on tlu' lluiiks of tin- ()tt;nMi I'criodicid Uisin<;s — 'I'nw n-ilii|is on tlio Ottawa — 
Sctllcnicnts — Of two ('lassos 'i'own.-'liii) of (innvillc — Sfijjniorv of [.i;i I'cliti' Nation — 
Hull — rnsrttli'd liands — Po|in!ation of tiic Ottawa District — Country liclow Clialliani— 
Tract dcsiTilifd — Walrr-coiiiMiunicalioiis — .Soil, St'tllfuicnts, lloads - I'roji'i'trd Itoad — 
Town of Tliri'c llivors — I'ari.slu's aliovc 'riircc Hivcrs — \'illa).;t' of Jlcrtiiirr St. Kustai'lic — 
Isk'.Fisns — Isli- Hizard— Islf IVrrot — Islaiul of Montreal — History of its Si'ttlruu-nt — U'ator- 
connuuni('ation--Soil — Hoads -City of Montrral -History »( its Sctth-nitJUt — Di-siTiption — 
I'uMif fdificcs --Tin- Nc" ('atlii'dr;d— .Aliniitclv di' .irilicd — Sciiiinarics and Si^ls of Firarn- 
in;,'— M(iill ('olli'!.'t'--l'ol"ilalion llarlnmr -Country in tlir Mnviroiis— i-'crrit's -'I'aiiular 
Stall' ol'tlif Population of tlic Conntv — County of \'audrt'nil — |i. \H' — § H. Country lictwfrn 
till' St. ISIaurii'f and tlic Sa^iucnay — Po|iidation — Wcsti-rn Division of Country — ISivorH — 
St'ttlpniiMits — Soil — lloads— ( 'ity of Quflx'i'- Historical .Skcti'li- Sit nation- I''ortifu';ilions — 
Divisions — Po|mlalion — Pidilic Huildin^is — Tiif Castli' — .Monument to Wolfe iuid .Montcalm 
— Tlu- Catlu'drid — .Streets — .Markets — The LowcrTown — Sidiurlis — I' .nksofllu' .St. Cliarles 
and St. L:n\rence — Projected Pier — Pl.iins of Aliridiam- 'I'alile of .\ssessnients— .Stcaui- 
lioats — Ta'udar .Statenient of llieir Names. Tonnaj:e, and Pati's of FrL'ii;lit — Land-travellinfi 
— Tabic of Distances and Hates of Post.ip' — Ferry-lioats — Passa}.;e of the Hiver in Winter — 
Scenery of the Kuvirons — Country westward of (Jnchec — Ilivers- VuUs of .Alontniorenci — 
Country lietween the .Sa^iieuay ami tilt" .St. Maurice — Course ot" noiudiette's K\iiloratiiin — 
The Hiver .St. iMauricc — Otiu-r Hivers -(icneral Descrijitiou of that Tract of t'laintry — The 
Peninsula — Chicoutimi — Tadousac — Explorations of the Safjuenay — p. 2!{7 — § "'• I'erritory 
cast of the Sayucuay — (iencral Description — Rivers — Portnenf — King's Posts — Table of f.<a- 
titudos— p. 2!»2 ........ Pa^'cl!!.'. 



( HAPTEH X. 



South-west Side of the St. Lawrence— § I. Country west of the Chaudierc — Boundaries — Geo- 
graphical Position — Content — Division into Counties — (Jener.d Oescri]itiou Hivers — Kails 
of the Chaudierc — Tenure of Lands — .Seigniories of F^a Hi'auce — Soils of various Seigniories 
— Villages — Townships — Village of La Prairie — Of St. Joseph — Scenery of the Hichelieu — 
Town of William Henry— F'astorn Townships— Roads — Northerly Settlements— p. i2i)7 — 
§ H. Country east of the River Chaudierc to the west Bounds of the District of Gaspe— 
Disputed Boundary Line — Award of the King of Holland — Not an Arbitration but a Com- 
promise — Face of the Country — Rivers and Lakes— Scenery on the River du Snd — Ste- 
Anne — College of Stc. Anne'.s — Pari.shes above Jlatane — River Ouelle— Kaniouraska — .St. 
Andrew's — Temiscouata Portage— Riniouski—Mitis—Larrive's Mill— Little Mitis— Kempt 

d2 



M 



XXIV 



CONTENTS. 



Road — Matano — Country towards the south — Lake Tomiscouata — p. 311 — § III. District 
of CiasiJc — Faci" of the Country — Divisions — Rivers — Roads — Projected ditto — Settk-nients 
— Popuhitiou — \'illa{;es — Produce — Jlinerals — Climate — Trade — Fisheries — Lnmlicr- 
Trade — Administration of Justice — Magdalen Islands— p. ;i23 . ■ Page 297 

CHAPTEIi XI. 

Climate of the Canadas — Dr. Brewster's Tiieory — Climate traced for several Years — Tliermo- 
metrical and ineteortdogical Tallies — W'iiuls — Atmosphere — Seasons — Temperature observed 
by Captain FranJdin in tlie Xortliern Regions — Water-spouts on tlie Lakes in Upper 
Canada .......... XU 



'%<<' 



!MM 



( H.M'TKU XII. 

Statistics (if Lower Canada — Population — Table of j)rogressive Increase from lO'O to 1025 — 
(Jeneral Table of Statistics — Projiortion of Professors of various Religion.s — Tabularly sliowu 
— Proportion of Males and Females — Ages, livc. — Table of Births, IMarriages, and Deatiis — 
Comparative Statement of Population in tlie three principal Districts, as regards the su- 
perlicial Extent — Table of Kxtent, Latitude, Longitude, Population, and other statistical 
Particulars of each District and C'ountv ...... IM/ 



cii.\pti:r XIII. 

Agrictdturc — Formation of Farms — IMode of Tillage — Reasons for its Adoj:ti(in — Tabular 
Stalenieiit of the Quantity of Land under Cultnre, and its Produce in each Conutv, and 
domestic .Alaiiufactures — Tabular .Statement of the F.xport of Bread Stuffs from l'J9'.\ to 1}!(>2, 
and fioui 1!11() to IflJJ — .Alanufacttires — (irnwtli of Flax anil Hemp — .Ma]ile Sugar — ."Mode 
■ if pr(]iaring — ..Agricultural and Horticultural Societies .... 3()2 

( ii.\pri:u XIV. 

Temire of Lands — Seigneiirial (irants — Lands held under the .Seigneur— Seiguenrial Rights — 
Conditicins of holdiiig— 'I'eiiure in free and connnon Soccage — Lands granted to Leaders 
and Associates — Commission of Escheats — Canada ieuures Act 374 

( IIAPTKU XV. 

.Alilitia of Lower Canada — Feudal Origin of Militia Forces — .Strength of the Militia of the 
Provii.je — \'olunteer Corjis— Taliidar .Militia Returns of l}l(t7. 1J511, Uil.">, and 1H27 — 
JMililia Act, Idth (ieo. I\'. cap. '.) — Etticiency of the .Militia — Loyalty and Bravery — Clia- 
teaugnay — Lord Dorchester and Connnodnre Houchette — ^Tlieir critical Adventure during 
tlie W'm- of 177."> — Xeu Organization of the -Militia by Counties — Alphabetically ar- 
r. lilted ...... 3tt.'> 



m 



I'i 



J 



f 



CONTENTS. 



\xv 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Ontliiu' of till' Constitution, (lovornmcnt, iiiul Laws of Lower Ciinuda — I'laii of tlio (Jovitii- 
mont — Tlic Governor — Executive and Lejiislative Conneils — House of Assembly — Sittinjj.s, 
Business, and Powers of the Lejjislature — Sunuiiary of the Statute and C'ouinion Law of the 
I'rovinee — The Judiciary — Jurisdiction of the dill'erent Courts — Modes of Proceeding — 
Trial by Jury — Auieudnient of the Judicature contemplated Pajje 'MW 

CHAPTKU XMI. 

sketch of Manners, Customs, ami Character — Quotations from " ./ ('(iniiiliiin" — Condition of 
the Canadians — Attachment to their J5irth-j)lace — Sunday — Occnjiations in Spriufj — inde- 
|)emlence as to the Necessaries of fjifi' — Food — Hainient — Habitations — Annisenients — 
Weddiuj^s— Spcariiijj Fish l)y Toreh-lijj;ht — Comforts nf the People — Character — independent, 
•;enerons, polite, honest, but litij;ions — Compared with the American and the French 
Character — Population of the Townshii)s — C'ause of the Assimilation of their I'sages to those 
of the Anu-ricans — Industrious — Loyal — Easy in Circumstances— How composed — Society in 
the Towns — American \'isiters — Probable Extension of their Tours hereafter — Easy (.'ircum- 
navigation of the best part of North America ...... KKl 



SUPPLE.AIENT TO CHAPTER I. 

Boundaries — Award of the King of the Netherlands — Remarks thereon — Line 4.")" north 
latitude — Extraordinary Reservation of Rouses' Point — Friendly Negotiations may end in the 
Ado])tion of the St. John's River as an ritimatnm ..... 4l!» 



APPENDIX. 



Report of tlie Conunissioners respecting the Boundary, under the (ith Article of theTreaty of 

Client 

(ieneral Liformation for the (iuldance of Persons desirous of emigrating to Upper Canada 

Old and new Division of the Counties in the Province of Lower Canada 

List of the Members of the lifgislative Council of Lower Cana<la . . . . . 

Statement of the Number of Sessions in each i'arlianieut , from the Commencenu'iit of the 
Constitution granted to Lower Canada in l/'J- up to 1)!2!>, with a List of the iAIembers 
of the Assend)ly from that Period .......... 

Instructions from His Excellency the (Jovernor-in-Chief, the Earl of Dalhousie, to 
Lieutenant-Colonel Bouchette, Snrveyor-Ceneral, relating to the Statistics of the 
Province in lii'2'J ■■■...... 



V2\ 
\-2\ 
42.-) 
42(i 



4.^0 



4;?2 



s 



u 



XXVI 



CONTENTS. 



Mr. Sccri'tury Cuclinint' s Letter on the same Subject, ami an Extract of a printed Report 
from Lieutenant-Colonel Cuck1)iirn to the Right Honourable R. W. Ilorton, dated 17ch 
Sejjtcmber, 182/ ••....... 43,3 

Brief and interesting Account of public Events in Canada from the Discovery of America 434 
List of the Governors and Administrators of the (iovernment since the Erection of the 
Royal Government in 1GG3 ......... 447 

Ri'tes of Pilotage for the River St. Lawrence ... .... 448 

Regulations for the Payment of Pilotage above Bic to Quebec — Rates above the Harbour 
of Quebec .......... 44!) 

Lighthouse on Green Island in the River St. Lawrence — Rates of towage from Quebec 
to ^Montreal .......... 450 

Taljles of the j)rincipal Articles of Import and Export at Quebec and St. John's from the 
Year 1824 to 1827 inclusive • • . • • • • .451 

Table of Duties payable at the Port of Quebec ...... 459 

Table of free Goods ......... 4(51 

Table of Prohibitions — Jlemoranda on the Laws and Orders in Council . . . 4()2 

An Account of the ordinary Revenues and extraordinary Resources constituting the public 

Income of the Province of Lower Canada for the Year ended 10th October, 1826 . 466 

Public and charitable Institutions of Lower Canada ..... 468 

Periodicals in Lower Canada ........ 469 

Hemp in Canada ......... 470 

Form of a Ceiisitairc's Title, or Model dc Bail a Ccns ..... 476 

Canada Land Company's Prospectus ....... 478 

Tabular Statement of the total Quantum of Lands granted in the Province of Lower 
Canada, and of the Lands reserved for Crown and Clergy, also the Quantity remaining 
vacant, within the surveyed Townships ...... 482 

(ieneral Statement of the Lands granted in free and common Soccage in the Province of 
Lower Canada, and the proportional Reservation for Crown and Clergy, from the 26th 
March, 1814 .......... 483 

AAvard, at length, of the King of Holland as the Umpire between Great Britain and the 
United States, to the settle Boundary under the 5th Article of the Treaty of Ghent, with 
Remarks thereon ......... 489 



:ii 



'4 



?&:.I^i:' 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Frontispiece — Portrait 

Monument, Source of the St Croi 

Brock's Monument ( 1'igiivltvJ 

By-Town, Ottawa Ri\-er 

Union Bridges, Ottawa River 

Section and Plan of ditto 

Harbour of York 

Town of Godericli 

Town of Guelph . 

Section of Niagara River 

Monument to Wolfe and .Alontcalm Cl'iiinctlcJ 

CityoflMontreal f/7(wj 

Do, Do. CrUui) 

City of Quebec (T/ew'^ . 

City of Quebec (Plan) 

Falls of Montmorenci C^^'intcr Scene J 

Forges of St. Maurice 

St. Ilyacinthe \'i]]age f fide Top. Did.) 

Isle aux Noix and Fort ditto 

Fort and Basin of Clianibly ditto 

Kilburn's Mills, Province Line .litto 

Harrower's IMills jjtto 

Long's Farm, Temiscouata 



S. St. Ilyacinthe 

S. I)e Lery 

Chan.idy U'est 

Stanstead 

Pli. St. Jean, Port Joli 



Pag,. 

. N 

. (il 

. VM 

. ill 

. iV2 

. f«! 

. 117 
. J]» 
. 140 

17;! 

i214 
2I(i 
241 

2(>r, 

2i',l 
.so:} 

•M)4 
.'110 
.•?14 

322 



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CORRIGENDA. 

Page 11, in notii,fiii- 1814, read 1824. 

— 110, third line from the bottom, /or perennial, read iinnual. 

— WJtfor Godrich, read Godericli, wherever the name occurs. 

— 277) head-line,, /or county, read country. 

— 3.)], column of remarks in the Statistical Statement, J'or L' Joachim, read St, Joachim. 

The population of Quebec, six lines lower down, should be 28,000, instead of 
30,000. 

— 3.52, last line of the table,ybc city, read county. 

— 3u3, column of remarks, tlie blank in the second line to be filled with .j,CX)0, as the 

poi)ulation of Three Rivers. 



!*!:, 



r 



I I, 



I 

Jill 
'|l 111 



THE 



BRITISH DOMINIONS 



IN 



NORTH AMERICA 



TOPOGRAPHICALLY UESCRIBKD. 



CHAP TEH I. 



Discovery of America. — Historical Sketch and Bouiularies of tiio British Possessions. 

To Cliristopher Columbus assuredly appertains the honour of the 
memorable discovery of the New World in 1492 ; but that the American 
continent was altogether terra incognita up to the period at which he 
traversed the ^Vestern Ocean, seems not quite so certain, at least as 
regards the northern countries of Europe. 

The histories of Denmark, Norway, and Iceland attest the fact, tiiat 
nearly five centuries* before the existence of the great western continent 
was made known in the south of Europe, through tlie bold discovery 
achieved by Columbus, not only the coasts of Greenland, but the nortli- 
eastern shores of America, had been partially explored by adventurous 
northern voyagers, who formed a colony in the land of their new dis- 
coveries, of which records were preserved down to the beginning of tlie 
twelfth century f . What has since become of this ancient settlement, 
and what was the precise geographical situation of Vinland (for thus the 
country they settled in was by them called), are things that will most 
probably remain for ever unknown, although, from the general analogy 
of description, its locality is supposed to have been the island of New- 
foundland, or the southern coast of Labrador. 



* JIackenzie's Travels in Iceland, 1810, and authorities there cited. 



+ Ibid. 



it 



\i* 



ii 



k 



h. 



■.V !' "• 

m 

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i! 



n 



Pll!': 






h 

1-1 






2 BRITISH NORTH AMKRICA. 

^\ny discovery, however, wliicli had tliiis fallen into almost utter 
ohlivion, eould not be considered as in any <le<;ree detractinij; from the 
fame of the celebrated (Jenoese discoverer, whose enter])risin>j; voyages 
westward mark the epoch at which America* became first known to the 
civili/ed world. 

Columbus having taken ])ossession of a great ])ortion of the new 
continent in the name of Ferdinand and Isabella t)l' Spain, Sebastian Cabot 
subse(|uently e\])lored the southern section of North ^\merica, on behalf 
of Henry \'II.. and thus secured it to the crown of Kngland. Mewing 
witli a jealous eye the valuable and then recently accjuired possessions of 
England and Sj)ain, Francis 1., King of France, as])iring to a partici])ation 
in these ad\ antages, equipped \'era/ani, a Florentine, then residing in 
France, who, after a fruitless attempt to cioss the ocean in \')2i, suc- 
ceeded, the following year, in reaching Florida, whence he coasted north- 
ward to the oOOf latitude, taking nominal pos,-;ession of the country, which 
lie called " New France f." Having, in a subsecpient voyage, returned to 
America, he was, soon after his landing on the continent, barbarously put 
to death by the natives J:, without having previously effected the establish- 
ment of a coK)ny ^. 

'I'he further discovery of the northern parts of ^Vmerica was reserved 
for the enterprising Jacques Cartier, a Frenchman, who, bearing a com- 
mission from the King of Franc e, sailed from St. ]\Ialoes on the 10th ISIay, 
1.3.'35, and ex])lored the river St. fjawrence, so called from his first entering 
it on St. Jiawrence's day, and ascended the river as far as IluchcJag-a, the 
Indian village then occupying the spot on which the city of Montreal now 
staiids. Cartier had visited the gulf of St. Lawrence in 1534, but did 
not attempt any discoveries beyond its shores, although he most probably, 
at that time, conceived a design and sketched a plan of operations, which 
were put into execution the year following. 

* The lU'w Cdiitiiu'iit v.as tliiis calli'il aftiT Anwricus I'c.spitchi.s-, a navigator in tlio service 
of Ferdinand of Arrajion, and the 'irst \\\w n;ade gr:M)hical delineations of the new discoveries. 

t Hi.-itory of Canada from its Discovery Smith, vol. i. p. 2. 

I Charlevoix, vol. i. p. 5!. 

§ It is worthy of reiiiuik, that the pretensions and disputes of the three great naval powers 
of Europe — Ivigland, Frai.ee, and Spain— fcr territorial sovereignty in America, arose from the 
discoveries of three Italians, Colinid)us, Cahot, and W'razani, who were equally strangers to the 
countries whose renown the\ extended and whose commerce they enlarged. 



mi 



1:,\, 



IIISTOIUCAL SKI'TCll AM) lK)rNDARIKS. 3 

Tlius stood tlic discoveries of the New AN'orld, wlion tlic efforts of 
the FreiK'li to coloni/e Gmada became at leiis;th so far successful, tliat. 
in 1()()4, a Freiidi settlement was formed ; and. in KJOS, Cham plain, 
at the head of a small colony, laid the foundatit)n of thecity of (-^iiehec *, 
a little above the junction of the river St. Charles with the St. Lawrence, 
and thus conunenced the first permanent! European settlement in >>'orth 
America, on record t. 

The ])recise line of boundary which divided the territories formerly 
belonn'ino- to the crowns of Knuland and France in America seems never 
to have been distinctly defined. The voya<>es of discovery by the Kn<;lish 
and the French to the coast of North ^Vmerica, and their endeavours to 
form settlements on the new continent, had been nearly contemporaneous: 
and as both nations ind(>finitely claimed extensive dominions of which 
neither had the power of taking actual possession, it was soon discovered 
that the claims of the different ])arties were incom])atible §. 

In KJO.'j, the tract of country lying between the parallels of the 40th 
and 46th degrees of north latitude, and then known imder the name of 
xVcadia, was granted by Henry IV. of France to Monsieur I)e Monts ||, 
with a connnission of lieutenant-general; anil in l(j()6, three years after, 
a large section of the same territory was included in a grant, under the 
letters-patent of James I., to Sir Thomas Ciates and his associates, grant- 
ing to them the country comprehended between the .'34th and 45th degrees 
of north latitude, "■ that hehniged to Great Jiritaiu, or was not then possessed 
htj am/ other Christian prince or people ^f." 

Under the French grant of 1603, settlements were formed on the 



* Quebec, in Algonquin, signifies slrait. 

t In ir)41, Jiiajnes C'artier, as ciiptain-gencral, built a fort at Cape Breton. 

X 1'lie pilgrims landed at Plyni .lli, in New England, in 1(520. Chalmers's Political 
Annals, 4to. p. 82. 

§ L'Escarbot thus describes the boundaries of Now France : " Ainsi notrc Nouvelle France 
a pour limites du cote d'ouest les terres jusqu'a la mer dite Pacifique au-deca du tropique de 
Cancer ; an niidi les iles de la Mer Atlantique du cote de Cube et I'lsle IIesj)agnole ; au levant 
la iVIer du Nord, qui baigne la Nouvelle France ; et au scptentrion cetto terre, qui est dite 
inconnue, vers la mer glacee jusqu'au Pole Arctique." — Vol. i. p. 31, ed. KJll. 

II L'Escarbot, Histoire de la Nouvelle France, vol. i. p. 92. 

IT Chalmers's Political Annals, 4to. edition, p. 13. 

B 2 



4 



BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 



Ill, 



coast, near tlic St. Croix and at Port Tloyal. in the course of tlie two 
followinj^ years ; and I)e IMonts, who was acconi])anied by Chain])l;rni and 
I'etrincourt, retained (juiet ])ossession of Acadia until their settlements 
were broken up, in KJl t, by the successful but iniwarrantable attack of 
Sir Sanniel Ar<ral *. 

The country, afterwards called New Kngland, comprised in the ori- 
ginal charter to Sir Thomas (Jates, was not settled till 1()2(), the period 
at which the pilgriins landed at Plymouth. 

In Se))tember, 1()21, .lames I. granted, under the great seal of 
Scotland, to Sir A>'illiam Alexander, the coinitry bounded towards the 
north, the cast, and the south, by the St. liawrcnce and the ocean, and on 
the west, by the river St. Croix. It was called Nova Scotia, and erected 
into u palatinate to be holden as a fief of the crown of Scotland. In 
HV2'}, Charles I. confirmed the grant to Sir ^^'^illiam Alexander, who, 
five years afterwards, sold almost the whole interest he had in it to Sieur 
St. Etiennc, a French hugonot, reserving the allegiaiice of the iidiabitants, 
who were to continue subjects of the Scottish crown ; but this stipulation 
seems to have been ineffectual, and the French retained absolute pos- 
session of the country f . 

The attack on Quebec by Kirk in 1628, and its surrender to British 
arms the following year, were unknown in Europe when peace was 
re-established in xVpril, 1()21); and Charles I., by the treaty of St. Ger- 
mains-en-laye, concluded in INIarch, 16.'32, resigned to Louis the XIII. 
of France the sovereignty of " Acadia, New France, and Canada" ge- 
nerally and without limits ; and, particularly. Port Royal, Quebec, and 
Ca])e IJreton t- 

Three years after the peace of St. Germains, the province of Maine, 
originally known in New England under the name of Somersetshire, was 
granted to Sir Fernando Gorges, and was bounded eastward by the 
Kennebec river : and as Acadia extended southward along the coast to 
the 40 ' of north latitude §, and therefore beyond the Kennebec ||, that 



* Cliiilniers's Political Annals, 4to eilitiou, p. 82. 

+ Iliiil. p. 92. : Ibid. 

§ Ibid. p. nm. II Ibid. p. 73-4. 



i 

m 



HISTORICAL SKKTCil AND norXDAHIKS. .') 

river must then luivc been t-oiisideii'd tin- eastenmiost limits of tlie 
New I'lij^liiiid ])Iimtati(>iis, and the boundary between the lMi<;iish ami 
Freneli territories in that])art ot'Ameriea. However, it appears that the 
wliole eountry west of the St. Croix Avas subsetpient' laimed by the 
Knulish as beinj; Avithin the coh)nv of Massaehusetts, while France 
manifested a determination to exelude them from the possession of the 
coimtry east of the Kennebee. ^\eadia liavin*;' been thus restored to tlu' 
Freneh, their sovereign granted to l)e Ha/illy the hmds around the bay 
and river St. Croix; and in 1().'{;5 tlie company of Xew France conveyed 
the territory on the banks f>f the river St. Jolin to St. Ktienne, whom we 
have alicady mentioned, and De la Tour, tlie lieutenant-general of the 
colony *. 

The New Knglanders, meanwhile, viewed the ])rogress of the French 
in their neighbourhood with jealous apprehension, Sedgewick, com- 
mander in chief of Cromwell's forces in Xew Fngland, ap})arently ac- 
tuated in a great measure by national antipathy, directed the arms destined 
for Manhattans against the French, who surrendered I'ort lioyal in 
August, KJ.j-t, and, finally, the whole of iVcadia, in conse(|uencc of the 
liberality of the terms of capitulation, yielded to his arms! . ^Vttempts 
were subseipiently made by the French, in negotiating the treaty of West- 
phalia, to recover Pentagoet (or Penobscot), Saint John, and Port Itoyal : 
but Cromwx'U, instead of restoring the concpiered country, granted it to St. 
Etienne, Crown, and Temple, under tlie designation of ^Vcadia, and part of 
the country comwouhj calli'd Xova Scot/a, extending south-westward to the 
river St. (Jeorge; at the same time erecting that territory into ;i ))rovince 
distinct from New Fngland, and appointing them hereditary governors 
of the country :|:. The confusion which here occurs in the a})pellations 
of the territories granted created some perplexity afterwards; Nova Scotia 
being in fact but a section of Acadia, and comprehended within its 
limits ^^. In IGGS, Charles II., in consideration of the cession of St. 
Christopher and other islands in the^Vest Indies, restored to France, by 
the treaty of Hrcda, Acadia, specifying the Penobscot river as its boundary 



* Cliulmers's Politiciil Annuls, p. Hil!. 

j Smith's History of Caiuula, vol. i. p. "»9. 

+ Ibid, § Chalmers's Political Annals, p. 1)J8. 



6 



lunTisu xoirm ami-Iuca. 



on the west*; I'l'iiliiyoct, Saint .lohn. Port Hoyal, I-a Have, and C'a])e 
Sable lyinj;' within itf. The French had not possessed thi- country 
many years before the proximity and advancement of their settlements 
a<;ain aroused their New JMi^^hmd nei<;iibo\ns to acts of hostiHty ; and in 
!()!)() Sir William riii])ps, Avith ei<4ht sniidl vessels and SOO men, reduced 
I'ort Koyal and the whole coast between that place and the Xew Ku<f- 
land settlements. The French inhabitants took the oaths of allegiance 
to the crown of Kn<;land, but did not lon^- remain under IJritish sove- 
reigiitv. the treaty of Hyswick havin«>; restored them to the dominion of 
France. I'ort l{oyal, however, seemed doomed to bo the seat of per- 
petual warfare. In 1710 the fort Avas b<)nd)arded by Colonel Nicholson 
at the head of the New I'lnniand forces, and after a few days' resistance 
cai)itulatcd ; wlien, tooether with the whole country, it was sin-rendered 
to IJritish dominion ';, and the treaty of Utrecht, concluded ^larch and 
April, 1713, contirmed to (ireat Hritain, Hudson's Jkiy, Newfoundland, 
and Nova Scotia or ^Vcadia irif/t it.s am'wnt Uniitfi j). 

The treaty of Utrecht having- thuso])erated a new partition of ^\nic- 
rica, and the value of those transatlantic ])ossessions becoming daily more 
evident, the boundaries to which they were henceforward to be restricted 
became ])roportionably important. Count de la (iaiissoniere, who suc- 
ceeded Admiral de la Joiujiiiere in the government of Canada, fully 
sensible of the expediency of assigning limits to the res])ectivc ternt(>rics 
of the two powers, detached an oflicer, with 300 men, to the froniier of 
Canada. JNI. de Celeron de IJienville, who was intrusted with the exe- 
cution of this service, proceeded to Detroit; and thence traversed 
the country to the Apalachian jNIountains, where he dej)osited under 
ground, at different stations, leaden plates, on which were engraved the 
arms of France, recording the fact in formal acts or proces-verbaux, which 
he submitted to La (^alissoniere, who afterwards transmitted them to 
France. 

The adoption of these decisive acts of possession was duly commu- 
nicated to iSlx. Hamilton, the governor of Pennsylvania. He was 



* Tnicts relating to America, 1770. 

I Smith's History of Canada, vol. i. p. 60, 61. 

§ Twelfth article of the treaty. 



t Ibid. p. 393. 



IIISTOIUC'AI. SKi:i'( H AM) llOlM, Ull >. 7 

rc(|iK'stc(l by La (Jalissonirrc's U-ttir, of wliiili Dc i roii was ' c hcarn 
to |)r()liil)it tlif iiiliiil)itaiits of liis proviiuv from trailing;- bcyoiul ll 
l)oiiii(ls wliii'li had brcii thus asserted and established, thi' I-'n-nch i-oiu 
ha\iiij'- eoimiiaiuh'd him to seize the merchants, and eoiiliseate the o(),»fl 
of those Avho mij^ht be diseo\ered earryin*^ on trade in the eonntries 
beyond the A])ahuliian or Alle_i>any Mountains, ineontestably belonninn- 
to the crown of France*. 

In the course of the njonientous and ])r<)tracted nen'otiations, ^\ hicli 
brought about the famous treaty of 17():{, we find tliat the Frencli ter- 
ritorial ))retensions in that (luarter, as understood and traced by thi- 
Mar(|uis de N'audreuil at the surrender of Quebec in 17;>J), were tacitly 
reruKiuished, as ])reviously assumed by La CJalissoniere, and that they 
were then described as comprehendin";', on one sidi', the Lakivs Huron, 
Michigan, and Superior; and the "said" line drawn to the Ked Lake, 
taking' in a serpentine progress the ri\er Ouabachi as far as its junction 
with the Ohio, then extended itself along the latter ri\er as far as its 
influx into the Mississippi!. This demarcation, not exempt from 
the eonmion fault of obscurity that generally pervades the descrip- 
tion of original boundaries, recedes therefore from the ^V])alachian and 
iVllegany Mountains westward to the Ouabachi or AVabache, leaving the 
intermediate country to (ireat liritain : and the treaty of 17().'i, finally 
determined the confines between the dominions of iiis nritamiic Majesty 
and the King of France to l)c a line drawn along the middle of the river 
Mississippi, from its source as far as the river Iberville, and thence by 
a line drawn tbrough tbe middle of the Lakes Marepas and I'ontchatrain 
to the sea. 

\N'ith regard to the northern limits of liOuisiana, claimed by the 
French as extending to the southern bounds of Canada, it ap))ears to 
have been es])eeially a subject of negotiation in the spirited dijdomatic 
corres])()ndcnce between the courts of Knglaiid and France in ■i7()l, 
how far such a claim could be recognised. Mr. I'itt denied the admis- 
sibility of the pretensions advanced by the Due de Choiseid on behalf 



* .Smith's History of Canada, vol. i. p. :2()!)-l(). 

i Answer of England to tlic ultimatum of France. 17''1. Collection of Treaties, vol. iii. 



I"'' - 

Nil 



, p' ' 









"VlI'M 






,>• i! 






I »!•■''. 



(!'i,i,| I 






H IMMTISH NOirril AMI'.IUCA. 

of France, and assi-rlril tlit* ni'iitrality of tin- coiiiilrv lyinj;' l)('t\vi'i-ii 
(."anada and liouisiana, wliicli was oci-iipii'd by ninniTons indcpcndt'nt 
Indian tidus, ovir uhii'h nt'itlicr i-rown sIiduUI cxtTfise tlio right of 
sovereignty *. 

Swell were the boun(hn-ie.s of the Mn^lish and I"'reneli |)o,ssessions in 
America, previous to the peaee of ITH.'i, hy whiiii we lind that the New 
England phintati»)ns, of which Maine was tlie eastermnost, were bounded 
on the east by the Kennebec, and on the west by the Mississippi. It 
was not until the treaty of Paris in 17S;i that the northern limits of the 
country, recently under the dominion of Great Ihitain, aiul which had 
now become an independent state, were ever defined. Xor does it ap|)ear 
to have been necessary in a national ))oijit of view up to that jjcriod, the 
whole of the continent from Louisiana, northward and eastward, to the 
Arctic sea and the borders of the Atlantii-, haviii<;' been exclusively under 
the sovereiji;nty of the crown of Knglaiid, durinj;- the interval between 
the coiKjuest of Canada in IT.'jJ) and the recoi^nitiou of ^Vmerican inde- 
pendence in ITS.'i. 

IJy the treaty of 17SU the United States were divided from the IJritish 
and French dominions in America, on the west, by the river Mississi])pi 
from its source to the .'Jl" of north latitude, thence, by a line drawn due 
east on that latitude to the river Apalachicola or Catahouche. uj) the 
midiUe thereof to its junction with Flint river, thence by a straight line 
to the head of St. Mary's river and down the middle of that river to the 
Atlantic Ocean : on the east, by the river St. Croix to its source, and a 
line due north from thence to the highlands : towards the north, first, by 
such intersected highlands which divide the waters of the ocean from 
those of the gulfs, rivers, and bays in that part of the continent, as far as 
the north-westernmost head of the Comieetieut river; secondly, down 
that river centrally to the 45" of latitude ; thirdly, by that parallel until 
it strikes the river Iro(|uois, Cataracjui or St. Lawrence; and, fourthly, 
by a line continuing westward through that river and the great lakes to 
the north-westermnost point of the I^akeof the AVoods ; and thence, on a 
line due west, to the Mississippi. But it was afterwards found that such 






* Nogotiations for the Pcape of 17t>3. 



^' 






\ 



'') 



"H I i 



■'V 



noi'NDAinKS. 



9 



11 lino woulil lU'Ver strike \hv river, iis its liii;l\(st Wiitcrs did net »\teiul 
heyniul lat. i7 .'M» north, wliilst the point of (he I.iiInc of tlie WooiK, 
wlience tile line was to depart, stood in lat. M) -0 north, and then-fore 10 k 
p'oj«raphieal mili-N fmther north than the source of the Mississippi. 'I'he 
fourth article of the ticaty of London in I7IM ])ro\ idcd for the amicahle 
adjustiucnl of this anomaly, hut its intentions were nevi'r carried into 
etVect ; and the suhjei-t came under the considi-ration of I ,ord Holland 
and tlir late Lord Auckland, on »»ne side, and Mr. Munroe and Mr. 
i'ickerin^' on the otiier, durin<f tlii' nej;'otiations of ISOd. The Mritish 
negotiators i-outi-ndcd that the nearest line from the I-ake of llic Woods 
to the Mississippi was the boundary, aceordinu; to the true intent of the 
treaty of ITHIJ: the .\nu'rieans insisted that the Wnv was to run (///c in:\/, 
and, since it never could intersect the Mississipj)!, that it iiuist run due 
west across the whole continent*! 

This untenable interpretation of the treaty and the extrava<;a>K'e 
of the ^\merican ehjiiis nuist a])pear manifest: as all pretensions they 
started at that time to any ])ortion of the country west of the Missis- 
sippi nuist ha\e been perfectly i^ratuitous and uusu|)ported. their ac- 
kno\vledt;eil boundaries westward then bein^ the Mississippi itself. Hut 
the subsecpient ac(iuisiti()n of Louisiana by the Lnited States checked 
all decisive measures relative to boundaries, which mi^ht have compro- 
mised their territorial claims, or, to use the words of an iVmerican 
publication, attributed to an enunent statesman I, in assii>nin<j; a riason 
for the non-ratification of the convention, '• lest it should be supposed 
that something" was thereby surrendered of what they had purchased 
under the name of Tiouisiana." 

It will be recollected, that in negotiating the treaty of 17(J.'J, the 
Hritish minister asserted the neutrality of a section of country situate 
between Canada and Louisiana, although no boundary had yet been 
definitively assigned to the former, nor had any then been clearly esta- 
bli.shed for the latter. The convention between bis IJritannic majesty 
and the United States of America, signed at Tiondon in October, ISIS, 
seems, however, to have set at rest any {question that might arise relative 



* Notice respecting the boujiiKvry line, 1813. 



t Governor 31 orris. 



10 



lUnTISIl NORTH AMKinCA. 



'11 



a I 



to tlu' e\isk'iu'(.' of such an iiittM-vcniiig si-t'tiou of country, and distinctly 
fixes tlic l)oundarv between the {h)n)inions of (Jri'at Britain and the 
l/nited States in tliis part of America to be " a line (h'awn from the most 
nortli-western ])oint of the Lake of tlu' Woods. aloii<>; the forty-ninth 
parallel of north latitude, or if the said point shall not be in the said 
forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, then by a line drawn from the said 
])oint due north or south, as the case may be, to the said ]);nallel, and 
from the ])oint of intersection, due west, aloni'; and witli the said parallel, 
to the Stony Mountains*." 

IJy the third article, the country on the north-west coast of Ame- 
rica, westward of the Stony Mountains, is left free and open for the 
term of ten years, from thetlate of the eon\ention, to the vessels, citizens, 
and subjects of the two powers, irilliouf. ncci'rllich'.s.s. <i{l[rtiiii>; tlierchij the 
chiiiii.s tvliich cither of the cotttravthi^ piiitif.H in'is^ht have to (tin/ portion of 
fiiich eoiintrfi. in IS^S the ti'rm thus limited expired, without any set- 
tlement having been ))reviously UKule to determine what should there- 
after be consiilered the partition of the territory on the shores of the 
north Pacific, and (ireat JJritain and the I'niteil States now rest their 
respective claims on that section of the continent u])on the sanction and 
authority of first discovery and occu])ation. Nor does the (juestiou 
depend u])on these two oovc'rnments alone, as may be seen by the cor- 
respondence that took |)lace in 1S1J2 between the Chevalier de I'olitica, 
the IJussian minister, at Washington, and the ^Vmerican secretary of 
state, by which the imperial crown of IJussia distinctly claims the 
north-west coast of ^\merica, tVom Uhoring's Strait to thea.'j'of north 
latitude. It would even push its ])retensions as far south as the 4{)' of 
north latitude, but iinaliy ad(>pts the .51 ', upon the ]>rinciple of a fair 
compromise, and the circumstance that this ])oint is eciui-distant from 
the Uussian settlement of Xovo Archangvlsk, on the one side, and the 
I'nited States' settlement, at C'ohunbia river, on the other. Thus it 
would appear, that, disregarding- the undeniable rights of the Uritish go. 
vermnent on the North .Vmerican shores of the Pacific, founded u])on 
the anterior and well-known discoveries of Cook, \'ancouver, luid ^lac- 



X Art. II. 






■* 



si|i ri, 



r.oi'NDArvii-s. 



11 



kcnzie, IJussia and tlic I'nitrd States* would ]>r()(vrd io tlio iliscussion of 
tlioir t'\clusivi'7'//.v (loiiiiii'il, and dolil)i.'ratc'ly a])))oi'ti(>M to 1 1 km u selves an 
extensive territory, wliieli. on the i'aee of every i>'i(\ura|)liieal delineation 
of iVnieriea, bears evidence of its heinj;- a Uritisli diseo\ ery, survi-yed and 
ex|)lor(>d by Hritish oHieers and subjeets. and Avliose bays, rivers, islands. 
and liills are universally known l)y Mui^iisli names, several of wliieli were 
distin<>uislied bv the discoverers with the names of the ihen roval family 
of CJreat 1^-itain. 

In referrini!; to the historv of Uussian diseoNcries between Asia 
and America, as well as to the <;-eou,ra|)hical delineation of them under 
the direction and authority of the im|)i'rial academy of sciences at St. 
Petersburi>;. we find that they were chielly confined to the ex))loration 
of the archipelai>-o of islands, by which the st>a of Ivamtschatka is bounded 
to the southward, and that when Captain Hheriui;' discovered Mount 
Elias in latitude 58' L'S' | north, and Tscherikoir discovered what he 
sup])osed to be the ^Vmericau coast in latitude o(\" \ north, it A\as then 
very doubtful whether these ])oints were insular or continental J. Snb- 
secjuent voya<>es of Ib'itish ex])lorers, it is trui', have removed these 
doubts, and proved that Hherino's Mount St. l^lias was really on the 
continent; but they also established, that Tscberikofr's discovery in lati- 
tude ;5()" must have been an island. ^Vt ^NTount St. Klias should, therefore, 
terminate the jM'ctensions of Kussia on the north-west coast of ^Vnierica ; 
south of this point no ostensible <j;roinids can be advanced in support of 
its claims on tlic continent ; nor, indeed, could they well be sustained, even 
to the island touched at by Tscherikoff, as it is very doubtful how far so 
naked and superficial a recognition of land could be considered sufficient 
to bear out a ckiim to territories or constitute any S])ecies of possession. 

liut if the claims of Russia a])j)ear to go beyond what their sub- 
stantial discoveries and possession warrant, those of the Tnited States are 

* The IxniiuLiry Ijotwecii tlicsc twii jxiwcrs was settled liy convi'iitidii, dated ^Vpril ."i, IHl 1, 
:iiul is fixed at tlie ;Vltli decree of latitude. Was (treat Hritaiii a jiarlv to this eoiiveiitioii ? 

t Coxe's Aecoiiut of Russian Discoveries, p. 277- Aide Xouvi'lle Carte des Decouvertes 
faites par dcs \'aisseaux liusses aux Coles incouuus de IWiuericpu-, dressee sur des ^Icnioires 
autlientiqiies do ccux qui cut ussistes aces Uccouvortcs, iS.c. a I'Acadeniie de Sciences, St. IVters- 
bourg, 17''>B. 

{ Ibid. p. 2i)2. 

c 2 



1" 

1 /v 



TVRITISII NORTH AMERLC'A. 



14* I ; 



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extravagant in tlie extreme, and v.liolly witliout foundation. In ITH.'J, 
wlien tiiat vast and Hourisliing" republic first became a free and inde- 
})endent state, its dominions, as defined by tlie treaty of peace, were 
bounded to tlie westward by the Mississippi, l/ntil their acquisition of 
Ijouisiana, in IHO.J, they could not legitimately start any pretensions to 
the country beyond that river, founded upon the faith of treaties. It is 
oidy since the date of the recent exploring surveys of Captains Clarke 
and Lewis, in 1804, 1S(),7, and 1S()(), that they can claim any portion of 
the north-west coast of America under colour of discovery or occupancy. 
It is belie\cd, however, that they also rely upon the trading voyage 
performed by Mr. Ciray, in the American vessel that gave its name to 
the Coluhd)ia, also known by the name of Oregan river, some time 
antecedently to the surveys of N'ancouver in 179^; but the total inac- 
curacy of his sketcli of the mouth of that river induced a belief, not only 
that he never saw, but never was within five leagues of it*. Ijieutenant 
Uroughton, v, lio had been kit by \'ancouvcr, to explore this part of the 
coast, whilst he proceeded to another, did not hesitate, therefore, previous 
to his de))arture, to take formal possession of the river and the country 
in its vicinity, in his Britannic majesty's name, having, as he states, 
"every reason to believe, that the subjects of no other civilized nation 
had ever entered that river before f." IJut if it be insisted, that this 
bare recognition of land, merely, ])erhaps, from a ship's deck, be an 
ade<{uatc claim to discovery, it will not be denied that the voyages 
of Captain Cook, in 177H, along the ^Vmerican shores of the Pacific, 
abundantly establish the priority of the IJritish claims to those of the 
United States upon that coast; his discoveries having extended as 
far south as Cape Gregory, in latitude -iT 30' north, and much further 
north than the entrance of Columbia river: and, in 179'3, Sir Alexander 
Mackenzie traversed thcAvestern section of the continent to the shores of 
the Pacific, where he inscribed his name on a rock, with the date of 
his discovery, latitude 52' 20' 4-8" north |. 



I- 






* X'aiK'ouvor, vol. ii. j). (II!. i Ihid. 

;j; This spot lu' t'imiul to Itc the chock u{ \'aiicoiivci''s cascade canal. ^Mackenzie's \'(iyages, 
1). '^V.). 



I '■ t,;i 



BOUND AR IKS. 



1:5 



1 



A tlu'ivinu' scttlenicii was soon afterwards formed at Columbia 
river, luuler the direction and auspices of the Canadian north-west com- 
pany, in direct connnunication with their settlements in Canada, and 
their inland trade extended southward, to the S])anish settlements of 
California, and northward, to those of the Russians at Xew ^Vrchangel. 
Up to the period at Avhich the north-west company became merged in 
the Hudson's Hay com])any, they had ui)wards of three hundred Cana- 
dians employed in the fur trade between the Kocky ^lountains and the 
sea, and, in fact, carried on an extensive export trade by the Pacific, from 
territories that appeared to them imdeniably to be, as they really were, 
a part of the IJritish dominions*. 

The rights of Cireat I'ritain wore, moreover, distinctly acknowledged 
by S))ain in the convention agreed to between the courts of I^ondon 
and Madrid shortlv before A'ancouver left the shores of England for 
^Vmerica. Depredations had been connnitted by Spaniards in 17H}) upon 
IJritish settlements at Xootka, and the Spanish govermnent, by the con- 
vention, restored to the subjects of the British crown the country in 
the vicinity of Xootka Sound, of which they had been thus uidawfuUy 
dispossessed f. 

The instructions from the Board of Admiralty to \^mcouver limited 
liis discoveries and operations to that part of the coast lyiug between the 
,'JO" and GO" I of north latitude, and contained positive injunctions not to 
explore the country south of the lowest latitude mentioned, which might 
then be considered the ultimate bounds of the Spanish claims. They 
have since extended their pretensions, and not without just grounds, to 
Cape Blanco, in latitude -IS" 50' north, at Avhich point it appears they 
have themselves stopped as their northern boundary on the shores of 
the Pacific ^. 

The BuiTisn i-osskssioxs in Noutii A:\rEUicA arc, therefore, 
divided from the adjoining territories of foreign states, whether under 
the authority of treaties or the right of first discovery and occupancy, 
by the following line of bouiukuy, more particularly defined on the geo- 

* NariMtivo of OccnriTiifcs in the liulian Countries, IfUH, ]). 124. 

t ^'aneolIVl'r — Introduction, vol. i. p. xviii. + Ibiil. 

§ Currcsjiondonco between tlie Russiuu minister and tlie American secretary of state, Hii22. 



14 



r.inTisi[ xoirni .\:\irjMCA. 



M 



\i"- ■ ' 



j;ra})liic.'il ma)) ac'coinpaiiyiiig' tliis work, viz. from the mouth of tlie 
river St. Croix, in l'assaina([iio(ldy Hay, to its soiutc * ; tiicuce by a north 
meridional line forty-one miles to the highlands: along those highlands 
westward tt) the north-westernmost head of Conneetieut river; down the 

* ^\'ll:lt sliiiiild be tlcciiicil till- source of tlic St. Croix n;is (Ictoniiiiied l)y coiiiinissioncrs 

ill ]7i'!!, iiiulcr till' trcnty of 17i>4; and the point wlicnco tlic due north line should be 

started, the latitiuh' Ijoiiig 4.V* 'If!' i'" north, was denoted hy a cedar stake or jiicket, marked ST. 

X\'III. S'J'.. found at the head of a small stream. Five feet two inches soutli of it a yellow 

birch, about live feet eiu'ht inches in diameter, leaniiij; to the east, \\as hoojied with iron. A 

cedar loj;', at the foot of the birch, lying north-east and sonth-\iest, bears on the south-east side 

" 17!'7- S1L\'AXI'S S.VWVEI?." In examining the rind of the !>/(i:c(l or marked trees, the 

layers of bark were found to corres])oiid exactly with the date deciphered. In 1H17 the United 

Stiites' sur\('vor and his IJritannic iAIajestv's surveyor-general, under the treaty of Ghent, 

opened tlieir operations under the ."»th article liy erecting a new monument a few feet north 

of the former, consisting of a cedar ])iist, twi'b-e feet long and eight inches scpiare, with large 

rock.s on the east and west sides. The following inscription is carved on the nioiuiment ; — 

North face. 

" Var. U" r,r 2" west. 

" Col. .loji. I3oi(iii:tti;, II. 13. M. surveyor-general." 
South face. 

" John' Johnson, U. S. surveyor and S. G. V. S." 
East face. 

" Xi:w Hhl'Nswick, July 31, 1{!I7." 
^\'est face. 

" Unitki) Statks, 31st July, 181 7.' 
The rocks are nuirked with the initials thus : 
East rn rock. 

"X. H. .Tuly ai, 1817 I. n." 
Western rock. 

'• r. S. July 31, iai7- J.J" 

From this niomnuent the boundary was departed due north by the surveyors jointly, and 
the c.rp/oriiiii- line prolonged, on a true meridional bearing, to the (jreat \\'agausis, or head 
waters of the Ristigouche, a distance of ninety-nine miles, four chains; and mile-posts were 
planted along its whole extent. The pcnudncnt line was not, however, opened beyond the 
twentieth mile, and terminated at the .Aladuxnekeag river. 

At seventy-seven miles, twenty-tive chains, ten links, tho exploring lino intersected the 
river St. John, passing two miles and a half west of the British military ])ost, at the Great Falls. 

In 1818 the line was exph)red, from the Wagansis, forty-seven miles further north, forming 
altogether an extended line of one huiulred and forty-six miles t>f actual measurement, admirably 
adapted as the base of a series of triangulations, by which the whole of the territory in dispute 
might have been trigonometrically surveyed, and a more perfect knowledge of its surface ac- 
(piired, than could be expected from ])artial, unconnected, and desultory operations, whatever 
might be the ability with which they may have been severally performed. 



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BOl'NDAHIES. 



15 



•I 



Connecticut to the 45' of nortli latitude; tlicnce by that ])ai'allcl of lati- 
tude till it strikes tlic St. Liuvrence at St. Itegis; thence up the middle 
of the St. Lawrence to I^ake Ontario, and throu<;h tlie middle of the 
gi'eat lakes and their conununicatinn; waters, to tiie head of Lake Su- 
perior; thence to the north-west angle of the Lake of the ^Voods, in 
latitude 49" 20' north ; thence by a line due south till it intersect the 
49' ))arallel of latitude, and along that |)arallel to the l?ocky Mountains ; 
tlience along that elevated range of mountains to the latitude 42' ."()' : 
and finally upon that parallel of latitude to the Pacific Ocean. On the 
west they may he considered as separated from the dominions of Kussia. 
in America, by a line from Mount St. Klias, du.' north to the Frozen 
Ocean. 

l}y the treaty between the Lnited States and (ireat Hritain, con- 
cluded at (Jlient in 1814, it was provided that conunissioners should be 
ap))ointed by both governments to ascertain and establish, by actual 
surveys and operations, the line of bouiulary between tlie territories of 
both states in America, from the source of tlie liver St. Croix to the 
Lake of the \\'oods, in conformity to, and in accordance with, the spirit 
of the treaty of ITS.'i. Conunissioners were in conse([uence severally 
a})))ointed by the two countries, to carry into effect the provisions of the 
4th. ;5th. Gth, aiul 7th articles of the treaty of (ihent ; that ])art of the 
boundarv from St. Kegis westward being allotted to one set of com- 
missioners, under the (ith and 7th articles, and t!:e other part, from St. 
llegis eastward, to another set, under the 4th and .jth articles. 

Under the 4th article, the commissioners agreed to the followino- 
distribution of the islands in the IJay of Fundy aiul rassanuKjuoddy 
IJay: — (irand Manau and the isles east thereof in the J5ay of Fundv, to- 
gether with Canipo IJello, Deer and Indian islands, in Passamaciuoddy 
IJay, and the minor isles east thereof, were left to Cireat Hritain; Moose 
Island and the minor isles south and north-west of it remaining within 
the limits of the Ignited States. 

On the LSth of .lune, 1822, the conunissioners for the settlement of 
the boundary west from St. IJegis made their joint rejjort to their re- 
spective governments, and thereby amicably adjusted and determined so 



ftf"^^"' 



i 



!()■ 



ni{ITlSI[ NORTH AMI'UlC'A. 



!M 



imu'h of the frontit-r limits v»f both territories as fall uikUt the (Jtli 
article of the treaty. Hei!;iiinin^- at a stone inoiuimeiit creeted hy ^Xiiclrew 
Kllieott, Ks(|., in the year 1S17, on the south bank or shore of the river 
St. liawrence*. to indicate the ])()int at whieh the l.^th ])arallel of north 
latitnde strikes that river; the line runs north .'i.5" ()()' 4.5" west into the 
river, at right an<i,les to the southern shore, to a point 100 yards south of 
the ojjposite island, called Cornwall Island ; from whieh ))oint it turns 
westerly, and is carried, as near as circumstances could admit, throu«>;h the 
middle of the rivers, lakes, and wat(M' connnunications to the head of Lake 
Huron f. The imn use nndtitude of islands dispersed, not oidy in the 
St. I^awrence, but at the dischar<;e of the straits or rivers that connect 
the great lakes, nnist have rendered the ailjustment of this section t)f the 
boundary excessively intricate and embarrassing, especially as many of 
the islands were no doubt important as points of military defence or 
conniiercial ])rotection on the frontier, that cither ])arty would naturally 
be anxious to retain ^;. The relin(|uislnnent of Harnhart's Island by the 
l?ritish conunissioners, from its throwing the navigable channel of that 
section of the St. Lawrence exclusivelv Avithin the American dominions, 



* This nionuiiii'iit bwirs soiifh 71" -l.V U0Nt,;iiid is DMO vards (li^t;Ult from tiiL'>toiiu cluircli 
ill the Iiidiiin villaijo of St. Ileitis. 

t See tlic report of the commissioners, Aiijieiiilix ( Xo. 1.) 

X The ishimls most wortliv of note from tlieir m.ignitiule or imjinrtance, that fall nitliiii 
the Britisli (htminions, are Cornwall and Sliuik's Island; the Nut Islands; Caisson, Duck, 
Drununoml, and Slicep Islands; l^iwe's, (irenadier, and Hickory Islands, and (irand or Long 
Islaiul, all in the St. Lawrence ; the Duck Islands in Lake Ontario; Navy Island in Niagara 
river; in Lake Erie, ."Middle Island, the Hen and Chickens, the Eastern and Middle Sisters ; 
in Detroit river. Isle an Hois IJlanc, Fighting or (jreat Turkey Island, and Isle a la Piche ; 
S(juirrel island in Lake St. Clair; Belle Riviere Isle and Isle aux Cerfs in river St. Clair; and 
.'St. Josejih's Islaml in Lake Huron. 

Within the limits of tin; United .States are included Bandiart's Island, Lower and Upper 
Long Sault Islands, Chrystler's, (Joose-neck, and Smuggler's Islands, Isle au Rapide Plat ; most 
of the (xallo]) Islands; Tick, Tihhet, Chimney, (iull, and Hlutt' Islands; Wells, Cirindstone, 
and Carleton Islands, all in the St. Lawrence; (Jrenadier, Fox, Stony, and GoUop Islands in 
Lake Ontario: Goat, (irand, and Beaver Islands, and Strawherry, S(lua\^■, and Bird Islands in 
Niagara river: Cunningham Island, the three Bass Islands, and the M'estern Sister, in Liike 
Erie: Sugar, Fox, and .Stony Islands, and Hog Island, in the Detroit river: Ilerson's Lsland in 
river St. Clair; and in Lake Huron, Drununond's Island and Isle a la Crosse 



BOUNDARIES. 



17 



was c'onsidcrtHl an iin))ortaiit sacrilicv: l)iit tlic o\cliisi\c> possession of 
(iraiul Islo, which was k-f't to (iivat Ihitain, was estt'cincd an adeijiiatc 
C(iuivalfnt for its sunrndcr. 

The ojjerations in virtue of tlic soventli article do not ai)))ear to 
liave yet terminated, and .■ precise boundary from the head ol Lake 
Huron to the north-west extremity of the liake of the ^^'oods remains 
still undefined, beyond the description of it contained in the <;eneral 
terms of the treaty. 

In determining the geographical boundary between St. Kegis and 
the C'oimecticut river, it was soon discovered that the original de- 
niarcation of the 4.;th ])arallel of north latitude widely deviated from the 
true coin-se of that ])arallel, the position of which was carefully ascer- 
tained by the joint observations of the IJritish and i\merican astronomers 
employed on that service in 181S*. It was found that the pre-existing 
line was drawn almost wholly north of tiio true geographical bearing of 
that circle of latitude. The astronomical observations taken at diflerent 
stations have yielded the following residts : Tliey ])roved that at St. 
llegis the old line was actually 137.5 feet, statute measinv, north of 
the 45' of north latitude, and that KUicott's line was fJO feet too far 
north of the true ])arallel. At French ^Mills the aberration of the old 
from the new line was found to be 154 feet, the former lying north 
of the latter ; two miles and a half farther east from thence the new 
lino intersected the old, and travei'sed to the south, until it reached 
Chateauguay river, where its greatest southing measured J)75 feet. 
At Rouse's Point, on the shores of Lake Champlain, a considerable 
difference was discovered ; the new boundary passing 457() feet south 



* It is higlily desirable and important, for tlie peace and welfare of the frontier iiiluil)itants 
of both countries, that the boundary, thus determined and fixed at various points by astronomical 
observations, should be actually traced and conspicuously marked in the field, and mile-posts 
planted throughout its extent. Substantial stone jnonuments should also be erected at different 
stations: at St. Regis; Salmon river; the Chateauguay; the road at Odell Town; on the 
borders of the Richelieu and Missisqui Bay ; at Stanstead ; and on the Connecticut river; that 
no doid)t might thereafter arise as to the limits of both territories. It is presumed that sucli a 
mere demarcation of the boundary could be sanctioned by the local legislatures of the states of 
New York and Vermont and the provincial government of Lower Canada ; the chief stations 
being already astronomically established under tiie authority of the treaty of Ghent. 

D 



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imiTISIl VOHTII AMKUICA. 



of the Coniu'r, iiiid involving in tlic ivliii(|ui.sliiiK'nt (»t' tlic triaiiu'iilar 
tract of territory tliiis formed, an Anuriean fort, wliicli has hi'en 
nej'lected since, and is iwnv in rnins. I-'nun tlie shores of Mississ(|ni 
hay to the C'oinu'cticnt ri\cr. tlie old line lies nnlvi-rsally to the north 
of the trui' honndary. fonnin<;' an eh)n^atc(l trore of land, stretcliinfj,- 
alonn- the whole extent of the frontier to\vnshi))s. fi-oni St. Arniand to 
Hereford *. 

Thus far the interpretation of tlu' .'ith article of the treaty sniFered 
no didic iilty, and its |)ro\ isi<)ns were snhstantially carried into eHect : 
hut in the execution of the reniaininu,' ])art of the service, from the head 
of Connecticut river Ui the source of the St. Croix, momentous diflerences 
have arisen between both governments, involving' the adverse j)ossession 
of \i])wards of 1 (),()()() scpiare miles of territory, v. hi eh the conciu'rln^- 
weiyht of the s])irit of the treaty ol" 17SI}, the broad jjrineiples of pid)lie 
justice that govern the construction of international com])acts, superadded 
to the wei<j;ht of satisfiictorily proxtd possession, establish as the unde- 
niable and indefeasible ri<;ht of the crown of Great IJritain. In stating 
that the s])irit of the treaty of ITH.'J is favourable to the Hritish claims, it 
is by no means intended to concede the ])()int that its letter \s the reverse ; 
but, as any ])erson accpiainted with the oeography of the country in dis- 
pute nuist know, the utter im))ossibility, from physical ca'.ises, of drawin«^ 
ji line of boinidary such as described by the wirdinji; of the treaty, throws 
the ])arties exclusively uj)on its intent and meaning, which avowedly 
contemplated '■ iTv'iprocal advaitta^t'ii and iiiiitiutl cotircnicticc," and ])ro- 
ceeded " if/ioi/ prh/c/p/c.s of lilwrdl cqiiiti/ aud reviprwitij, to the exclusion 
of all }Hirtial(i(h(iut(i<j;c.sr and the ])ro:Motion oi^' perpetual peace''' between 
both countries. 

These adverse claims have become the subject of foreig/i umpirage, 
and have been laid before his majesty the King of the Xetherlands, 
together with the ary-umcnts m'ged on behalf of both govennnents in 
support of their res])ective assum))tions. To enter here at length into 
the discussion of the question would, therefore, appear u task of supcrc- 

* Those iilx'rratioiis of the Ixniiuliiiv on tlio 4.")tli ])ariiIlol of iKirtli latitude were known to 
the autlior in Ii!l.">, and jKirtiall', stated liy liiui in liis foinier work on the Toj)oijraj)liy (jf 
Lo\vcr Canada, ji. 127<>. 



Si,! 



} 



iJOINDAini'S. 



19 



roj^ation, since siicli a rclVnncf. tlir lu^notiiitions of w liicli liavo closi'd. lias 
i-c'IkU'I-imI any ulterior invc'sti<>ati(»M uniucrssary. Hut it cannot, however, 
he deemed either di<;ressive, or an ollicious anticipation of t lie decision of so 
important a matti'r, as connected vitli the strength and preser\ation of the 
IJritish American pro\iiices. if, in professedly descrihiiij; the hoimdaries 
hetween the territories of distinct powers, the merits of these repugnant 
claims should he succinctly considered, whati'vi'r may he the award of 
the crowned head to whose wisdom and eipiity the settlemi-nt of the 
momentous dilliculty has hecMi amicably referred. 

To compass at one <;lance the leadinj; points, out of which have 
grown the arj^imieiits relied upon by the I'liited States, it may bi' 
stated, that the whole wi'i<;ht of their claim rests upon three <j,rounds : 
first, the letter of the treaty of ITH-'J, which, they assert, sup))orts their 
claim: secondly, the circumstance of Mitchell's ma|) havin<;- been, as is 
presumed, before the commissioners who ne<;'otiated that treaty ; and, 
tliirdly, the existence of hi;;hlands, where they ])lace the north-west 
aniilo of Nova Scotia and their north-eastern boundary. 

To these grounds of su])])ort. or the inferences that would be drawn 
from them, a direct denial is j^iven by the su|)])orters of the Hritisli 
claim, and the (piestion distinctly st; nds at issue. Let us, therefore, 
take ii]) the points in their order, and ])rieHy consider their merits and 
their refutation. 

The words of the treaty are the folloAving : ''From the north-west 
angle of Nova Scotia, viz, that angle which is formed by a line drawn 
due north, from the source of tlie ri\er St. Croix to the highlands; along 
the said h g'hlands, which divide those rivers that cm])ty themselves into 
the river St. LaAvrence from those which fall into tlie Atlantic Ocean, 
to the north-westernnn t head of Connecticut river," &c. This de- 
scription, it is cv)nt:ended by the agents of the American government, 
bears out their assumption of a boundary, which, crossing the St. .lohn, 
is pushed northward from the source of the St. Croix to a point in or 
near the 48" of north latitude, within forty-one miles of the St. Lawrence, 
and npwards of eighty miles north of the latitude of Quebec, and there- 
fore traversing, we may say, the whole extent of the vast peninsula formed 
by the ocean, the river St. Lawrence, and the gulf. From this point 

D 2 



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ijurrisii iXOHTii amkuica. 



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tiiniin^" wivstward, afti-r having' dividi'd. l)y their nu'ridional liiu', tlif 
waters of tlK',i,'////'fn)iu tlutsi' of tlir rim- S/. Loun'HCC — (what ht'iv 1k'- 
coiiit's of thi' /<7/fv of thi- tiraty?) — thev proceed ah)H<; the tahle hnid. 
wliere the soiirees are found, not of rivers *' fallini;' into the Atlantic 
Ocean on one sidi- and the St. Lawrence on the otiier," hut of rivers dis- 
ehar^ini;' themselves southward into the aSV. ./o////, and northward into the 
S/. Loincnci'. I lere. ay;ain, what becomes of the meri' /rf/cr of tlie treaty ? 

That the Ihitisli honn(hn'y from .Mars Hill westward is. in a measure, 
open to till' same ohjietiini. and e(pially irreconcilahle with the ex|)ress 
lan<>uau,i' ol' the treaty, in respect to tlie division of waters, it is not 
intendi'd fully to deny : hut it is abundantly suMicient to j)rove, i)y facts 
bevond the powei of contradictioti, that tlu /c/h r ot the treaty of 17H;{ 
lias described a boundary, which the |)hysical and hydro^raphic.-d di- 
\isions of the country to be divided, rendered it utterly impossible sub- 
stantially to establi>li. 'I'hus are tlu' parties lu'cessarily thrown, for a 
fair and honest interpretation of the treaty, U|)on its axowed motives, its 
principle, and its spirit. 'I'hat these should all concur in yieldinj^ their 
whole wi'i_i;ht to sustain tlu- Ihitish claims to llu-ir '"uUest extent, will 
appear evident to an impartial umpire, from the introductory lan«^ua<re 
of the treaty, and an inspection of the niaj) of the disputed territory. 

"Liberal e(piity and reciprocity." and "mutual convenience and 
advantaj^es," are terms that ade<piately explain the nature of the motives 
which dictated the treaty, and point out, at the .siune time, (juite as 
emi)liatically, the spirit in which its provisions, in cases of ambi<^iiity, 
were to be afterwards interpreted. Its obvious meaning- and intention, 
in dividin«;" waters at their heads, were to <i;ive exclusively to each country 
the whole extent of rivers flowin<j; within their respective dominions, 
from their sources to their mouths. This was im])ortant, first, because, 
in a connnercial point of view, such an undivided use of rivers by the 
inhabitants of the respective states was of the oieatest moment to their 
welfare, peace, and tranciuillity, and well calculated to avoid all " f .cds 
of discord;" and secondly, under a military aspect, such an exclusive 
possession of water-vour-^es by either ])ower, rendered each, less o])en to 
invasion, by the arms of the other: and hence has it been truly stated*. 



m 



* ConsiJcrutions on the north-east lioiuuliirv line. 



I' Si 






41 



i 



noiNDA nil's. 



'21 



tliMt ill) iirci/iiiiiiK boiiiitliirv was coiiti'mpl.ilcd, wliicli might si-rvi* l»t»tli 
I'oiiiiti'ifs Tor imitnal (Iffi-iuc. without jiiving t<» cither party thi- advaii- 
ta^i's t\)r atta^'k, and •• oitccially <»(' that whoM- (hnninions wi-rc iiii»>t 
liki'lv, as distant possessions, to he inxachd." Will it tlu n he holdly 
asserti'd, that a line h'.sirting the St. .lohn river nearly into two e(pial 
parts, leavinj,' the npper half to tlie Tnited States and the lower half to 
(ireat Hritain. is in nnison with tin* true spirit (f the treaty:' Will it 
hi' coiiti'nded, that a line ruiniin};' within a few (at some points (»idy nini) 
statute miles alon<;' the shores of the St. Lawrenee, and end)raein<,' within 
its limits hy far tlu'^ri'ater portion of the vast peninsula already deserihed. 
Ivinu" wi'st of till' nii'ridian lini', from the sowree of the St. Croix, is eon- 
sonant with its ohvions sense and prineiple? Such a l)onndary must, 
on the contrary, appear deeidi'dly ripnj;nant to the spirit of the treaty, 
and wholly inconsistent with its declared object, the convenience and 
advanta'^e of hoth <;'overnmcnts. 

'I'o maintain their nnjnstiliahle construction of the treaty, the advo- 
cates of the Ameriian side (if the (piestion attach much adviiititioiis 
importance to tlu' tirenmstanci' of Mitclu'll's maj). pnl)lislie<l in IT.j.j, 
havinj;- been before the ncj^otiators of the jjcace in ITH.'i. and hence they 
^gratuitously infer that the boundaries, as ther'.'U])on delineated, nuist 
jiave <^()verncd the verbal description contained in the treaty. Ibit 
no evidence of the fact is adduced ; nor is it to be presunu-d that 
INIitcheirs was the ( nly map undi-r tlu' consideration of the ])leni))otcn- 
tiaries. If on this (lubject it were allowed at all to speculate on pro- 
l)abilities. it would, on the contrary, be very ])resumable that majjs of the 
later coiupiests of (Jreat Hritain in i\merica, were before them at the 
time, and that it was in endeavourin<;- to reconcile the discrepancies that 
existed on the face of those several maps in the delineation of the ori- 
j>;inal boundaries of Canada or Xouvelle France, iVcadia. and Nova Scotia, 
that such ambiguity crept into the second article of the treaty. 

Hut theie is one fact which imj)ugns the whole weight that has been 
so stiuliously attached to Mitchell's ma)). I'pon it, the western boundary 
of Nova Scotia is carried to the very shores of the St. Lawrence: here 
then would be the north-west angle of Xova Scotia under its authoritv. 



l)() 



liinTisii xoirni ami-rica. 



(ini 



So absurd an assuiu])ti()ii would he alt()<>c'tlicr unttMiablc in tlic face of 
till' tiraty ol' 17S;J; and tlio lai't clt^arly proves that tlio xoirni-i'.AS r 
aiif^li' of Ni'w England, as uiarkt'd on tliat uia]). was novn- intended, at 
tlxtl point to adjoin tlie Nouiii-wi.si- annie of Xovii Seotia, for the new 
formation of wliieii tiie treaty expressly provides, when it says, viz. 
•■ That an<;ie whieh is formed by a line drawn due north from the souree 
of the St. Croix to the hii-hlands.'' Ilenee we may fairly ini'er that the 
boundaries eontem))lated by the eonunissioners at the framiiii;- of the 
treaty were diilerent to those laid (h)\vn on the map in (juestion. 

It is also a eireumstanee worthy of remark, whieh tlu'ows somelight 
on the eharacter of Miteheirs map as intlueneiui!; the determination of 
siieh a eontrovevsy, that (Governor l\)wnall. whose name is to be seen 
u))on it, had l)een eaptain-_<;eneral and governor in ehief over the four 
New Knu,'land eolonics, and very naturally extended the line that was to 
se])arate liis j;-o\ ernment fnnn the Freneh ])ossessions in North Ameriea, 
to tlu> nearest ])oint he eould with any tolerable plausibility : whilst 
the Freneh L>()vernment were not wanting in setting up elaims eijually 
extravagant in the other chreetion. 

The bare fact of tiie existence of highlands at the ])oint at v.hich 
the American eonunissioners would place the north-west angle of Nova 
Scotia and their north-eastern boundary can avail them nothing, either 
under the letter or the s])irit of the treaty. To avail them imder its 
AVAv, u|)on which alone they seem so confidently to have hinged all their 
reliance, such highlands nuist be shown to divide the waters of the ncu 
from those of the St. iMU/ri/cf ; but, far from doing this, they se])arate, 
or rather are found about tlie sources of rivers falling, first, into the 
opjjosite direction of the Jiai/ of Cli<ilcnr.s and the St. Law/ma', and, 
secondly, into the St. J.ainrinr and the *SV. Jo/ni. 

That such a fact could sustain their claim under the .spirit of tiie 
treaty has, it is belicNcd, been slu)wn to be impossible from the direct 
violation it would evidently carry with it of those principles of mutual 
"convenience," "advantage," and " recij)rocity" by which it Avas pro- 
fessedly dictated. 

It is also contended that the line of boundary assumed by the 



(l>: 



I 



>l 



i 



ji 



MM'NDAiJir.S. 



23 



United States is justified by tlie ])liysieid elation of the eountry : and it 
has been the ])eeuliar study ot'an able Anieriean writer and t()))(\i>ra|)her*. 
in a work entitled "./ Survey o/' Mnii/c" aeeoni])anii'd by ;in exeellent 
ma]) of that state, and a \()hnne of «;eoh)i!,ii'al ])n)files and ek'vations. 
published in IS^}). — to ])rove that sneh was the ease. 

\'\) to 1S17, when the field operations under the .>th artii'le of the 
treaty of (ilient were eonuneneed, the knowledge of the traet of territory 
in dis])nte was but very ini|)eri'eet, and ehieHy restrieted to tliose parts 
ivhieh lie in the innnediate vieinity of the mail route of eonnnunieation 
by Lake Temiseouata, bt-tween Canada, New Hrunswiek. and Nova 
Scotia; the ivst beini;' a dense forest, whieii had hitherto been traxersi'd 
oidy by savage tribes in the ])roseeuti(»n of tlu'ir hunting ])ursuits. 
Sini'e that period, e\])lorations and surveys were performed under the 
authority of both _<.!,i)M'rnnients, which h;ive in a i!,reat measure su])plied 
tiu' deiiciency ; aUhoui;h the contradictory deliiu'ations of the face of 
the eountry, that ha\e ri'sulted from the operations, subsecpiently to 
1S17. have materially alfected the Aveij^ht to be attached to their au- 
thenticity. 

It is not intended in this ])hu'e, to enter upon the description of the 
tract thus claimed by a A)rei_i;ii state, as it will come under the oeueral 
account of the ])rovince of Lower Canada; but merely to exannne its 
locality, in so far as it allects the ])retensions of the adverse claimants. 

Takino- then the <;eological aspect of this territory from the elaborate 
to])Oi!,Taphical description of it by Mr. (ireenleaf. decidedly the best 
extant, we fmd, that if the <)reatest " mass" f of elevated land between 
the St. Lawrence and the ocean, be fovmd to the northward of the St. 
John ; yet the most I'Ko.MiM.Nr ii-.Arriir..s ok riii; coiNTitv, .\Nn iiii: 
iiu;ni-.si' POINTS, are to the .so/i/// of that river]:, and almost ecpn-distant 
from the shores of the Atlantic and the St. Lawrence. That the land 
lying between the St. Lawrence and the St. John forms an elevated 
table plain, it is not attempted to deny. We wish here to get at truth 
through til'" medium of /^asvV/'/r inforr.iation. Hut. assuming that the 
division of the waters of the rivers St. Lawrence and St. John could 



* .AIosos (} 



ileal', I-; 



t .Survey i 



ifiM 



line, 1). .).). 



Iliid. p. .")<) 



,. I' 'I 



m 

■1 ,1;'' 



1"' 



ii; 



24 



15HITIS1I NORTH AMERICA. 



i.'f 



!■■; 






w 



operate favourably in su])])ort of the American ])retciisions, this high 
table-land docs not, in point of fact, divide the streams flowing in opposite 
directions. It is the .sw// (if such an expression may be used) of their 
sources; and the eminences that are found about these head-v.aters ge- 
nerally rise ulon^i; the hanh;s of the rivers, and seldom or never separate 
their springs; which circumstance imparts to this tract of country a pe- 
culiarity of character that can tindno analogy in the terms of the treaty of 
178fi, and cannot, certainly, be successfully insisted upon as the boundary 
contemplated by it. 

The river St. John is described as " exhibiting in a striking lioht the 
singular fact of the passage of a large ri\ er in an elevated canal, along 
the had,-, and ncarlij at (lie ,snnnnit-/erc/, of the lofty table-land, of which, 
in this part of its course, the main ridge, or height of land, between the 
Atlantic and the St. Lawrence consists*." This is admitted, and it is 
e([ually well known, that the largest rivers that discharge themselves into 
the St. John, above the forks at Madawaska, flow from the south-west, 
and must necessarily descend from a higher to a lower level, from tlieir 
sources to their junctions with it. It must, therefore, appear evident, 
that the country, at the heads of the AUegash and other streams that 
fall into the St. John from the southward, nuist be higher than the bed 
of the St. John itself, at least below the junction of the Avest branch 
with the Walloostook, or main St. John, which flows from thence in a 
gentle current. This general superiority of local elevation, su])eradded 
to the acknowledged pre-eminence of the mountains of that section of 
the tract, above the summit of any other hills between the ocean and the 
St. Lawrence, — and in which highlands alone the sources of the rivers 
descending to the Atlantic arc to be found, — must be conclusive against 
the American pretensions, and strongly support the substantial right and 
claims of Great Britain to the boundary it assumes. 

\\'ith respect to the rights of Circat Britain, founded upon acts of 
possession and sovereignty, it is notorious, that, for years, the British 
mail was uninterruptedly carried through the territory now claimed by 
the United States, and that through it, a constant, open, and public com- 

* Survey of Mainoj p. 78. 



I ( 



BOUNDARIES. 



25 



ill 



•y 



inunioatioii was kept u]) between Canada and the giilf and sea-board pro- 
vinces of New IJrunswiek and Xova Scotia. IJritisli veteran pensioners, 
after the war of 177.^, were located by tl\e government of Canada to 
lands on the Madawaska river, and on tlie portage of Teniiscouata, wliich 
was o])c'ned at pnblic expense by the IJritish government. iVs far l)ack as 
168.'J*, tlie French government granted the fiefs ]Madawaska and Teniis- 
couata, as being witliin the limits of Canada, to Sieur ^Vntoine Aubert 
and David Laclienayc, t'lie original proprietors; and tliosc seigniories 
are now in tlie occupancy of liritish snbjects, governed by British laws, 
and under liritish protection. 

The vigorous but nugatory attempts made by the local government 
of Massachusetts, in 1828 and 1829, to warp (ireat Britain out of the jjos- 
scssion of the tract of country occupied by the Madawaska settlement, are 
well knoAvn, and merely served to establish, in the course of a legal investi- 
gation in the coiu'ts of justice of New Brunswick, the irrefragable rights 
of the British crown, to exercise sovereignty over that section of coimtry 
and its inhabitants, under, at least, the authority of actual possession 
and occupancy. It was legally proved, that the inhabitants of that set- 
tle: '"nt not only recognised British allegiance, conformed to the militia 
h ii d looked up to the colonial courts of justice for the recovery of 
deucs, and redress of wrongs, but exercised the franchises of British sub- 
jects, by voting at elections, and being represented in the local legislatures 
of the provinces f. 

In devoting a few pages to the consideration of so momentous a 
subject to the interests of the mother country, as the boundaries of her 
British dominions in ^Vmerica, it has by no means been intended to 
review at large the numerous arguments urged in behalf of both powers 
by their respective agents, under the 5th article of the treaty of Cihent ; 
but merely to collect, at one view, the prominent features of the (question, 
and the leading points upon which either government relied, leaving 
such as are desirous of a more extensive investigation of the merits of the 

* Rcgistrc (le Foi et Ilommage, 1723, fol. 23. 

t Sec the eviilenec in tlie case of Dtnn. Rex v. Joim Baker, K. B,, Xew Brunswick ; also 
the correspondence between the British minister for foreign atfairy anJ]\Ir. Lawrence. American 
charge d'affaires, 1828. 



Jl I 



i4 



i! t 



1 1' I 

11)1, :| I 



26" 



BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 



controversy, to consult the various papers, tliat liave appeared in print 
ii])on tlic subject *. 

Should, however, any new argument be here discovered, or any 
further lij>;ht have been throAvn, by these brief remarks, upon the dillerent 
views that have ahvady been taken of the question, they have uncon- 
sciously flowed from sources of that truth and reciprocal justice that 
ought to govern the decision of so important a controversy, and whicii. 
as they form the basis of social order and happiness, are no less the 
springs of international ])eace and prosperity. 

■■ Tlio chief of these are, " Coiisideriitious on the North- Eusteni Bomiclary, 182G," John 
Hatcluinl aiul Son, London; " The Letters of A'erax," ])iil)lisheil at St. John's, New Uruiisuick ; 
the able editorial articles in the Qnehee Star, by Andrew Stuurt, Es(j. ; and an article in the 
North American Review, No. ( ) U!2B. 



9i i ' . I 



r^Ki,i', 



■* 



.»,. 



CHArTKU II. 

('n^()gr!i|)!iic'iil Sitiuitiiiii — Extent — ami Divisidiis of tlio Hritisli North AiiU'ricaii Pos- 
sessions. — Noiili ^^'c'st, and Hudson's I?ay, Toriitorii's. 



Tiir. Hritisli domiiiiims in Xortli iVmcrica, as Ijouiuled in tlio t'ore- 
goinj.'- c'lia])tci', lie between -11" t?' and 78' north latitude, or tlie extreme 
point to Avhieli the diseoveries have hitherto extended, towards the aretie 
])ole; and between the meridians of the 52d and 141st degrees of lonoi- 
tnde. Avest from (ireenwich. 

Thty may be eom])iited. in round mnnbcrs. to eomprise upwards of 
f(nir millions of <reoora])hicul s([uare miles of territory : extending across 
the whole continent, from tiie Atlantic on the cast, to the shores of the 
North Pacific Ocean on the west. On the parallel of the 49" of north 
latitude, their extreme breadth is about .'J()()() oeooraphical miles; and 
their greatest depth, from the most soutbern ])oint of U))])er Canada in 
I^ake Kric to Smith's Sound in the polar regions, rather more than 21.50: 
thus embracing a large ])ortion of the shores of the arctic seas, those o( 
the Atlantic as far south as Cape Sable in Xova Scotia, and of the 
North Pacific, from latitude 42" .50' nortli, to Blount St. Klias in latitude 
;")H" 2S' north, according to lihering, and latitude GO" 20' north by sii()- 
sequent obserAations. 

Of this iimneiise su])erficies it may be said, ii])on an average com- 
putation, that about 700.000 stjuare miles* j;re covered by water, in- 
cluding the great lakes of the St. liawrence. Avhich are e(jually divided 
betAveen (ireat Britain and the Fnited States, by an imaginary line. 
draAvn longitudinally through their res])ective centres. The Avaters of 
tliis vast region. ex])anding into lakes of prodigious magnitude, or pre- 
cipitating themselves Avith aAvful violence from stuj)endous heights, are 



* Geognipliical inilus are inulcrstund wlii-n not otlier\\ise exjirosscd. 



E 2 



;k,r''ir| 



■I'l 



^^ f 



;M 



28 



BIUTISII NORTH AMERICA. 



admitted to abound in more extraordinary natural phenomena than those 
of any other known portion of the glohf. 

It wouhl be impossible, by a general deseription, to eonvcy to the 
reader, a elear and eomprehensive idea of these extensive dominions as a 
whole, diversified as is their surfaee; rising- to bold highland ridges or 
solitary mountains, sloping into broad or diminutive valleys, exhibiting 
abrupt eliit's, or undulating in gentle swells ; here eovered with im])ervious 
forests, or opening into natural meads ; there presenting the most abso- 
lute barremuss, or the nu)st exuberant fertility. All these are varieties 
of aspeet, tliat may natufully be expeeted to prevail over so extended a 
territory, and are eminently a})plieable to the region under eonsideralion; 
but their mere enumeration, ean only impart to the mind, a very imperfeet 
eoneeption of the faee of the eountry. Yet it may be safely asserted, 
that in no given seetion of the world, has Nature more eonspieuously 
displayed her ])owcrfnl hand, in forming objects of sublimity and gran- 
deur, or in endowing the earth with properties calculated to subserve 
the wants, and promote the happiness, and well-being of mankind. 

Antecedent to the year 1791, these vast possessions were divided 
into three provincial governments — Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Xewfound- 
lantl — inde])endently of the territory granted by charter in 1670, to the 
merchant adventurers trading to Hudson's IJay. Subsecpiently the pro- 
vince of Quebec, was divided into the provinces of Lower and I'pper 
Canada*, and the government of New Ih-unsvvick, created out of the 
province of Nova Scotia, whilst a separate legislature was given to St, 
John or Prince Edward's Island, lying in the (iulf of St. Lawrence. 

^Vn obvious division of these extensive don.iinions ])resents itself, in 
that part of them which is colonized under established local govermnents, 
and that which is not, or which is at least out of the pale of present civi- 
lization, deferring, therefore, the consideration of the settled parts of the 
British dominions to ulterior chapters, we will now^ proceed to give of 
the Lulian countries, as correct an idea as may be formed, from the col- 
lective information arising out of the laborious surveys performed under 
the direction of the Canadian North-west Company, in their trading 



'hi 



m, i ! 



ill 1 ' 

m 



* By act of tlie iiarliamoiit of Great Britain, 31 Geo. III. cliap. 31. 



INDIAN TERRITORIES. 



29 



territories, the explorations of the interior by some of its members, and 
the several expeditions tliat at dillerent times, have jjenetrated over the 
continent, to the shores of tlie IIyj)erborean seas, and the borders of the 
I'aeifie Ocean. 

IJy the xoRTii-WKsr Ti;iiKiToini;s, is generally understood all that 
portion of country extendin*^ from the head of Lake Superior, westward 
to the western shores of ^Vmerica, northward to the Fro/en Ocean, ami 
north-westward tt) the //w/Av of the territory "^'ranted under the Hudson's 
IJay charter. What these limits actually are, has long been a subject of 
doubt and dilliculty ; and created not many years ago, the most inve- 
terate and alarn.'uu" ds between the riv >' <^>';,(i(^.j-s of the north-west 
and Hudson's w.., wl". led to conseciuenci tiie most disastrous and 
lamentable. 

The treaty of T7trecht ])rovided for the settlement of the boundaries 
of Hudson's Hay territory ; but the measures adopted by the counnis- 
sioners appointed in ])ursuauce of tlie lOth article, ap))ear to have very 
little contributed to the removal of the doubts then subsisting on the 
subject, deferring to MitchelTs map, where tiie boundary ])urports to 
be laid down agreeably to tliat treaty, we Hud that the line conunences 
at Cape Grinnnington on the coasts of Labrador ; whence running south- 
westwardly it passes tt) the southward of Lake Mistassin, and follows 
the height of land dividing the waters of the St. Lawrence from those 
flowing into . James's liay. This ma]), including no j)art of the country 
west of Lake of the A\'oods, leaves the princi})le it has established of the 
division of waters, to be folk)wed up, on more recent and comprehensive 
delineations of the country. 

Tracing the boundary upon the author's geographical map t)f the 
IJritish North American provinces, ])ublished in 1815, and u))on Arrow- 
smith's map of North America, which eud)races the whole of the Itidian 
territories, the dividing highlands are found to ])ass at the sources of 
East Main, l{uj)ert, Harricanaw, Abitibbi, and Moose Rivers, and the 
various branches of Albany, Severn, and Hill Uivers; all of Avhich dis- 
end)ogue into Hudson's, or James's Hay, leaving the rivers on the oj)pt/- 
site side, to descend to the St. Lawrence and the great lakes. Kcaching 
the banks of Nelson's Kiver, the ridge ceases to divide streams at tlieir 



lih !! 



■''' I 

fell I ■ 



, l.t 



Slhi'M' 



till! 



>!; 



■«» 



; I I ' 






30 



lUlJTlSlI NORTH AMKIUCA. 



heads. mikI is tnivorsi'd l)v tlio outlet of Lakf \\'iiiiU'|)o<j,', wliicli receives 
(Vom the soiithwanl the waters of the Hcd river, and disehargcs itself 
tliroiiL^h I'laytireeii Lake and Nelson's ri\ir, into llndson's Hay. West 
of this river, tiie highlands resnine their former eliaraeteristie, and rise at 
the sonrees of linrntwood, Chnrehill, and IU'a\er rivers. In lon<;itnde 
ll!2" west, another ranoe of hi_<;hlands, lyinj;- j^enerally north-east and 
sonth-wesl. inlcreipts the former, and divides the waters of Ihillalo Lake, 
from Clear \\'ater and Ki'd Willow rivers, and then sui)sides on the 
sonthern shore of Lake ^^'ollaston. This lake is the snnnnit level of 
the waters Howinn- from thi.-. point into Iludsons IJay on one side, and 
the iVretie sea on the other, and is one of the few known instances of a 
lake with two distinct outlets. Hisin/^- on its northern shore, the ln<;li- 
laiids take a northerly direction, and skirt the sources of Doobaunt 
ri\er. whicli, ])assinn' thron<;h a series of lakes, falls into Chestertield Inlet. 
\'ery little is known of them beyond this latitude; but it is ))robable 
they will hereafter be found, to mer^e into tlu- ran<i;e of hills that lie 
nearly east and west, and separate the head waters of Copper Mine from 
those of Vellow Knife river. 

Heturniny,- to the vicinit\ of Lake St. Ann. in the reuion of Lake 
Superior, another ridge* of highlands is found, iliverging south-westerly 
from theheight of land alreadv mentioned, which, after dividingthe waters 
of Lake Superior from those of Lake \\'innepeg, winds round the sources 
of the .Mississip])i, that descends southerly to the Mexican (iulf: and 
the Ked river, flowing northerly into Lake \\'innepeg. It is along 
these highlanils that the Hudson's Hay Company. ])reten(l to establish 
their southern boimdary, their claim end)racing all that tract of country, 
inchidi'd within an irregular line, drawn through the sources of the 
ri' ers discharging their waters into Iludsons and .lames's Hay. 

None, however, of the niajjs of this section of America, hitherto 
published, have extended thus far the boundaries of the Hudson's Hay 
territory. A map i)nblished by Heimet in 177<', contains a distinct de- 
lineation of the boundary, along the snnnnit of the first-described height 
of land, and. in this respect, coincides with Mitchell's map. Hut, in 
177''« another geographical exhibit of the country was published by 
Eman liowen, which assigns the foity-ninth parallel of north latitude as 



INDIAN TCURITORIKS, 



31 



the soutliern Ixninds ol" tlio llu(lsi)irs Hay tnu't ; iiiul tlii> drsinnatioii 
])urports to be laid down, atcordiiii;- to tlie decision ■>(' ilic connnissioncis 
to wlioni the subject was rclenvd, under the treaty of I'tivciit. 

^Vhatever may be the merits of the broad territorial claim of this 
powerful company*, it is presun)ed tiiat it cannot be carried beyond the 
national frontier between the United States and the Hritish possessions, 
constituted in that ])art ol' America, by the parallel (»f tin- loity-nintli 
dciiree of north latitude, which traverses the Ked ri\er. leaving- its sonric 
upwards of one hundred miles to the southward, in about latitude 17 
north, and therefore within the limits of an adjacent foreiii,)! state. 

Having brieHy stated the various authorities that have described, 
in their gra))hical exhibits of iVnu'rica. tlu' bounds and limits of what 
might Avell be termed, from their vast extent, the dominions f the go 
vernor and company of Hudson's IJay.the territory itself consprised within 
these limits naturally comes under consideration, as one of the great di- 
visi(ms that nuiy be assigned, to what is geniM-ally known under the ap- 
pellation of the Indian countries. The i)euinsula of Labrador will form 
part of this division ; and, for the greater convenience and a]>tness of de- 
scription, all that tract of country lying Avest of the bounds of lIudsoiTs 
liay will be divided into four other sections. — the ///'.v/ being com|)ri'hended 
between the 4})th degree of north latitude and the highlands north of the 
Suskatchawan and Beaver rivers, in the average latitude of .5()' north ; the 
second extending from the latter boimds to the ().)th degree of north la- 
titude ; and the third from the G5th degree to the I'olar Sea ; the limits of 



these three divisions on the Avest, beini>: the Hockv Mountai 



ns. 



Tl 



le 



fourth division will embrace thewhole extent oI" country belonging to( Jreat 
IJritain, lying between the Kocky Mountains and the l*acitic Ocean. 



I 
In 

|y 



* The oxistcnco of sdextonsivo iiiiil iil)s(iliitp u nioinnxilv — a kind of inq'i'rium In iiiiiiciin,- 
is pregnant with c'nil)arrassn)cnts tliat could not liavo lu'on foresi-en at the tinu' the charter was 
granted by Cliarh's II. It orii^inated at a period, when tlie free princijih's of lMijili>h trade, were 
not as well undcrstiuid as tliey iiou' are ; and it would not he surprisini;' if the roval prerogative 
should eventually he exercised to recall the charter, after making, to the iiohle and conunercial 
gentlemen concerned, every ju.-,t and rea.sonahle compensation for -ueli an ahriijj;atiiin of pri- 
vileges they now enjoy. 



• r M 






rfi ■ 






%Hl 



•'i^^ 



pilfil 



I .1 

•Hi ■ 



1 



i;l! i I 



• f 






ijjl 



32 



hUlTISlI NOHTIl AMCincA. 



SKCTION I. 



Till' nia^nitudo of Iliulson's ]\.\\\ and its ^conra^ihiciil inland si- 
tuation, impart to it niiu'li more tlic cliaracti-r of a nic'ditiMrani-an sea 
than tliat of one of those deej) inch iitations of the t)ei'an eaUed by the 
subordinate appellation of bays. Its extreme breadth is about five hun- 
dred miles, and its leni^^th, inelndini'' James's Hay. U))war(ls of seven hun- 
dred and twenty. In surface, it is "greater than any of the inland seas of 
Europe or Asia, the Mediterrai\ean only exeeptiul : and it li( s nearly be- 
twei-n the same points of latitude as the IJaltie. .lames's IJay itself, is 
nearly two hundred and forty miles deei), by one hundred and forty wide 

* • i • » 

at its mouth, in latitude ').'>' north, between C'ape Jones on the east, and 
Cape Henrietta Maria on the west. The coasts are ycnerally hi«^h. rocky, 
and ru^j;ed, and sometimes ])reeipitous. 'I'o the south-westward they 
are lower, and fie(|uently exhibit extensive straiuls. The depth of water 
in the middle of the bay has l)een taken at oni' hundred and forty fathoms, 
but it is probably greater. ]{e<;ular soundiu<i;s have been found from 
Cape Churchill, towards the south, and. in that direction, the approach 
to the shore is shoal aiul flat. Northward, from the same point, sound- 
ings are very irregular, the bottom rocky, and, at low water, reefs of rocks 
are in some parts uncovered. 

Southampton Tslaiul is situate at the entrance of tin* bay, and ex- 
tends about two hundred miles north and south ; its breadth being nearly 
half its length. It is separated from the western shore, by a channel 
called Sir Thomas Howe's Welcome, and from iMelville's Peninsula by 
the Fro/en Strait. Xorth-east and east of it, are Fox Channel and the 
mouth of Hudson's Strait, whieli coimeets Hudson's liay with Davis 
Strait and the Atlantic Ocean. Mansfield is tlie next island of note in 
the bay ; and tliough very inferior to the former in ni.ignitude, its si- 
tuation, mid-channel between Southampton Island and the shores of Fiast 
Main, renders it imjjortant in a nautical pcMut of view. Along the 
eastern shores of the bay are scattered a multitude of small islets and 
rocks ; and about one hundred miles west of these, is to be found 
a dangerous cliain, called the West Sleepers, stretchin<j ahnost in a line 
with Mansfield Island, and said to extend from ;57" to ()0" 10' north 



I 



f 



■\\i ' 



INDIAN TI.URITOIUKS. 



33 



latitiuli'. To tlic sontlnvanl of tlip SU>c|)(ms is to l)c svvu a {'liisti'i' of 
broki'M isk's, (U'lioniiiiatfd tlu' Ik-Ulirrs ; Init tlirir cxait posit'uin is not 
accurately ascertained. Niniicrous islands arc dispersed in .lames Hay, 
the lariicst of wliicli are iXjionisca. C"arlet«in, and tiie Twins. I .ony,- Island 
lies off Cape .lones, innnediately without the entrance of the hay. 

Till' country on the west of both hays has been denominated \i\v 
Sojith Wales, aiul that on the east. Kast Main. Tlu' interior of the pe!i- 
insula of Labrador, or New Uritain, of Avhich the latter may i)e con- 
sidered to form a part, has bein but very su))erlicially explori'd. i-xeept 
by barbarian tribes of wanderin<;' l*'s(|uiniau\, ^vllo are chanicteri/.ed as the 
inhal)itants of wild, bleak, and inhospitabli' re^^ioiis. That it is traversed 
bv mnnerous rivers, diver<>in^' from thi' interior towards the (iulf of 
St. Lawrence, the Atlantic, the Strait of Hudson, and Hudson's Hay, 
a])pears niduhitable from the ninnber of outlets that have bi-en dis- 
covered alon^- the whole extent of its innnense coasts. Its north-eastern 
and south-eastern shores are indented by friMpient bays and inlets, some 
of which are esteemed of et)nsi(lerable de|)th. j\lon<;' the coasts are 
scattered a nndtitude of small islands, which sometimes allbrd shelter t(» 
the bays, whilst they render tluir access intricate, if not perilous. T'he 
chief bays are St. Michai'l's. llawke, and Kocky !)ays, at its eastern ex- 
tremity, and Sandwich, Uyron's, and Knity, and the IJay oi' Hope's Ad- 
vance, on its north-i'astern coast. Mus([uito IJay, Hopewell Channel, 
andliulf Hazard, arc the most conspicuous indentations on the .shores of 
East Main. 

At Xain, near Unity liay. a Moravian settlement is established, 
where missionaries reside, undi-r the direction of the Moravian Missionary 
Society in London, and the most laudable elfor^s appear to be made by 
that institution to reclaim the Ks(|uimau\ from the most sava<>e barba- 
rism, and inculcate the doctrine of revealed religion. 

Hetween .Mbany Fort and Kast Main I'actory, that stand ojjposite 
each other, near the bottom of .Tames' liay, and r.hnost in the same lati- 
tude (about iiT 30' north) several large rivers mingle their fresh streams 
with the .saline waters of the bay, having their sources, at the remote 
distances of two and three hundred uiiles from their mouths, generally 



I, I 



t' I 



34 



ijnnisii Noinii ami.uk \. 



in liilxcs. lyiiifi to tlu* iiortlMvard of the liii^lit of land wliuli divides 
opposite waters. The principal rivers are six in niiinher. l)iit their 
braiiehes are iiiniieroiis and of e(»nsiderahle nia^iiitnde. 'I'akini;' them 
in their ordir, from east to west, they are Mast Main, or Shide, Uiiperts, 
llarrieanaw. West, Moosi>, and All)any rixers. Ai tlie month of the (irst 
is sitnati'd I'^ist Main Factory, wlieiice a broken eomnnniicati«in is kept 
np l»y the river, small lakes, and creeks, with Lake Misstassin, in .>()' W 
north latitnde. and ahout two hnndred and lifty nnles M.S. K. of the 
factory. 

Make Misstassin is worthy of particniar notice, as well on acconntof 
its extent, as for the siiij;nlarity of its sha|)e, formin<>' almost three distinct 
lakes, hy the pr;"ninent projection, from its t xtremitiis towards its centre, 
of elon<;aled |)oints, that approach within twenty or thirty miles of each 
other. Its extreme length is npwards of seventy-live miles, and its 
central breadth about thirty. It receives many streams that spring- fr<»m 
the hii!,h lands to tlu- sonthward, and may itself be considi-red the source 
of Unpert's rivi'r, which is its outlet and comnnmication with .Fames" Hay. 

'I'lie mouths of Ilarricanaw and West rivers ari> not far asunder, and 
discharge tluir streams in Hannah Hay. an inferior indent of the shore. 
The former descends in a j^eiieral course from south-east to nortli-west, 
and has on its east bank, near the bay, a small establishment, which, like 
all the others, is a mart for the trallic of fnrs and peltries. The latter 
river flows out of Musu«;ama Make, distant about one hnndred miles 
south of its discharno, and connnnnieates by portages, lakes, and streams 
with i\l)l)itibl)i Make. «)n the south-eastern shores of which stands 
another tradini; jiost. This lake is about sixty miles in length, by 
something less than one-third in breadth, and is (liv'.rsified by lunuerous 
islands. Its outlet is Abbitibbi river, which descends upwards of tAVo 
hundred miles to its alllux with Moose river. A little below it, is the 
conHuciice of French creek, and about fifty miles above, the South 
branch blends its waters with the Main river. Upon I/akc Waratowaha, 
near the soin'ce of a branch of ^Vbbitibbi river, is Frederick House, on 
the direct water comnnmication between the city of Montreal and the 
Hudson's Hay eslablishmcnts, by the Ottowa river, Make Temiscamang-, 



( / 



', 



IN 1)1 w I i.ininouii'.s. 



.'3.5 



I 



and Montreal river, wliusi' Mniric is toiiiid in tin- vicinity dl' iIk- uatiis 
(if Lake l'iit(|M:isli;>aina, which opens into W'aiatowaha Lake. 

Moose river issues out <»t' Lake Misinalie, and llow s nordi-easteriy 
al)oiit tuo hundred :uid thirty miles to its disehar;;'e into .lames' jlay. 
receiving' Cntiu the south and east, the South hraueh, .\liliitihl)i river and 
I"'reneh erei'k. At its mouth is huilt .\|t)ose l-'ort ; nearly one hnndrid 
nules liij;her up is Ihiinsuiek, aiul, on tlii' horcU'rs of the lake, Misinal)e 
House. Tin- hd\e is diviiU'd froui Lake Superior hy tlu' hij^ldands, and 
is not niori' than .sixty miles t(» the north-east of it. 

Alhany is the largest (»f the six ahove iMunnerati'd rivers. .iVhout 
oni' hmidredand twi'uty miUs from its estuary, it spreads into nmni'rous 
branehes, extendinii,' far to the westward and southward, ai d forminj;' a 
eoni])lete chain of connnunication with thew'tersof Lake Sii|)iritir. Lake 
W'innepej;'. and Severn river; Lake St. Joseph, in latitu'Ie ;il" north, and 
longitude <)()" ;J0' west, may he considered its source Th's lake is upwards 
of thirty miles long, hy fourteen broad, in sha)^esomet' 'ug like-M ol)i> ng 
paralk'logram, and its scenery is varied by frcipient islands, i 'ies west 
by south from the mouth of ..Mbany river; distance about ti ce hundred 
and twenty miles. There are four trading houses up .. the river: (): .■... 
burg, on the shores t)f thi' lake; (iloucester, about om liii. dred and thirty 
unles below it. by the bends of the river; Henley, at thi' forks formed 
by the junction of the South branch with the main stream; and iMbany 
Fort, on an island, below the great falls, at its end)ouclmre. 

The navigation of all these rivers is in many places interruptid by 
im])etuous rapids, occasioning fre(|uent ])ortages ; but, nevertheless, the 
h)ng interstices of gentle current that are found between the imprac- 
ticable cascades, render them extremely important as the highways of a 
wilderness. 

Of the susceptibility of the soil, ' . e rivers and their several 
branches seem to fcrtili.se, to yield agriculiural produce, little is known, 
or can be collected from tlu information of the traders, whose whole 
attention ap])ears to have hitherto i)cen confined to the bea\er, the 
bidialo, and the other savage inlia'iitants of those wilds; but, considering 
the geographical situation of this country, between 49 and .5;j north 

1 2 



I III 



l< 'III 



'I 



^ '•[ 



m 






It 



! IJ 






36 



151MT1SI1 NOIM'II AMI'.HK A. 



latitude, and its vast extent, it is natural to ])rcsiiinc. and tlio accounts 
of tlic nativ(>s. as far as tiu-y <;'o, justify tlic ))ivsinn))tion, tliat a con- 
sidi>ra1)lc ])ortion of it must be more or less arable, and will event\ially 
be submitted t«) tlie ploujili. 

\ew South Wales, or the western section of Hudson's Hay territory, 
extendinii from Sevi'rn ri\ cr ini-lusive to the north-easti-rn head of the 
bay. has been, in some parts, tolerably well explored. It abounds with 
lakes, rivers, and creeks, which, like those already mentioned, oiler to the 
traveller and the trader the most convenient means of c»)nuuunication in 
a wilderness, however ha/ardons, in general, from the frecjuency and 
violc-nce of the rapids. The chief rivers are the Severn, Hill (of which 
Ilayi's river is a coiitimiation), Port Ni-lson. I'auk-a-thaukus-Kaw, 
C'hurciiill. and Sial riviMs. which fall into Hudson's 15ay, between ;>()• 
and ."»!)" north latitude and SS" and i).V' west h)n!;itude. 

The Severn tlov>s out of I'avourable Lake, a small body of water, 
nearly at the sunuuit h'vel of the streams (lescendin<>' in opposite directions 
to Lake \\'iunepei;' and .lames' Hay. The u;eneral course of the ri\er is 
north-east, ambits direct lenifth two huiulred ami fifty miles. About 
tv.'cnty miles below its source, its volume is increased by Cat Lake river, 
Howinj;- from the southward, and jjassintj throui;h Cat Lake into the 
Severn, at the mouth of which is Severn l"'actory. 

Hill ri\er issues out of Swam))y Lakt>, and retains its name to its 
coutlueiu'c with Fox's river, tlowiny- into it from the westward ; it is 
then called Steel rixi-r. until it receives the waters of Shamatawa river 
from tlu' eastward, below which it <;()es by tiie name of Haves river, and 
finally disendjoyues into .lames' Hay, to the southward of Port Nelson or 
Nelson river, from which '*: is separated at its mouth by a marshy ])enin- 
sula. Live miles above the mouth of Hayes river, on its west bank, 
stands York Factory, the l)e;;d ipiarters ot' the Hudson's Hay Com])any 
within thei ' territories, aiui the principal dc'put of their trade. Its geo- 
graphical j)osition, by the observations of Sir John Franklin, is .57 OO'O.'J"* 



* Alx.iit tlif liitiliulc of .M)(.'iili'oii i'l Si.-iitl:iiiil, iiiul tlirec ilcgroos south of tliL' latiliido of fSt. 
I'ltiTsbiiri:. 



ii 






i 

I 



INDIAN TI'IUUrOHIKS. 



37 



north latitiulo. and 92' i2()' west longitude, tlio varii;ti<Mi of the eoin])ass 
l)ein<>- ()" 00' 121" east. 

"Tlie siirroundini;- eonntiy is Hat and swani])\ , and eovered with 
willows, ])o))lars. lareh, spniee, and bireh trees; hut the re(|nisitioM for 
fui'l has expended all the wood in the vieinity of the fort, and the 
residents have now to send a eonsiderahle distance for tliis neeessary 
material. Tiu' soil is allnvial elay, and contains imbedded rolled stones. 
Though the bank of the river is elevated about twenty feet, it is fre- 
(juently overtlown by the sjirinj)- floods, and large ])ortions of it are 
anmially carried away by the disruption of the ice. liy these porti«)ns 
l>ronndini>- in the stream, several nniddv islands have been formed. 
These interrujjtions, together with the various collections of stones that 
are hid at high water, render the navigation of the river dillicult ; but 
vessels of two hundred t«ins burden may be brought thr«)ugh the proper 
channels as high as the factory. 

" The princi])al buildings are placed in the form of a scpiare. having 
an octagonal court in the centre; they are two stories in height, and 
iiave Hat roofs covered with li>ad. T1k> oflicers dwell in one portion of 
this scpiare, and in the other parts thi' articles of merchtuulise are ke])t : 
till- workshops, storehouses for the furs, and the servants' houses are 
ranged on the outside of tlu- s(|uari'. and the whole is surrounded bv a 
stockade twenty feet high. A |)latform is laid from the house to the 
])iei on the bank for the convenience of transporting the stores and furs, 
which is the only ])romenade the residi-nts have on this marshy spot 
during the sunnner season. 'I'he few Indians who now freipient this 
establishment belong to the Sivawpii Crcc.s*.'''' 

The breadth of I layes river, some distance above the factorv, is about 
half a mile, its depth from three to nine feet, and its lengtii forty-eight 
miles and a half. Steel river at its junction with Hayes river is three 
hundred yards wide; its banks are elevated ; and its sci>nerv, in many 
instances, beautiful, as it winds through a narrow and well wooded valley. 
Hill ri\er, about the si/.e of the former, is far more rapid tiian it, its 



Franklin's .Itinrnfy t'' Ccipporniinc IJivir. vol. i. p. W"! . 






•ll'i* 



38 



lUlITISH NORTH AMERICA. 



,t I 



'■:} 



';■ I 



waters arc slioalor, and its hanks Iii<;lier, but rciiially wvW clad with the 
willow, spruce, biidi, and poplar. The soil on both sides of these rivers 
is alluvial, and sustains lar«;c (piantities of ])ine. poplar, and larch. 

Swampy Lake, upon the borders of which is Swampy Lake House. 
o|)ens into Knee Lake, whose shape is very irre<;ular, its shores low, but 
woody, and its surface variej^'ated by islands. It connnvmicates with 
Holey Lake by Trout river, a siiort but rapid strait, u})(>n which is 
a fall sixteen feet \\\>^h. Oxford House, formerly a tradin<f ])ost of 
conse((uence, stands near the mouth of the river, at the east end of the 
lake. From the Avest extremity of Holey Lake the ascent lies throuj^h 
river \Ve])ina])anis to Windy Lake; thence through a singidar chasm 
in the rock, called Hill (iates, into White Water Lake, to the division 
of waters. Tainted Stone PortajiC fifty yards long-, divides the source of 
the Kchiamamis from \N'hite Water Lake, the waters of which descend 
to the north-east, whilst those of Kdiiamamis How westerly, discharging 
themselves, however, through IJlackwatcr Creek into Nelson's river, and 
finally, therefore, into Hudson's JJay. 

This conmuuiication from \'ork Factory to Fainted Stone portage, 
ji direct distance of about two huiulred and twenty miles, is remarkable 
as the route ado])ted by the ])olar i'Xj)edition under Captain Franklin, 
H.N., to whose published narrative we an- indebted for these particulars 
relative to the country traversed by him. in the prosecution of his 
laborious, enterprising, and perilous discoveries in the arctic regions*. 

Nelson river flows out of Flay-(ireen Lake, — an arm of Lake Win- 
ne])eg. — and winds in a north-easterly direction, to its influx into Hudson's 
Hay, a short distance above the mouth of Hayes river. Its waters are 
confluent with Hurntwood river, which rises to the westward, and flows 
tlu'ongh several irregular lakes into Split Lake, a broad expansion of 
Nelson river, checkered \\\t\\ islands, antl lying about half-way between 









I 



,a ■ I 



* 'I'd tlic iiccduiit of liis " .Foiinu'v tn Ciiiiimtiiuiii' HIvit" frc(|in'iit ri-fi'vciu'c will ]tr()l)al)ly 
bo miidc in the t'lirtiuT (lescri|iti(i!i ut the iiortli-wt'.st tcrriturics ; iuid we iire auiiri' that tliir sanio 
sciuntilic /cal that proiiipti'd the iiiidiTtakiii;;, for tin ulvaiilagc of his country and of mankind, 
will fiir^ivi' the free use, and still inure m'nci-al dissoniinatiiin, of the valnalili.' fjcograpliicai 
knowledge it has already been the means of communicating to the world. 



I 



> n 



INDIAN' Tl'innXOIUl'S. 



39 






I 



its lic'iul and its cst\iarv. XiinK-roiis otluT ial<c>s and rivrrs (liscliaruc 
tlit'insclvc's into it, particiilai'ly ti) tlif soiitlnvanl of niinitwood lake and 
river, and form a iluiin of water coiununiication as far as C'ranborrv 
carryin<;'-])la<:'c, that passes over the lieight of huul between Hood and 
Cioose Lakes. 

Missinnip))i, Churchill, or lMiu,lish river, is of eonsiderahle magnitude 
and ini))orta!K'e. Its highest waters are Metiiye Lake, in a diri'et line 
west from the month of the river about five hundred miles, but pro- 
l)ably more than six hundred by water, following the innumerable 
nieanderings of the river, and the devious sinuosities of the chain of 
lakes intervening!; between the sections of the river. The lari-est of these 
lakes is Southern Indian or IJig Lake, which is upwards of sixty miles 
long by an average breadth of twenty-H\e. 

Metbye Lake is divided from Clear Water river, by a portage of 
twelve miles, carried over a range of hills, \arying in height from sixty 
to one thousand feet, and chiefly consisting of clay and sand ; tlK> soil 
at their base, on both sides of Methye, HuH'alo, and Clear Lakes, being a 
sandy alluvion. The country traversenl by the Churchill river, between 
Isle a la Crosse and I''rog portage (which is three hundred and eighty 
yards long, and forms the di\ision ol the waters of the Churchill from 
those of the Saskathawan) is generally fiat, and exhibits all the appear- 
ances of primitive formation. 

Trading posts are established at the Lakes Methye, HuH'.do. ami 
Isle a la Crosse ; and at the latter is also found a North-West fort. 
These posts are stated to be fropienteil by Crees and Chipewyans, who 
supply them but inade(piately ^\ilh |)eltries, owing to the actual |)aucity 
t)f furred animals in those ))arts. The discouraging results of the chase 
have turnt'd the attention of tiie Indians from the forests to the waters, 
which supi)ly them with several varii'ties of fish, the chief means of tlieir 
subsistence. 

Deer Lake is the largest as yet known within the limits of the 
Hudson's Hay territories. It lies between .">() lU)' and ;>H' north latituile. 
and in longitude lO'i west; its position being north and south; its 
U'ligth about ninety miles, and its width about live and twenty. A ser- 
pentine strait connects it towards the noith with Lake Wollaston, and 



r 



III 



hi' 



!l:ll' ' j 



40 



BIMTlSIl .NORTH AMKUICA. 



to the soutli it lias an outlet into ClmiTliill river, rauk-ii-tliaiikus- 
Kau' and Seal rivers are interior in size to the Churehill, but of no less 
eonse(|uenee as internal eoinniunieations. The sources of both rivers 
ap])roach the waters of the Churehill, and their beds are frequently lost 
in broad and beautifid lakes, that considerably facilitate their ascent. 

North of Seal river, between (JO and ();>' of north latitude, a suc- 
cession of lakes have been discovered, some of which are represented as 
ecjual in extent to Deer Tiake; l)ut, occupying- a section of country 
not so much frequented, even by the Indians, as that just described, 
very little is known of them beyond what may be derived from the 
observations of Ca))tain Ilearne, who traversed that region in 177'-^, on 
ills journey to the Polar Sea. The chief of these have been named 
Xorthline, Doobaunt, Yath Kyed, and \N'Iielde-ahad ; several other large 
lakes are also delineated on the maps, to which names have not yet been 
a]i))ro])riated. 

SECTION 11. 






fc-* 



f HI 



I* 



[•ir:i 



"lilii!' 



■Hi' 



11 






i: n : 






I ! I 
( ' '' 



The second section of the Indian territory comprises the country 
between 4{)" and ■>()' of north latitude, or the southern l)oundary of 
Tiritish America, in that part of the continent, on one side, and the high- 
lands constituting the boundarv of Hudson's Hav, accordin<>- to IJennct's 
and Mitchell's maps, on the other; the Stony Mountains on the west, 
and the height of land dividing the waters of Lake Superior from I^akc 
VVinnepeg, on the east. Lake ^^'inne|)eg, though considerably to the 
east of the centre, may still be considered the focus of this tract, and the 
most striking object within it, whether from its magnitude, or the fact 
of its being the reservoir of the waters of immerous large streams flowing 
into it, from most of the cardinal ])oints of the compass. Its ])osition is 
about X.X.AV. and S.S.K.: between latitude .50 ;J()' and .5.'J 'A)' north, 
and longitude 96° and 99" '2')' w^est ; its direct length being two hundred 
and forty miles, or about the same as Lake Michigan, and its breadth 
varying irregularly from five miles to fifty. Its shores to the northward 
present high clay cliffs, at the base of which a narrow sandy beach is 
disclosed, whe.n the waters of the lake are low and the wind blows off 



H 



INDIAN TERRITORIES. 



41 



the land. In Hiulson's liay Conijjany's i)»)st, in .),'{ 11' US" luirtli latitude 
and 9H' 1' 2i" west lon<i;itude, is situated on Norway Point, a ])roieetin<'' 
tonouc of land between liakes l*lay-(ireen and \\'inne])e<;'. Tliitlier did 
a party of XorwegiaJis repair, when driven from their settlement at the 
Red river, by the petty thou<;h sanguinary warfare, whieh in 181 1 and 
1815 distraeted those territories. 

T>ake A\'iime))e<;()os, or Little A\'inne])e<'', lies to the westward of the 
j^reat lake of that name, with 'vhieh it eommunieates through Lakes 
INIanitoo-boh and St. Martin's; the latter having for its outlet Dauphin 
river, flowing into Lake Winnejjeg, and tiie former being eonneeted 
with AN'innepegoos by \>^iterhcn river, neither of whieh exeeeds twenty 
miles. Cedar Lake is a few miles to the north-east of L;d<e AN'innepe- 
goos, and is very inferior to it in extent; it reeeives the waters of the 
Saskatehawan, whieh it disehargcs through Cross Lake into Lake 
Winne])eg. 

The Saskatehawan is the largest river traversing this ])art of the 
country ; and its many ramitieations, taking their sources in the Hocky 
JNlouiitains, blend their tributary waters to form two ])rincipal branches, 
one called the north and the other the south, which meandering in a 
general easterly direction, with a northern tendency, form a junction in 
longitude abcmt 105" 10' west, at the remote distance of four hundred 
and twenty miles below their highest source, in a straight line, and two 
hundred and ten miles above its mouth. I'jjon both branches are esta- 
blished seven.il trading posts ; those on the north branch, commencing 
from its head, being ^Vcton House, at the conHux of Clear river ; Nelson. 
at the foot of IJeaver Hills; Edmonton, at the mouth of Tea river: 
all of Avhich are frequented by the Hlood lndi;ms and the IJlackfort 
tribe, as are also IJuckingham, Manchester, and Carlton, and a north-west 
post stationed o])posite to the latter. On the south branch traders reside 
at two stations, the one is Chesterfield Ilcnise. near the discharge of Ked 
Deer river, and the other, South liranch House, nearly opposite to 
Carlt 



on. 



le 



From the shores of I^akc Winnepeg to I'ine Island Lake, on tl 
borders of which arc trading ])osts belonging to the respective companies, 
the banks of the Saskatehawan consist of fioet/ limestone ; they are low 



Ul , 



42 



BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 



tir.i' 



;;-■ i\ 



and marshy, and covered with reeds and willows, amidst Avhich very few 
large forest trees are to be seen. ^Vbove Cumberland House*, the station 
on Pine Island, up to Tobin's Falls, the banks of the river exhibit nn 
alluvial mud, and beyond it, laterally, are po])lar forests, swamps, and 
extensive plains. Above Tobin's raj)ids, the width of the river increases 
from .'i.jO to .500 yards, and its banks are clothed with pine, poplar, birch, 
and willows. Some distance below the forks, the shores become more 
elevated, but often barren in aspect, the north side presentinj^- a li<rht 
sandy soil, broken into insulated hillocks, and the south, broad and 
expansive butt'alo plains. Frog Portage connnunicates with Cundierland 
House by a series of lakes, and Cireat and llidge rivers, which traverse a 
generally flat country of primitive formation. 

Fifty or sixty miles to the southward of Pine Island are the Bas- 
quiau Hills, a short range of considerable elevation, the white faces of 
which are occasionally contrasted with tufts of dense stunted ])inery. 
They are distinctly visible from Cund)erland House, notwithstanding 
their remote distance ; and have, therefore, been estimated by Mr. Hord 
to be 4000 feet above the common level, and supposed to be the highest 
points between the Atlantic Ocean and the Rocky ISIountains. 

The Assiniboine and Ked rivers are next in magnitiule to the 
Saskatchawan and its branches. The former, sometimes called the Ked 
river, rises in the average latitude 52", longitude lO.'J"; and after flowing 
.southerly about 130 miles, winds to the east, and discharges itself into 
the Red river, thirty or forty miles above its mouth, in Lake AVinnepeg. 
The Red river itself has its source in Ottertail Lake, which is divided 
from the waters of the Mississip])i by the height of land. In its course 
northerly from its head to its embouchure, the Red river receives 
numerous tribu'.i/ies, the largest of which are the Assiniboine just 
mentioned, Reed, and Red Lake or Hloody rivers. The last issues out 
of Red Lake, by some considered the proper source of the Red river, 
which, above the confluence of Hloody river with it, goes also by the 
name of Ottertail. On the Assiniboine, and not verv remote from its 



a 



J 



* Latitude ')^^ .j(i W imrtli, l..nj.ntU(le 102" IG' 41" west; var. 17' 17 2!)' east, about 
the latitudes of llainbiirjjh and JJulilin. 



INDIAN TI'RRITOIUES. 



43 






sources, are four tradiufr houses, Malhoro, Carlton, Albany, and (Jraiits, 
that are within a few miles of each other; and at a eonsiderahle distance 
lower down are lirandon and I'ine Houses. I'pon the Red river are also 
several trading ])osts of importance, the theatres of many of the tra<;ic 
events ])reviously alluded to, as having given a painful in; rest to the 
history of the Indian territories. 

The Lake of the NN'oods is nearly c(piidistant from the west end of 
liake Superior and the south extremity of Lake \\'imiej)eg. From the 
eastward, it receives the waters of river La I'luie, whose source is in the 
height of land lietween I^akes Superior and \Vinne])eg, and whose stream 
descends through several minor lakes : to the north-westward, its outlet 
is Wiiujepeg river, which falls into the lake of that name, to the west of 
the Red river. 

The extensive tract of country sold by the Hudson's Hay Company 
to the Karl of Selkirk comjjrehends the whole course of the lied river, 
and is bounded as follows*: Commencing on the western shore of Lake 
W'innepeg, at a point in 52" 30' north latitude, the line runs due west to 
the liake >Vinnipegoos, or l^ittle \\'innepeg; then in a southerly direc- 
tion through the lake, so as to sirike its western shore in latitude 52"; 
tlien due west to the place where the ])arallel of 52" strikes the Assiniboine 
river; thence due south to the highlands dividing the waters of the 
Missouri and Mississippi, from those flv)wing into liake AVinnejJeg; 
thence easterly, by those highlands to the source of river La l*luie, down 
that river, through the Lake of the Woods and river ^Vinnepeg, to the 
place of beginning. This territory, to which the name of Ossiniboia 
was given, is understood to comprise a su))erficies of about 116,()()() scjuare 
miles, one half of Avhich has since fallen within the limits of the I'nited 
States, according to the boundaries determined upon by the convention 
of 1818, between the ^Vmerican government and Great IJritain. Its 
surface is generally level, presenting frecpient expansive grassy ])lains, 
that yield subsistence to innumerable herds of buttalo. The aggregate 
of the soil is light, and inadecjuate to the growth of trees, either large or 






* Proclamation of 3Ir. ^Milos INI'DoiiiU'll, published at Fort Dan (IVnibina), as governor, 
8th January, 1B14. 



c; 2 



I 



44 



nUITlSH NORTH AMKIUCA. 



ubuiKlaiit ; but tlio l)iniks of tlio rivers often cxliil)it more ])roniisiuo' 
allin ions, and have, Avlieii eiiltivated, j)r()duee(l ver;, eonipeteiit returns 



to the a<;rieulturist. 



SKCTION III. 



The next section of country coming' under consideration, is situated 
between .)()" and ().>' north hititude, and is bounded, north by the ran«;e 
of hills diviilino; the heads of Co|)))ernnne, from tliose of VeUow Knife 
river*; soutli, by iii<j,hhuuls ])assin|;- l)etwcen Klk and IJeaver rivers; 
east, by the west bounds of Hudson's Hay; and west, by the llocky 
Mountains. This extensive tract may be considered a valley, lKivin<>; its 
lowest region occupied by Slave L ike, in which are united the waters of 
numerous lar^e rivers, and their abundant tributaries, that descend to it 
from the verges of all ])arts of the valley, from whence they have but 
one outlet, by Mackenzie's river, which carries their waters to the 
Arctic seas. 

The lakes most worthy of note as yet known within these limits 
are Slave, Athabasca, or the Lake of the Hills, \\'ollaston, Chisadawd, 
Methye, Martin, and Winter; but there are an infinite number of minor 
lakes at the sources of rivers, or formed by the broad and frecpient ex- 
j)ansion of their beds, which the scope of a general description will not 
permit us to particularise. Slave Lake, by far the largest and most im- 
portant of them all, has considerably the su])eriority of either of the 
Lakes Krie and Ontario in \nm\t of magnitude; and its soundings, taken 
by Sir Alexander Mackenzie in the course of his traverse, have given 
7''), 42. and (JO fathoms. It lies almost cast and west, in latitude Ol" 25', 
and longitude 114": it is about 2'A) miles long', by an average breadth, of 
fifty. Its north shore is skirted by well wooded hills that slope to the 
margin of the lake, their sunnnits rising sometimes in naked rock above 
the forest. It al)ruptly recedes northward, and forms a very deep bay, 

* Between tlio sources of these rivers Captixin Franklin <lescril)es a Iwrren tract, about 
flirty or tifty feet wide, in tlie niidiiie of which is situated Fort Enterjirise. On liis chart of the 
discoveries he thus <h•^i^'Ilates it: " Primitive country, ntvk chietiy felsjiar witli some (piartz 
and mica." " Destitute of wood, excejit a few clumps of stunted pines, and dwarf birch bushes, 
but abounding \\ith various species of berries and mosses." 






•J 

a 



I 

i 



\bi 



INDIAN ti:hhitories. 



4.5 



% 






;i 



on the western side of which is situated Tort Pm\ idt-ncc, in latitiuK' 
()2" 17' 1!) north, and h)ngitude 114" <)' 2S" west, by ohsirvation *; the 
variation of the compass being" .'i.'i" .'35' .55" east. Fort Hcsohition is built 
on the hike's southern shore, near tlie mouth of Shivc river. A mul- 
titude of small gneiss and granitic islands, along its western sides, rise 
above the hike's surface, to an elevation of oiu' and two hr.ndred feet, 
the most eons])icuous of which are the Ked Deer Islands, and also Isle 
Cache and Hig Island. 

Of the numerous rivers that fall into Slave Lake, none Ikim' been 
properly ex))l()red, except those upon which trading posts have been 
established, en* through which the various discovery-expeditions have 
])assed, in their progress towards the pole. Of this class are Slave and 
Yellow Knife rivers, flowing from o])posite courses into the lake: and 
IMacken/ie's river, Howing out of it. The rnjigah or Peace river, the 
I'^lk or Athabasca, the lied Willow. Clear Water, and Stone rivers, are 
also tolerably well known ; they do not, however, directly discharge them- 
selves into Slave I^ake, but are continent with Slave ri\ cr, tliougli which 
they descend to swell the bosom of the great aquatic reservoir of the tract 
of territory under descri])tion. 

Lake Athabasca, or the I^ake of the Hills, is uext to Sla\e Lake in 
su])erHcies, and is situated about IHO miles south-west of it. It is an 
ehmgated body of water, nearly '2(H) miles iu length, and i'ourteen to 
fifteen miles general width. Stone river issuing out of Lake Wol- 
laston, — a circular lake, forty-five miles in diameter, bearing \V. S. W . 
of iVthabasca, — winds through several small lakes, between which it is 
sometimes called Porcupine river, and ultimately falls into the Lake of 
the Hills. The shores of Athabasca, to the northward, are high sycnitic 
rock, just sufKciently covered with soil to sustain shrubs and moss(vs, 
and several species of the fir and ])o))lar. Those to the southward 
opjiosite the forts are alluvial; but advancing eastwardly, they rise into 
barren sandy hills, ])erfectly divested of vegetable growth. As they ap- 
proach the mouth of Stone river they become again rocky, and seem to 
belong to an extensive tract of primitive formation, extending many 

* Captain Franklin, H. \. 



¥ ■ I ! 



I i 



i 






%n 



I' 



M 



21' 



jiii^f 



'!:r I 'I 






40 



lUllTlSH NOinil AMI' RICA. 



Jl 



miles to the north and east of the hike. Peace river rises far in the 
Iloi'ky Mountains, at the stated distanee oi'Jl? yards from the waters of 
Frascr's river, exliihitin^- t)ne of tiiosc singuhir, tlion^li familiar, features 
of nature by whieh the sources of lar<i;c rivers, flowing hundreds of miles 
in contrary courses, are found in such near ])roximity, on hei|;hts of 
considerable ilevation. The relative position, but not elevation, of the 
sources of the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi, is a still more striking 
instance of tiiis ))eculiar feature in terrestrial hydrography. 

The Athabasca has also its sources in the Kocky Mountains, but 
they aj)pear not to have been completely exjjlored. Its oxMieral course 
is nortlu'rly, tiiough sometimes due east ; ami, as it winds throuj^h an 
extensive country, receives the waters of Lesser Slave I^ake, by its 
outlet, Lesser Slave river, l*end)ina. Red Deer, Clear >\'ater, and Ued 
AViMow rivers. It falls into Lake of the Hills, some miles west of the 
old. and nearly opposite the actual, X. W. Fort Chipewyan, and II. H. 
Fort W'edderburne, situated on a point on the north shore of the lake, 
in latitude .W 42' 38' north, longitude 111 ' 18' 20" west *. Above the 
eontliience of Clear river, the ^Vthabasca is \o well known, \mder the 
name of Riviere ;i la Hiche. Its banks, below this point, are bold and 
elevated, and but indifl'erently adorned with trees ; at the establishment 
of l*ierre au Calumet, rather more than one-third the distance between 
Clear Water river and tlu' Lake of the Hills, they are precipitous and 
nearly two hundred feet in height. A well defined range of hills stretches 
parallel with the river, at some distance east of its eastern bank, lM)und- 
ing the h"'i/on in that <[uarter, whilst the view of that broad and 
beautiful river, seen from the eonnnanding position of the Calumet post, 
presents, in the oj)posite direction, very ])ictures(iue and ])leasing scenery, 
well worthy of being j)atroni/ed by the pencil of the artist. Stony river, 
the ])rineipal outlet of Athabasca Lake, flows between marshy banks, 
and, at the distance of twelve or fourteen miles, mingles its waters with 
Peace river. The combined streams of both form Slave river, which 
varies in wi 1th from three (puu'ters of a mile, to one mile and three 
quarters. About sixty miles below its head, its navigation is interrupted 

* Captain Franklin's Obsen'ations. 






I 



Whi ■m 



INDIAN TKURITOUIKS. 



47 



by a sorit's of raj)i(ls, occiisiouiii^" ii suctrssion of jjorta^fi's lu'twivn Doj^ 
riviT and tlif rapid of tlic Diowiid; after Aviiicli tlir river Iktoiihs 
uniutcrrui)ti'dly navigable l<> tbe lake. The banks of tbe river, beb)W 
the rapids, are ahnost unexeeptionably low and alluvial, and the eountry 
on either side, and espeeially to the westward, appears to abound with 
pine, poplar, and lareh, intiTspersed with the cypress and willow: the 
soil on that bank e\hil)itinir a rich black mould, and on the other a 
yellow day intermixed with j^ravel *. 

Yellow Knife river f, which Sir John Franklin ascended on his 
route to the source of the Coppermine, rises in latitude (il" i' .'iO", lon^i- 
tude ll.'j" my, and descends throu}j,h n> incious lakes, in a southerly 
course, to its influx into (Jreat Slave Lake, one hundred and Hfty-.six 
statute miles from its sources |. Its navigable reaches, or interstices, are 
little calculated for any dcscri])tion of conveyance larger than canoes, 
and the frecpiency of its rapids and cascades would render it of minor 
importance, as a means of facilitating connnercial intercourse. Its banks 
exhibit no extraordinary ap])earanccs, are moderately high in general, aiul 
thinly clad with the poplar tree, the larch, and the wil'ow. From the 
rocky nature of its bed, it appears to traverse a stony tract of country, 
which fre<|uently indicates the characters of primitive f(»rmation. Nu- 
merous herds of rein-deer fre([uent the region it waters, during nine 
months in the year, between August and May. 

sEcniox IV. 

Another section of t!ie liulian countries, iigreeably to the division 
adopteil, includes the wlu)le of that portion of the continent, eastwanl 
from Mackenzie's river inclusive, Iviny; between the ().5" of north lati- 



tudi 



nd the utmost limits to which the discoveries have extended 



towards the pole, or the 7>H" of latitude, llie extreme ])oint attained in 
this hemisphere by arctic explorers, in penetrating northward to the 
de])tli of Haffins Hay. Of these inhosj)itable regitius. the Siberia of the 

• Sir AK'xaiuler IMuckunzie's JouniiU. 

t CiiUfil by till- iiativL's lli'g-iio-lo-dossy, or River of the Toothless Fish. — Fraukliii. 

I Caj)t;iin Franklin. 



48 



UIIITISII NOKTll A.MKIIICA. 



fl' 



!! i'i 



r 



'h 

1 



1 I 






t 



u*''' 






i 






! 



HOW wdild, notliiiijf is known beyond wl'.nt may l»e collictid from tin- 
vovaj^c's liy Mil, and the jom'nrys oxer-land, of tlii' sovcral cxitlorcrs, 
uliosi' /cal in i>\trndin<>; the field of hnnian ohscrvation, and tlu> honnds 
of gco^rapliic.il knowli-dj^t'. first led tlirm to ixiiitratc far within the 
vorti'X of the fro/i'n /onr. Limiti-d, however, as are tlu- means of in- 
formation, relative to the preeise ni'<)^ria|)|iy of tliosi- parts, siillieient 
li|;ht has nevertheless l)een thrown npon it hy the voya^i's ot Davis, 
Uallin, .Fames, and others, and, snl)se<piently, by Maekenzie, llearne. 
Parry, Hoss, an<l I-'ranklin, to enable ns to form a very eompeti'nt idea 
of the eharaeter of the polar re<i;ioiis, anil to establisli the eertainty of the 
existenee of a north-west jjassaj^e. 

The impression, hitherto so nniversally pri'vali-nt, that the vnutincnt. 
of Ameriea exti-ndid nmeh farther north than th(»se of Mnrope or Asia, 
nuist now be completely removed ; and the eonseipienees inferred there- 
from, as alleetin^' the temperature and other meteorological i)hent)niena of 
the Ameriean climate, stand likewise unsn])ported; whilst to other causes 
must be ascribed the fri<;idity of its atmosphere, compared with similar 
latitudes on the old continent. Indeed the discoveries of Franklin have 
}j;one far to provi-. not only that contini-ntal iVmerica did not approai'h 
the arctic pole nearer than the Kuro|)ean or Asiatic continents, but, on 
the contrary, that the latter extended by several degrees fmfher north. 
The ])oints, on the shores of the arctic sea, attained by Mackenzie and 
Hearnc*, and afterwards by Franklin, are in the same <;eneral latitude, 

* Tlu' Htiitod p'lifrrniiliical iiositiim of tin' moiitli> <pf' .Miicki'ii/ic iiiul {'(iji|HTiuiiie IliviT.s 
ii])|K<:irs to Imvi'boi'ii luTftiiforci'rniiU'nus, tlic fumicr Iii-iiijr in longitude 1211" west, lis corrcctrd by 
iMr M'cntzcl of'tlic Xoitli West ('oni]);in\, in>tr;idot' IIll" '.W , as jjivcn liv Maukcn/ic, M'itlioiit 
any material ditliTcnci', liovM'vcr, in the latitudi-. 'I'lio latter was Ciuind liy Fianidin to lie In 
latitudf (»7" 47' a'*' , lonfiiliide 1 l.V '.M\' 4!l' ; whilst the jioint rl wiiicli.tlic sen was discovered 
\)\ Ileiirne in 1 771 . is plaecd in the outline of tiie connected discoveries of Captains I'arry, Hoss, 
and Franklin, acconiiian\ inj; the .lournal of tlie Kxiieditiiin to C"o|ij)eriuiii'' HiviT, in latitude 
71 .")(>, lonjjitude ]2l>'; althouj;li upon iVrrowsniith's .Map of Norili i\nieriea, pidilished lonj; 
anteriorly to Sir .John Franklin's journey, it is rejjre.scntod as lieinj; iiu liij;her than latitude (i!)", 
and in lon{j;itude 1 1"2", and therefore not quite so grossly erroneous as a|)pears 011 tlu? face of the 
Connected map. The present superiority of astronomical instruments, and the perfection of 
chronometers, added to the ability of the oliserver, leave 110 doubt as to the precision of, and 
preference to be given to, the mure recent observations. 



iNDi \\ iriMtnoiiiKS. 



49 



! 



and iinioin^tiituc hrvoiul tlu* sixtv-nintli (U'<;i»t' ; iitid we Iimm- alniiuliint 
reason to )iri'siinu-, from tin* vcriticatiun ot' these tai ts. imuI In mm the hearing 
and ^'eueral eonrse ot' that portion of the coast e\|dored Ity ihr latter din. 
eoverer, that the main shores ot' America, washed hy the I'ro/en Ocean, 
do not stri'tch far to the north of the 70' of hititn(h'. Northward from 
this paraUel, the polar regions seem to lonsist of mimerons lar^e islands, 
or extensive |)eninsnlas, dividing- the polar si'as into a profnsion of chan- 
nels, straits, inlets, and sonnds, forming- almost a lahyrinth, the ma/.is of 
which liaM' been as yet too partially i-xplorctl to enahle ns to form any 
thing like a eorri'ct estimate of what proportion of tlii-se hy pirhorean 
realms is land, and what, w ater, and w hetlier many of the supposed islands 
are ri'ally insular, or eoimi'cted with the continent, oi' (to M-nture upon 
one speculative assertion) form part of a polar coiitineut. of which (ireen- 
land may he a projection to the so\itli. 

l)a\is Strait, at the bottom of which is IJaHin's Hay, has its entrance 
between t'ape (i(tdthaab. or (lood Hope, in lon«;itU(le .')!" 10' wist. aiul 
C'api- of (iod's Meri'y. in lonj;itude (>;{'','()' \vest. and dixides (iicenland 
from a vast tract of insulated country, tlu' outlines of which are not pro- 
perly known. 'I'his tract, taken as a w holi' (for it may hereafter be 
found to be made up of M'Viral distinct islands), lies bet wi-en latitude (i.V' 
and 7.'J' t.")' north, its coast trendin«;- north-westward. To the north it 
forms the soutlu-rn shore of Harrow's Strait ; and to the west, as far as 
it is known, the easti'rn shore of I'rince Hejent's Inli't. Harrow's Strait 
is about Hfty .uiles w idi-. and opens, to the I'astward. into Hallin's Hay. 
I'pon its north eoast.s are Sir .Fames Lancaster's Sound. I'rokcr's Hay. 
Capes: Hosamond and Ilurd. Opposite ("a|)e Iliu'd are Capes C'lareuci' 
and \'ork. forminy' the mouth of Princi' Hei^'eufs Inlet, whiih is about 
forty miles broad, and opens to the southward. I'urther west ari' the 
(ieor«;ian Islands, to which tlu- several names of Melville, Hathurst, 
t'ornwallis, and Sabine haxcbeen <;i\c'n. They ari' in latitude 7'»'. nearly 
on the same paralk'l with the north coast of Harrow's Strait, and exti-nd 
westward to the 1 If" of lon«;itude. The Strait of the l-'ury and Hecla is 
about thirty miles widi- and one hnn Ired and twenty loiij;'. and is si- 
tnated in latitude ()<)" .'U)'. lu'tween C'ockburn Island on the north, and 
Melville'.s I'eninsula on the south. Tlu- pi-ninsula, about two himdred 



Mil 



!!!■ 



ift, " 1'"'' 

'til 

■M 
m 



\ i 



■ 4 



,■)() 



lUnnsil NOHTFf AMKIUCA. 



anil twenty miles in lc'iiLi,tli. by ;iii cxtivnic brcailtli ol' one hundred and 
litty. is I'oiniccted uitli tlu' main by a narrow isthmus, t'ormrd by an arm 
of tin- l-'ro/i-n Oci-an on tlu- north, and the mouth of \\'a«;or river and 
lleprlse l>ay on tlie south and south-east. Thi' northern eoast of this 
istluuns is supposed to eoiitinue westward to the ley Cape, and thus ft)rni 
till' mwin shore of tiie polar sea. 

'I'liat part of the eoast explored by the enterprisin*;' l-'raid'clin ex- 
tends from Cape Ilearni' to I'oint 'rurna<;ain,a direet distanee of about one 
hundred and fortv mill's, bat eonsiderablv more in following; its sinuosities 
and deep indentations*. Hetween Point Turnai^ain and Cape Harrow 
the eoast abruptly reeedes southward, formint>; (ieor<>e the l\'. Coronation 
(iulf and IJathursts Inlet, whiih, taken toji,ether, exeeed one hundred miles 
in len<;th. terminating in a point where they rei ive the waters of IJaeU's 
ri\er. 'I'he whole extent of the eoasts is frinj4;ed with islands, to wliieh 
liie appel' ition of tlii. Duke of \'orks i\rehi})elao() has been j^iven ; and 
another series, ealleil H'ilmots Islands, is a eonlinuation of these, verging 
south-eastward, ami oieupving the middle of the gulf. Melville's Sound 
is a broad arm i>t' the gulf, stretehing north-eastward in latit'ule (iS" W, 
forming, between it and I^ant Tarnagain, a ])eninsulated traet of level 
eountry. oarts of whiiii are low and alluvial, and exhibit a elay soil. 
The shores ol' the gulf and IJathurst's Iidet, as also of the sea, are ge- 
nerally elevated, and sometimes roeky and ])reeipitous. From the sea 
they rise in sueeessive ranges of trap hills, moderately elevated, and 
nearly parallel i\ ith the eoast f. IJroad strands of sand and gravel are 
freipiently to be seen at the bottom of bays ami at the base of elills, e.s- 
sentially faeilitating the aeeess to the shores. Isxpanding laterally from 
the beaeli. extensive plains are, in some plaees, to be seen, whose short- 
li\ed verdure forms an inspiriting contrast with the bleak and ])erenniul 
icebergs of the frigid /one. 

Of the interior of the eountry, retiring from the eoasts, two degrees 
south of the aretie eirele. a tolerably eorreet eoneeption may be Ibrmed 



* T.'ic (list-.iiR't' ii:ui;.Mtt'(l (III till' ])(il;ir N(';i liy tin' arctic cxiicditiciii under Sir .Idliu Friuik- 
liii, ill tlii'ir tViiil l)irclili;irk vcsm'Is. exceeded <!.")(• jjedirraiiliical miles. 
I l'"raiilvliii'> Jdiiriiey to t'lHijieriiiiiie river. 



INDIAN Ti:i{KIT()|{|i:s. 



51 



from the familiar or sciciitiHc dt'scriptioiis wv possess of virions sections 
of" it that have been traversed by Kuropear e\|)h>rers. 'I'lic eoimtry 
tlirougli wliieh flows Maekeii/ie's majestie river, the IjoihUms of the 
Coppermine, and the re<>ion obli(pieI\ traversed by I''raid<lin. from 
Hood's river to Fort Knterprise*, are (k'seribed in a manner to afford 
very satisfactory (hita from whence to jnd^e of the j^eneral characteristics 
of the conntry. It ap])ears to be ])rofnsely watered by hikes and rivers 
with, tlieir numerous tril)utaries, judgiui;' from tiie fV"(piency of tlie 
streams intersected by the arctic party in their dia_i;()nal joiwney across it: 
and it is a remarkabU' |)roof of this fact, that in no oiu' instance, on so \ouir 
a march, has (if recoUeetion serve) a defici(MU'y of water bi-en once stati'd 
to have occurred. IJesides tlie rivers Coppermine and Macken/ii', ti\e 
only two exph)red from tlieir sources to their mouths, the largest rivers 
known are the Ana-tessy, or Cree, su])posed to fall into Hathurst's 
Inlet, Cracroft, and \Vri<>ht's; Hood's, Hack's, and IJurnside, which have 
their estuaries in IJathurst's Inlet; and W'entzel's, Tree, and Wichardson's. 
which fall into the o])en sea. 

Mackei'./ie's river issues out of Slave Lake in latitude ()1" 4.') north, 
and winds, on a i!;eneral course, rather north of due north-wi'st, to tlie 
polar sea. It is <«radua]ly formed, at its lii'ad, by the fumiel-shajied 
contraction of the lake's shores, and flows betwei'ii banks of moderate 
elevation in general, but in some sections hit!,h, rocky, and precipitous; 
in others, chiefly towards the sea, comparativi-ly low, and thinly clad with 
dwarf willow, ))ine, and birch. The stream is nearly half a mile wide in the 
aooreaate, but niucli broader at its source and its estuary. Its soundings 
have been taken it three, nine, and fiftv fathoms I. and its current. 



* In rcfcrrinji to this |i;irt of .Sir .loliii Fnuikiiii's .l.niriics , it is f(|ii;iily iiiipos>iiilr to 
forlu'iir rci'iiliiiifi to iniiiil tlie iiii]i;iruik'l('(l liiinlsliii)-^, ami tniiv atlV'ili j; i'ii'(.uiii>laiK'(s iiy vvliitli 
it was iiiMri<t'(l, or to liiiiv mvsi'lt' this oj)])ortimil v of cNiiri'ssiiii:- iii\ siiucrisl adiiiiraticui of the 
fortituch", iHTsi'vcraiicc, and hcroJMii tliat so ciiiinriitlv (listiiisiuisiit'd as well thi- iiiaiitiaiiinious 
li'udi'r of so hohl and hazarihius an cNjicdition, as his atilt" as^istanls, Dr. Hithanlsoii, ami .Messrs. 
Back and Hood. On tlio iintowavd and melancholy fate of the latter we nmsl drop the tear 
(if unfeigned .sori-iw, from the general esteem in xviiich lie appears to have heen held liv those 
best able to appreciate liis merits ; and to the tried tidelitv and eonraiic of the faithful Heplmrn 
we can bnt pay the trihnte of onr admiration and ajipl ause. 

t ^lackenzie's Voyages. 



n 



II 2 



^1' 



l.i'tl 



Ijf 



I ' 



i> f: 



m\^ 






ill' 


^'^^ 


l-l 



.Ji.l 



■i:i,r 









151{1TISII NORTH A.Mi:iUCA. 



tlioii^li sonu'tiincs stron};". and |H'rfV(*tly nipid at two ])()iiits, cannot he 



but til 



consKlci't'd as ollcrnij;' iiisMpi-rahk' ol)stai'k's to navigation ; but the 
shallows and saiid-hars at liotli its rxtrcmitics would, in all jJrolMhility, 
prc'si'iit more sirioiis iiiii)c'diiiu'iits. Tlic' ciiiot' rivers falling into it are the 
(ireat lU'ar :!iul the Uiviere au\ Liards, apparently Maekeiizie's river of 
tlu Mountains. 

The hiii,hesl waters ol' the C'opperniiiii' that have hecn traeed arc 
those of Lake Providi'iice. eonniiunicatin<i', through a section of the 
river, willi Point I ,aki'. which is of an i'lon<;ated shape, about sixty niik's 
loiiii'. \aiyiii_u,- ill width froiii halt' a mile to thrci' miles, and bounded to 
the north and south by hills, ridges, and t're(|Ueir cliU's of seven or ei«;lit 
hundri'd feel ele\ation. 'IMie \vaters of I'oiiit Lake, passiny' to the west- 
ward tliioiiu,h Ked Hock Lake, are discliaru;ed by the Coppermine, 
wliicli flows ill a eoiirsi' almost parallel with Mackenzie's river. Its 
breadth variis from one to thret- hundred yards: its waters are deep, and 
itseiirreiit (.'xtremcly rapid. The ])aiiks are. at intervals. com])osed of al- 
liniid s.iiids and riiu'_u,c'd steeps, seldom iiTie\ed by the reviving' verdure 
ot' tile forest : yet in many places the scenery it i)re.sents is l)y no means 
iiniiilerestiii!.^, and may sometimes, perha])s. aspire to the beautiful or 
the sublime. Lnder the sixty-sixth parallel of latitu'", ran^-es of barren 
hills, with rounded summits, are seen on both sides of the river, 
running- paralK'l with them, at four or li\c' miles' distance, and risiii<j; to 
the heiiiht ()f six orse\en hundred feet. Lower dox^n.the str(>ain opens 
its channel through a still liolder rciiioii, traversed by mountain ranj^'cs, 
biiidiiii;- to the south-west, apparently eonsistiiiju; of clay-slate with jieaks 
of syenite risiiii^' to an e!i'\ation of from twelvi- to fifteen huiuh'cd feet *. 
l};twern this point and the mouth of the lixcr. the frccpicncy and 
violeifc of tlu- rapids increasi'. the banks liecome ofti>n precipitous, and 
walled by perpendicular clid's of r«)ck, betwixt which the shackled waters 
rush with infuriated impetuosity. 

The Copper Mountains, which take their name from the mine found 
withiii the 111. are situated on the north-west bank of a threat bend of the 
river, in latitude (i? 10 •'>('" north, loiii-itude IKi" 2.'i' l.>" west. Of the 



K 



* Franklin. 



V ■ 1 



INDIAN Tl-UHI'IC^UII.S. 



)j 






jliHic'iiltic's ()|)])()s(>(l to till' cvt'iitiial adviinta^cs to wliiih tlic niitairu- 
niinc minlit l)c ri'iKU'ivd Mibsi-rviciit. Sir .lolm I-'rankliii speaks in tlu- 
followiiii;- tonus : "'riic iMipracticahility of iiavinatiiiu' tlic river iijiwards 
from tlic sea. and tlio wa)it of wood for forniin«;' an I'stahlislmu-iit, would 
])ro\i' insupcraMc ohjot'ti )ns to rendcrinj;" the collection of copper at this 
part worthy of mercantile specidation *." l)escrihin<r the view of the 
eountrv. sin veved from sevi-ral elevated ])i)sitions, attained in the pro- 
gress of their collateral cNcursion to the mountains, he remarks, *• that 
two (»r threi' small lakes only were visihle, still ])artly frozen; and nuicli 
snow remained on tlu' mountains I . The trees wi re reduced to a scanty 
fringe on th(> borders of the ri\er. and every side was hesi-t hy naked 
mountains." Hi-yond latitude (i?" '50 no trees whatexcr were to ')e 
seen !. 

i\s far as n-eni-ral terms may he applii'd to so lar^'c an extent of ter- 
ritory, it may he said, that its sin'face eshihits far more of the plain than 
of the mountain, that its hills never rise to xcry c(»nsiderahle iieights. 
and that sterililyis the predominant characteristic of its soil. 'IMie rivers 
that flow throui;h il are. for tlu' most part, rapid, and tlii' lak'.'s fre<iuent 
and fantastic in tlu-ir shapes. ( )(' the limited variety of the trees, the 
pine, the poplar, the willow, and tlu- larch are the most connnon. liichens 
and mosses ahundantly clothe the faces of soni" hills, or covi'r the surface 
i)f deep swamps: and the ])lains, consistiuL!,' in some parts of clav Hats or 
bottoms, and marshy meadows, and so t'reiMiently stony and utterly 
')arren. are sometimes thiidy coxcred v. ith an arid ^rass. which vields a 
sliMidei- sustenance to the nmsk o\ and the rein-deer: the iiills. cr.igs. and 
elill's bein;;' the haunts of the black and nliitt '^ ar. -ind ot' the prexinn' 
wolf. 

Such is till' home of the barbarian l'i>i.piim;m. whose eountrv raufi'es 



from the base of the Hockv .Mountain^ 



perhaps I'loui the \i'rv shores 



oi 



the I'acific. to the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean, inhaljitinu', in his de 



raiiMiii, \. 



i''riiiii til 



VM- ^I'lllTU 



Kil. 

rall/.cil (Ic 



^■fijiti 



pfAI;ul 



l(.'Ki'll/ll' ^ 



niircc't iili'ii of tlu'ir cliicf I'iMl 



liri'-" lil;IV 



loniU'( 



It till 



! July lull. Ui-'l. 
ami ('ii|ijii'iii iiic i-i\iTs, ;i sutliciciitly 
iilcr (icNinms nt' a iiKirt' iiiiiiutr 



account (if liDtli will of course consult the interesting; jounials of tlie discoverer^, wliidi contain 
much valiiahlc information 



i fiii' 



54 



r.RiTisii Noirrii ami.uica. 



■ 

I: I' 



fft* 



i ■ 



S' 



il 



I i 






% 



il'i* 



sultorv and wandering- mode of sava<ie existence, tlic bleakest Iiyper- 
borean rej^ions of the <;lobi'. Tlie eopper [ndi.ins fretjiient tlie eonntry 
to the sontiiward of the Ks(iuiniaux lands east and west of Yellow 
Knife river. 

SKCTIOX V. 

The fifth and last section of country reinainini>- to be described is 
the whole tract of IJritish territory lyiiij;- on the westerti side of the 
lloeky Mountains. It oceu))ii's an extent of coast on the l*aciHc Ocean 
exceedinj;- twelve hundred miles, situated between Ca])e lilanco or Oxford 
on the south-east, and Mount St. Klias on the north-west. The dilfiTent 
sections of the coast, conmiencin_i«- from Mount St. Klias. are called New 
Norfolk, New Cornwall, New Hanover. New Caledonia, and \ew (Geor- 
gia, Avhich com])rise the <;reatest ])artofthe north-west shores of America 
discovered, explored, or surveyed by Cook, ^'ancouver, and Mackenzie. 

The coasts are remarkably broken and indented by deep arms of the 
ocean, leaving extensive insulated tracts,- which form mnncrous gulfs, 
straits, inlets, and soinids. The islands most worthy of note, from their 
magnitude, are Quadra and \'ancouver's, forming with the main the (iulf 
of (ieorgia, and the Strait of .Tuan de Fuca. i'rincess Royal Islands, (^ueen 
Charlotte, the Prince of Wales's i\rchipelagoand (ieorge III .Archipelago, 
Admiralty and llevellagegida Islands, 'i'iie Oregan. or Cohnnbia, and 
Fraser's river, with their various branches, someof which form considerable 
streams of themselves, arethe tworiversto which explorations have hither- 
to been chicHy confined. The Cohnnbia takes its source in. the Rocky 
Mountains in latitude .j.'i'iiO north, and, Mowing out of a lake that bears 
the name of the fruit (the cranberry) found abundantly in its vicinity, de- 
scends to the Pacific Ocean, first directing its general course to the south- 
ward, and afterwards to the westward, to its mouth, in latitude 4() 19 
nortli, longitude V2-1' 10' west. The tides regularly rise and fall at its 
estuary nine perpendicular feet; and their influence is sensibly felt at the 
distance of nearly one hundred miles from the sea. Between the ocean 
and that which should ])roperly be considered the entrance of the river, 
a surface of sea intervenes, fron) three to seven miles wide, the navigation 
of wliich is rendered intricate by shoals of sand extending nearly from 



h, 



4 



INDIAN TKUUITOIUKS. 



.).5 



side to side. 'J'liis space ()U<j;lit rather to he deemed a sound reeeiviujr 
the waters of tlie river than a part of tlie river itself, the mouth of which 
is half a mile wide, well defined, and formed hy the eontraetit)n of the 
sliores of the sound. Cape Disappointment on the north and Cape 
AdiMus on the south form the o])enin<f of the s()und, across whieii a hank 
or har extends, with ahout lour fatlu)ms" water above it, renderintf tile 
ini;ress dillieult to ships ol' eonsiderahle 1)urthen. Hetweeii the two 
marshy points at the entrance of the ri\er seven fatht)ms ol water have 
been foimd : and for a distance of eighty miles higher u]) the soundinj^s 
hav(> varied I'rom 10, to l!2, S, .'), and (i, hut in no instance less th;ui tin-ei- 
fathoms, in the channels*. Two leaj^ues uho\e its mouth the hanks ot 
the river, at (irst low and oozy, become rocky ami bold: the hi^li banks 
afterwards recede from the inar<;in. ami are seen on the north shore to 
rise in "ladual acclivities. iVlxne Point Sheriif thev are rockv to the 
south, and Hat, low, and sandy to the north. From thence to J'oint \'an- 
eouver, where Lieutenant l}roui;hton"s survey terminated, they alternate 
from hi;^h to low. and sonu'times are lined by ])i'bhlv beaches. The 
banks oi' the river, from its estuary upwards, are j^eiierally well wooded ; 
the hijiher <>'ounds cxhibitinj;' a growth of lofty pine, aiul the lower the 
ash. poplar, Jder. ma])le. the willow, and a \ariity of other trees. Its 
.scenerv, diversified bv (ireen Island and hills, is described as affordini: 
many pleasin<;" and romantic views, in which figure an occasional nati\i' 
villajj;e, ])erched on somi' proud cminenii or placi-d at the base of a hold 
ridge, its ephemeral and savage structure and ;i,rotis(|ue inhabitants im- 
])artin_ii; much of the picturescpu' to the landscape. 

Forts + (Jeorge or Clatsop. \'a'icou\er. Ne/percesa. and Okanauan. 
are situate at considerable intervals u])ou the rixcr. commenciny; from 
I'oint .'Jams. 'I'he climate at the mouth ol' the Cohm l»ia i- mild and 
congenial, the merciu'y having beeii seldom known during three sui'- 
cessive years :i^ to have sunk below 0, whilst the highest sununer tern- 



f 



* VimCtMlViTS \'ipv;1!j:i'S, V(i1. ii. ]). 07, I'l .M'7. 

t This is tlio II lino ^ivi'ii tii .aiy laiii'iicaii I'stablislmii'iit, Iioiim'. or tnidiiij;-iiciNt in tlic 
Iiulian fi.nntrit's. 

^ Fi-aiii'lu'rc's \'ii\a^('s. To llio iiitcUip'iil and judii-ions remarks of this ^jontlcniaii. a 
Canadian, art; we indebted for nuich useful iiifurniatiun rehitive to that seetioii ot JJritish territnrv. 



»"ll'l 



Mi 



iUUTlSlI \()l!in AMIJMCA. 






'I' , 



f 



■'m. 



|K'iatiiiT(li(lii()t rxt'C'cd 7(> . \N rsti-rly winds, (luit arc the most provaltMit 
in si)rinj4- and sunmiLT, ncniTally rise with tlic tide, and tcnipiT tin- lioat 
of the atni()S|)lK'ir. In the hitler pint of suinnier and tlu- l)c'<fiiniinj;' of 
autumn north-west winds ahiiosl constantly ])revail ; and throu^iiout the 
niontlis of Oi'tohcr. November, and l)eceiid)er. whicli embrace the rainy 
season, the winds bh)w chiefly from the south-wi-st. 

'• The surface of the soil in the \alleys is a coat of black vei;i'table 
earth, not more than five or six inches thick. IJenealh this is a kind of 
^ray earth, extremely cold. I'ndi'r this subsoil is coarse sand or <j,ravel, 
and beneath this stones. On the liiu,li lands the soil is \t'rv thin and 
stony. On the seaslu)re, to tin- south of Point Adams, is found a kind 
of white earth resembliiiir ])ipe-clay : and specinuns of red, j^reen. and 
yellow earth, with a shiiiino- mineral substance resemblini!,' h'ad ore, were 
found further south by the natives ; but no limestone is to be found in 
that part of tlu' ci)a . >'• country." 

The cedai, spiiic , white pine, and hendock are the most abundant 
species of tree- ut rlu ■ outh of the rixcr. TIk' cedars not unfre((uently 
measure f'oin* aiid livt fathoms in circinnfirence. and the hemlocks from 
twelve to twenty i'i. '.<- m diameter*. 

1'he ])rincipal branches of the C'ohuubia an- the rivers .MultsxMnah. 
Sai)in or Lewis, (^kanajiaii. S]»i>kan. IMatlu'ad or t'lark. aiul M*(rdli- 
vray. lA>wis and (larks rivers spriad into numerous ramifications, that 
desceiul chiefly from the Kocky .Mountains, through beds sonutinu's 
brok(>n by falls, or rendered intricate by rocks and rapids. I*'raser's 
river has tiuve princi])al sourci's; I-'raser and Stuart Lakes, and a branch 
shootino- eastward to the Kocky Mountains I. It Hows southerly, and 
falls into the (^ulf of (ieory'ia. r.-ceiving in its course the waters of several 
tributaries, the hu'gcst A' uhich is Thompson's ri\er. 'I'radinj;' forts are 
established upon the lakes ; t th ■ head of l*'raser"s river, and one is sta- 



'H. 



• Captain Francln'rc. 

i It iinist liavf lii'i'ii down this stream, and nut tlio ( i- Midtia, tliat ]\Iai'k('i:.:if ])assi'd mi 
his routt! to till' I'acitic ; and tlic statt'incnts of tho Indiii; Hiat \vl itc |m'o]i1. , .ti' iiiakiiijf 
I'staldishnients at its nmiitli, wliiidi h'd him to hclii'vc tliat I ■ uas npoii thi' Cohimliia, may Itf 
('X]iiain('d by the eii-cnmstanee, that I'.nropean settK'ments were tlien in |innirevs at Xootka. to 
which it is more than pruhalde the infoni: iiion coninmnieated i)y the natives aUnded. 



IM 



INDIAN TI'.HIMTOini'S. 



57 



tioiu'd u])<)n 'riiDinpson's river. Flatlii'iid lIousi« is alxmt two liinidri'd 
iiiilcs from tlir luoutli of Clark's river; and Kotanic I-'ort is situated in 
the Hoeky Mountains, on a eollati-ral hraneli «)f the C'ohnnhia. 

Sahnoii river is not reniarkahle for its magnitude, hut a variety of 
adventiti«»us eircunistanees eonenr to render it worthy «)f partieular 
notiee. Its k'n«;tii is not more tiian forty-five or fifty miles, and its 
general hreadth ahout fifty yards; it nuanders in a deep ravine, and is 
navigahli' for eanoes of the largest si/e. It ahounds with salmon, whieh 
the natives take in the greatest profusion, hy nii-ans of an ingenious 
''weir," dam, or snare set in the river; and it is from these fisheries 
that they almost exelusively derive suhsistenee throughout the year. 
The natives are efleetually domieiled upon the hanks of the river, and 
eongregate in small villages, of which a lively deseri|)tion is given h\ 
iMaeken/ie. The.se little eonuuunities are three in numher, and have 
been distinguished by names ir.dieative of the cordiality or hostility that 
marked the re('e])ti«)n of the explorer. Friendly N'illage is the highest 
on the river; the Village of Haseals is at its mouth, near .Maekeii/ies 
Outlet ; and the (ireat N'illage, containing in 179'-^ upwards of 1200 souls, 
is situated on the north side, ahout mid-way between the other two. 
Their habitations bore evident signs of their intercourse with Kmopeans 
when Mackenzie visited that coast ; and they not unfre(|uently answered 
in good FnglisJi, " Ne, no," to such of his proposals as they wt're disposed 



to negative 



'IMie courses {\{' tlu- rivers discliarging themselves into the sea have, 
in most cases, a southern direction. Their streams are swift antl often 
I'apid ; fiut they a])|'.ear in general to be dee)) and naxigable for consider- 
able distances; su1)ject, howe^ er, to occasional portages, rendered neces- 
sary by impvacticable cascadi's. The lakes of which any knowledge is 
possessed are few in muid)er, and of very inferior dimensions when com- 
pared with the ex])ansive sheets of water found to the east of the Hocky 
Mountains; but several lakes of great magnitude are reported by Indians 
to exist in the interior, the locality and pro|)ortions of which are eciually 
unknown. 

The information extant with resj)ect to the surface and soil of the 
country is (juite as sujjerficial and imperfect ; yet we are not wholly 



jVfi^ if: ~- 



\4 




h 



!■: 



■•0 1. 



4'. f'l 



jH 



HIUTISII NOinil AMi:i{IC.\. 



without the iiKMiis of t'()rmin<; sonif opinion upon the suhjci't, from the 
()l)serviition.s and surveys of Xaneouver, Mackenzie, CMark, Lewis. I'ran- 
cheii'. \e. It appears tliat between tiie Koeky Mountains and the sea a 
sulxu'dinate hut hi^h ran^e of liills, ruiniin*^; nearly parallel to the eon- 
tinuation of the eiiain of the lofty Andes, skirts tlii' eoasts from Ad- 
miralty Hay to the Ijottoni of the Ciulf of (ieor«;ia. and, extending;' alonj; 
l'u<;et's Sound, stretehes S. S. K. across the C'olundiia, and loses itself 
anion^' the mountains of Mexico. Its altitude is conspicuous at many 
|)oints, and in some instances attains nearly the inferior limits of per- 
petual snow, between the oUnd and 5.'Jrd def^ree of latitude *. It is in this 
rano-e that the peaks observed by X'ancouver are to be found, which he 
respectively named Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helen's, and Mount Hood. 

Thi' valley formed by this ridjie and the Uocky Mountains does not 
aj)])ear to corres])ond altoj^cther with the extensive barren plain at the 
base of the Uocky Mountains to the eastward. .Iudj^in<4' from the ac- 
counts of the tracts that have been exj)lored. this valley may be said to 
enjoy the advanta<;e of a com))eteiit decree of fertility: it imdulates into 
bold swells, in the midst, however, of occasiot)al ])lains. seldom wholly 
divested of verdure and copses, and. <;enerally speakini;', yields an 
abu dant growth of forest trees, the dimensions of which, and especially 
of the cedar, the fir, aiid hendock, increase to a ])rodi«;ious magnitude 
in ap])roaching the iMast. 

The massive range of granitic mountains that constitutes the eastern 
face of tile valley. occu{)ies of itself a vast surface, varying in breadth 
from fifty to nearly one hundred miles. It ri>es into towering cones, 
high rounded summits, and sometimes continued, sometimes broken 
ridges, in the intervals of which or at theba.se of pinnacles are freijuently 
found broad valk\ s and flats of argillaceous dejjosits, possessing a high 
degree of fertility. A great luunber of its |)eaks are exalted far into 
the regions of perpetual snow, and are beheld at the distance of more 
than one hmulred miles in a|)proaching them at some jjoints from the 
eastward t. The highest sununits that have been ascertained by trigo- 

.Aluckflizic's 'r;;i\i'ls. 

t Jiunc'N'ii Actiiuiii i)f an l^xpedititui to lliu Rocky Mountains, vol. .'ii. p. 23)1. 



in 



INDIAN TKKIMTO Wills. 



.')<) 



iioiiR'triciil adiiU'Msurcnu'iit arc /'omid to In alxtnt H. .'»()() (Vh ( al)()\c llic 
U'att'r-tal)l(Mif tlic cmintry, cxliMuiin^' aloti;;' tlic castcni liax- of tlu' Hitckv 
Mountains*, wliicli is phu'cd about 'J7<l() t'l-ct above tlic "assumed' level 
of tlie ocean. 'I'lu' altitudi' of this iunncnsc ranjfc seems to diuiinisli 
towards tlie north : but how and where it subsides has lu-xcr yet l)een 
ascertained. 

liOokinu' at the ;j;reat <fe(»h)^ical features of America, the siiiuular 
^••eoora pineal j)osition of two prominent ran;j,'es of lofty mountains form- 
in;; almost one continued chain, un])arallele(l for its cNtent. .nid at some 
))()ints tor its elevation, is extremely striking'. I'rom C'api" Morn to the 
arctic seas wi- behold the stupendous Andes, stretching' nearly north .ind 
south 'iloni;- the western tlank of an inunense continent, almost jiarallel 
with its extensive shores, and allbrdinn' to the incjuisitive ^eolo^ist a fact 
t)f till" highest imp.trtance in his theories of continental formations, from 
which I'onclusions may be drawn well cah-ulati'd to throw consideral)le 
Ii;;ht upon this branch of the natural scicnci's. 

Fn institutinu' a comiJarison betwicn the mountauis of North .\me- 
rica and those of the other portions of the <;iol)e, the general inferiority 
of the former in altitude will be emini'ntly c()ns])icuous. Indeed to the 
eastward of the Kocky Mountains very rare instances are met with where 
hills rise K)()0 feet above the level of the sea. l?nt comparinj^' the 
lup;hest ))eaks of the Hoiky Mountains with tlu> niuautic altitude (»f tlii' 
Andes, the .\lps. the (ieesh Mountains of Afrii-a. or the pi'i'rlcss heioht 
of the Ilymalayan Mountains of Asia, they sink into coni))arative in- 
si^'nificance, although, as the sununits of a \ ast continuous ran^c. tlie\ 
are extremely orand and im])osin^-. 

IJeturninu' to the consideration of the \alk'v west of the Ston\ 
Mountains, it may safely be said, that l)etweeii tlu- southern boundary of 
this portion of the IJritisli |)ossessions. aiul the .>'Jnd or .Y.ivd dv^wv of 
latitude, large tracts will be fomid to possess all the advantages reijuisite 
for colonization, both as regards fertility of soil and congeniality of 
climate: and there can be no doid)t that at some ])eriod. })robably not 
verv remote, the civilizing arts of agriculture and connncrce will extend 






* James's Account of an Expedition to the Hocky IMcuinlaiiis, vol. iii. p. 2.1}?. 

I 2 






60 



HIUTISII NOUTll A.MI.UICA. 



their social iiitlnonco to \hv nortli-wcst coast of America, ami Hourisli on 
tlic shores III' the Norih I'acific Oci'aii. 

Tlicu wouhl the importance of a north ))assa}^e hecome paramount, 
at least as far as tlie precarious and ephemeral navigation of icy seas 
couhl he rendert'd suhservient to commercial intercourse, as it would 
mateii.illy al ridj^e the len/^th of voyage hetween the ports on the north- 
west coast of America and Kuropean markets. Whether the Cape of 
Ciood Hope or Cape Horn he douhled, as must unavoidahly he done at 
present, the voyat>je is ecpially lon<^ iiixl circuitous; yet it would for t>vo- 
thinls of the year at least he the only alternative left. The hazards and 
perils of arctic iwvioation, even during; the summer nionths, would in all 
j)rohahility operate as a check on the iVequency of ])a.ssaffes hy the northern 
seas, and in many instances render preferahle the ])ractised and incom- 
parahly i«»njier route to the .southward. 

The nigantic liit feasihie ])roject for some time contemplated of 
openin^^ a ship caiud across the Isthmus of I'anama, connectin«^ the IJay 
of Mandin<;a with the (iulf of. I'ananui, and therefore the waters of 
theCaribbean Sea or thv ^Vtlantic with those of the I'acific, would, if con- 
summated, be an efl'ort of human in<^enuity and art which would incal- 
culably facilitate the commercial relations of every part of the world. 
It would in a great measure supersede the expediency of the further 
discoveries of a northern passage, as regards at least the promotion of 
connnerce; aliht)ugh they might sti'1 be ))rosecuted with invaluable 
advantages to mankiivl ;is a, me«ii.s f;f extending the boundaries of 
human knowledge. 



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CHAPTER III. 



Lpi'Eu Canada. — Its Boiindiiries — Extent — Divisions and Subdivisions — First Settlo- 
ments by the French — Lands granted and ungrantod. 

The cxi.stcnoe of Upper Canada as a distinct province can be dated 
only from the year 1791, previous to wliich it formed ])art of tlie ])ro- 
vince of Quebec, under the provisions of the 14th Geo. III. The con- 
venience and interest at once of the original Canadian inhabitants, of the 
recent English settlers, and of the disbanded troops located after the 
peace of 1783, and occupying lands in the western section of the province 
of Quebec, dictated, at the above date, the division of that province into 
two, which was accordingly effected by the British legislature applying 
to these countries the denomination of Upper and I^owcr Canada. An- 
other reason which enforced the expediency of this division was the 
difference of the tenure by which the lands in the two de])artments Avcre 
held; the whole of the earlier French settlements being occupied by 
seignorial grants under the feudal system, whilst the disbanded troops 
and more recent settlers held their lands in free and common soccaoe. 
The division was therefore so regulated as to include within the lower 
province all those lands held by the first species of tenure, wiiilst the 
upper province was composed entirely of such as had been granted by 
the last. 

That part of Canada which subsequently became the upper province 
had, on the 24th July, 1788, been divided by proclamation of the governor- 
in-chief of the province of Quebec, Lord Dorchester, into four districts, 
viz. Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, Nassau, and Hesse ; but, by the first act 
of the provincial parliament of Upper Canada in 1792, these districts 
changed their names to those of the P^astern, Midland, Home, and 
Western, but without altering their limits. AMien, however, ]Major 



62 



UPPER CANADA. 



I : ii, 



(ic'iicral Sinicot', wlio was the first licutciiant-govcrnor of the province 
ever appointed, entered on tlic achuinistration of the government, he 
adopted a new division into districts, counties, and townships, which liavc 
again been newly niodehed and otliers added by tlie prochunations of 
subse(inent governors, and various acts of the provincial legislature. 

The line of division between the two provinces, carefully adapted 
to the difference of tenure before explained, was judiciously fixed to 
commence at the cove west of Point an liaudet on Lake St. Francis; 
])ursuing the western limits of the seignories of New Longueuil, and 
N'audreuil or Rigaud, and intersecting the Ch'and or Ottawa river at 
Point Fortune. Thus, at least, is the division laid down in all the maps 
of the two provinces now extant; but it may be as well to refer to the 
act of the British ])arliamcnt which prescribes their boundaries. 

By the 31st of Geo. III., an act professedly passed for the purpose 
of repealing certain parts of an act of the 14th of the same reign, entitled 
" An act for making more effectual provision for the government of the 
])rovince of Quebec in North ^Vmerica, and to make further provision for 
the government of the said province," the following line of division, like- 
wise prescribed by his majesty's proclamation of the 18th November, 
1791, General Sir Alured Clarke being lieutenant-governor, \vas de- 
finitively adopted. 

By this act the line was expressed " to commence at a stone boundary, 
on the north bank of the I>ake of St. Francis, at the cove west of Point 
an Baudet, in the limit between the township of Lancaster and the 
seignory of New Longueuil ; running along the said limits, northerly, 
to the .'iith degree of north latitude, and then westerly to the western- 
most angle of the said seignory of New Longueuil ; then along the 
north-western boundary of the seignory of Vaudreuil, running north 2.5 
degrees east, till it strikes the Ottawa river * ; afterwards to ascend the 
said river into Lake Tomiscaming, and from the head of the said lake. 



urni 



* The bearings of the westernm ' limits of these seignories wcrv incorrectly (lescribcilj and 
were taken from an erroneous may at section of the then province of Quebec. This cir- 

cumstance has already produced grea difficulties and litigation between the frontier inhabitants 
of the provinces, and is an evil calling loudly for remedy. The subject will be further considered 
in describing the western limits of Lower Canada. 



SITl'ATION— BOUNDARIES. 



(13 



in a line due north, until it strikes the southern boundary line of Hud- 
son's Hay, including- all the territory to tlie west and south of such line, 
to the utmost extent of the country conuuonly called or known hv the 
name of Canada." 

The ])rovince of X |)p''i' Canada, thus divided, lies between the 
parallels of 41' 47' aiul 49' of north latitude, and extends westward froui 
74 ' ;i()' of west longitude from tli'- meridian of (ireenwich. It is bouiuled 
on the south by the United States, on the north by the Hudson's liay 
territory and the (irand or Ottawa river, on the east by the ])rovince of 
Lower Canada, and on the west its limits are not easy to ascertain. They 
may, jjcrhaps, fairly be considered to be formed by the head waters of 
the rivers and streams that fall into Lake Superior, at or about the heigiit 
of land on the (irand I'ortage in longitude 117' west. The vast section 
of country a])pertaining to the JJritish dominions to the west ami north- 
west of this point is generally known by tlie denomination of the AVestern 
Country or North-West Indian Territt)ries *. 

The line of demarcation between this province, /'. c. L))per Canada, 
and the United States, from the monument at St. Regis, on the ])arallel 
of the 4.'5th degree of north latitude, westward to thel^akeof the Woods, 
was sufliciently settled by the commissioners appointed to decide the same, 
with reference to the treaty of 178.'J, under the treaty of (ihent, at least 
as far as that line runs from St. Regis througii the rivers and lakes to tlie 
strait of St. Mary's ; as will ap])ear on reference to the re})ort of tlK)se 
commissioners (Appendix, Xo. I.). ^Vn enumeration of the islands, from 
their magnitude and importance most worthy of note, comprehended 
within the limits of this province, will be found in the note on p. 1(). 

From the western limit of Lower Canada this province is boundetl 



* This want of a (k'liiiitc wostpni limit to tiic ]inri'iiice occasioned some doubts as to the 
jiirisilictioii of tlie provincial government o\er this n()rt]i-\\c.stt'rn territory, which is much re- 
sorted to hy Indian traders, and was jjurticularly so by the North-West Comj)any of Ciinada, 
now extinct; to obviate \\hicli doubts, an act pa.ssed the British legislature in the _\ear liid.'V for 
the prevention and iiunisliment of crimes in tlie Indian territories. By this act justices of the 
jieace were appointed for that district, with authority to apprehend criminals and semi them to 
Lower Canada for trial ; and, accordingly, many persons were sent to Jlontreal and Quebec, and 
there tried for acts committed in the Indian territories. Of this, the distressing controversy 
between Lord .Selkirk and the Xorth-West Company of Canada is a remarkable instance. 



64 



UPPER CANADA. 



by the Ottawa as far as Lake Toniiscaming*, tlicnce by a line drawn due 
north to the southern boundary of the Hudson's liay territory. This line 
lias been generally luiderstood to indieate a range of highlands dividing 
the rivers and streams whieh fall into Hudson's and James's liays from 
those which fall into the river St. Lawrence and the lakes of Canada, 
and forming naturally the northern boundary of the province. 

xVdopting these as the actual limits of the province, its superficial 
content may be estimated in round numbers at 141,000 square statute 
miles. Of this vast extent of territory, about 32,929 square statute miles 
have been laid out into townships, and tracts set apart for particular pur- 
poses, enumerated in the note f . It comprises certain vacant tracts in 
the vicinity of surveyed lands, generally denominated lands of the crown ; 
besides a tract exceeding one million and a half of acres in the vicinity 
of I^ake Huron, usually termed Indian territory. 

The history of the discoveries and early settlements in America, as 
well as of their transfer by conquest and treaty, is too largely treated of 
in another part of this work to render it necessary here to enter into a 
separate and distinct account of the colonization of Upper Canada. 

The first inducement to the French to extend tlieir establishments 
in this direction arose out of the destructive wars with the Iroquois or 
five nations, in which they found themselves involved as the allies and 
protectors of the Hurons and Aljonquins. 

* This boundary docs not express whether the islands in the Ottawa are to be considered 
as part of Upper or of Lower Canada ; or which of these ishxnds are to be referred to one and 
whicli to the other province. 



t Townships 
The Huron tract, granted to the Canada Company 
.St. Regis, Indian tract 
Longueuil or L'Origiual Seignory 
Land of tlic Six Nations on the Grand River 
Clergy reserves for the Six Xations' Lands . 
Lands belonging to the crown near Lake St. Clair 
Ditto, north of the Huron tract 
Indian reserve opposite Fort St. Clair 
Ditto, Ditto, Commodore Creek 
Indian territory in the vicinity of Luke Huron 



.AtTLS. 

1G,8I(),800 



1,000,000 

:}0,720 

25,000 

333,000 

132,000 

380,720 

4.50,000 

10,000 

10,240 

1,883,200 



i-viMil 



4,257,880 
21,074,680 



FHEXCH roins— LOCAL DIVISIONS. 



65 



T1k> raviifTos made by tlicni, on the French ti'iritoiies, rendered it 
necessary lor (iovernor Frontenac to erect a fort, wliich iie accordiii«;ly 
did in 1()7'.' at a ))laee called Cataraciiui. at the eastern extremity of Lake 
Ontario, the site of the ])resent flourishing; town of Kingston. Shortly 
iifterwards the J-'rench l)uilt l-'ort Nia<;ara; and though the vigorous at- 
tacks of the Iro(|uois obliged tiieni, in KiS}), to blow up these forts and 
retire further down the river, they subse(|uently renewi'd their advances 
and re-est;il)lislied the forts. To these they added another on the island 
in the river near Osweigatchie, called Fort Levi, a military post at De- 
troit, and a oan-isou and trading village at Michilimackinac. These 
comprise all the attempts at l'>uro])ean colonization in F))per Canada 
pre\ ious to its con(|uest by the British ; for though the French had passed 
over to the Ohio, the Illinois, and the Mississi])pi, and on their route 
hence to Louisiana had attem{)ted some settlements, they were so feebly 
su})ported as shortly to sink into decay. So far were they indeed from 
dis])laying either enterprise or energy in settli)ig the coimtry under their 
dominion, that the sphere of their establishments even in TiOwer Canada 
rather contracted than increased. 

i\fter the concpiest of (Quebec, in IT^jOi t>ne cam))aign sutKced to 
render the Fnglish masters of all the French settlements in F))per Ca- 
nada, and of the innnense tract of country before described and recognised 
by that name. 

A royal proclamation issued shortly afterwards, which described the 
limits of the ])rovince far short of those since declared, contained a pro- 
vision for reduced oflicers and disbanded soldiers, allotting to them cer- 
tain portions of the waste lands of the crown. Thesi' allotments were 
at the close of the war made the standard for other allowances of a 
similar nature. 

The divisions of the ])r()vince have been before slightly alluded to; 
they may now be more correctly stated to be, ki.kvkn nisriuirs, — 
TWEX'rv-six eoi'Ni'ii.s. — and six uiniNcJs. comprising together i273 
townships, besides the various large tracts of reserved land and Indian 
territory more ])articularly specified in p. ()4. The following will best 
illustrate the distribution and subdivisions of the ])rovince; — 

K 



I jjltl 



6(i 



n»i'i;i{ ( .\.\.\i).\. 



D'niiniou (if the Pror'nicc (jf Upper ('(luddd info J)/.'//r/c/.s: Co/n/f/r.s; Ui(lhii>;.s, 
Town, ships, Spec/a/ Tr<(ct.s. (iiid . ilfot'iicut.s, tonrlhcr ivilh HIdv/is o/'( 'rotvn 
and C/i'/\ji>'i/ lii:si'i'catioii.s, and Lands appntpriak'd tu the Indians, iS;c. 



il 



f I'f 



.M 



V 



fl:^ 



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m 

1. 



fl 

I 

1 1 



^ 






^ 






1 


C'oiuitics. 


Town-liips. 


a 


Cuuntics, 


T(iwnsliip.H. 




Liiiifiisti'r 
1 t'liailuttfiilmi'fjli 
1 Kcnvdii 






"\c|it'aii 








(ioulhuni 




ULKNfiAUV 






.Alari'h 












( 


Liicliicl 






'I'orholtoii 


z 








"Carlkton . 


l''itzrov 


a: 




■ '.'()rin\:ill 






AlaeNald) 


;i^ 




1 Osiiiibruck 






llorton 


H < ftTOU.IIONT •< 


1 KiiK'li 






Iliiiitly 


X 




^ 




<^ 


( 


[ R.ixlMirnh 


^ 




I'aki'uhani 


:i^ 




'W'illiniiisbuviili 


N-^ 


" 


i. 




DUNOAS . . 


Miitilil^i 


r* 




"Ik'dcwith 




Mimiitiiiii 


<< 




Drunmioud 






tt 




( 


^\'ilR•lu■^,tl■^ 






Hathurst 
Sh.'rhrooki', Soutii 




"Ilinvkoslmry 
('alidoiiiii 




I, AN AUK . . 


Shcrhrookf, Nortli 
Dalliousie 






^ 


.^^ 


Lonmu'ipl 






Lauark 




fllKSCOTT 


Alfred 






Ramsay 


< 




I'laiitiiirciU't 






Darling 






^ PlaiitagoiK'tri'ar 






. Lavaiit 


-< 












H - 




^('lari'iicc 












(.'iiiiilifrlaiKl 






^IIowc Island 




Rl!SM-I,I, 


(ilduc'fster 






l'ittshuri;h 




()su()(|(Io 






(id. Islc'(.r Wolfe Id 




Hlissdi 






Kingston 




Canibridgo 






lioujrhhorough 
Portland 




'Edwardsbiiriili 
Auiiiista 




'"FllO.N TIONAf . 


1 linchinhrook 






Med ford 




\\'(')ltonl 






Keni'liec 


^_ 


Oxford <iii tlie Rii'u'au 






Olden 




UHKNVir.M; . <^ 


Marll)(pr(Ptnili 






()m> 






Aloiitaitiic 


^^ 




liarrie 




Gdwcr. North 


^ 




Clarendon 


o 




_(io\\i'r, South 






I'alnierston 


a: 




"Elizabi'tli Town 


^ 








Vou^a' 


s 




' Kriiest Town 




Laiisdowii 






Adol]ilnis Town 


^ 




Lt'i'ds 






l'''redericksbur^h 




Lkkds . . . - 


(iroshv, North 




Lennox ank 
Ai)i)iN(iroN 


Hicliniond 




(iroshy, South 




Camden, Ivist 




JJastard 




^Vndierst Island 




IJurjicss 






SheHield 




KInisk'y 






Kalador 






^Kitlov 






Anglesea 



I' 



DIVISIONS AND SrHDIVlSiONS. 



()? 



5 ' t'i)iinlii.'s 



Towimliips, 



X 






IIasi iMis 



f SidiK-y 
Tliurlou- 
'I'yciiiliiiii!.;;! 
Ilmiiicrfonl 
IFiiiitiiindoii 
Itinviliiii 
AliiniKini 

Kl/i'\ir 

(.like 
I 'riiilor 
(.(JriiiustlKtqH' 



H 

en 

< 



f Aiiicli:isl)iiri;li 
I llillin- 
Ll*iiiN(i:Ki)WAiii)-i Iliillowtll 

I S(i])lii;isl)urirli 
L^Marvshuriiili 



3Imrav 

Criiniiiglio 

Ilaldiiiiaiul 

Iliiiniltoii 

Alnwick 

I'.Mvy 

Scyuioiir 

jV.s|iIii)(1i'1 

Otiinalii'c 

Maiiajiliim 

Smith 

Dduro 

Dmiinu'r 

JiclllKIIlt 

IMt'liiiicii 
IJiiilciirh 

{ Harvey 

LEniilv'Gore 



No inn u. MB Kit - 

LAM) . . 



DUJIHAM 



Cii>: lie 

Darli. jrtnn 

Cartwriglit 

jAlaiivers 

C'avaii 

Emily 

0])S 

Mariposa 
Elddu 
PViiclon 
Verulatn 



Coimtics. 



Tdwiisliips. 



f YOHK 



SiMCOK 





Wllitl.y 






I'ii'kcriii^ 






Scarljoniiiifji 






y-.rk ami 1»( 


iiiiisulu 




Etiiliiriikc 






Markhain 




\'aiiiiliaii 




'w 


Kiiiii- 




is - 


^\'llitl■lIllrc•L 




'4-1 


r.\l)ri(|(ro 




Ci^ 


H.adi 






(ii\illiiiil)iiry 


East 




(j\\illiml)iirv 


North 




SlM.tt 






(Ji'iirniiia 






IJroek 




1^ 


Tiirniito 





73 I Toronto fioro 
W -^ Cliiiifruacousy 
■§) C'aleilon 
^Vlliiou 



(■"•illimlniryj West 

I't'CllIMSl'th 

Adj.ila 

Mono 

Amaraiich 

Lntlier 

I'rotou 

i\IcIaiic'tIioii 

i\Iulniur 

'i'ossoroiitio 

Essa 

Innistil 

Tliorali 
Ularu 

Hama 

Oro 

V^espra 

Suniiidale 

Merlin 

Ospry 

Artemisia 

Euphrasia 

Alta 

Java 

Flos 

iMedante 

Orillia 

Matchedash 

Tay 

Tiny 

Zero 



K 2 



68 



ri>l'KR CANADA. 



I III 




'l'own»liip'>. 



' IlAi/ro\ 



Cd 



Tnilal;,'ar 

NrUiin 

{'"laiiibiiripiii li, K;ist 

l''l;iiiil)oniil;,'li, West 

Hcavcrly 

Diiiiif'rics 

Walfiloo 

W'ihnot 

.\asa;ri\veyii 

ICs((ll('NillH- 

Erin 
Eraiiiosa 
(iodcrich 
\\ oiilv\ icli 
Xidiol 
.(larratVaxa 



Wentwortii 



"Lincoln 



< 
< 



o 

O 



1 



Norfolk 



f Ancaster 
\ HartoM 
ASalt- Fleet 
/ liiid)r(Mik 
( (ilanford 



^^ (iriiiisl)y 
^ 7 Clinton 
K '\ Claistor 
•t^ ^ (Jainsboronjih 



;S I Louth 

^ A (iranthai 
^ (Xiaguni 



£="4 St a 

!i ! TllG., 
I Pelht 



niford 
lorold 
am 






.Haldimani) 



t't ^ Crowland 
;= i Willoughbv 
g ■' Bertie 
^ i Ilumherstone 
■55 ^ WainHeot 



jMoultan 
Camboro 

"Rainham 
Widiude 
Woodliousc 
Cliarlotteville 

(_ W^alsinghani 



1 


( Diintk'it. 


Tiiwrnliijw, 






IFipii(_'liton 
Alidilielon 
Windham 




NoRKOLK 


TowMsend 
Turkey Point and 

I'romontorv of 

Iiiinii' Point 

Purt'ord 
Oakland 


'^i 




Nor\\ icli 


o 




Derrliiini 




OXKORU . . < 


Oxford on Thames 
lilandf.ird 


nJ 




Plenlieini 

Nissonri 

Zorra 

"Hay ham 

iMalaiiide 

^'armonth 

Soutliwold 

Dunwich 

AldI)orouj;h 




^.IMlDDLKSEX . < 


.A'osa 

Ek;vid 

( ^arradoc 
Lolio 
I)ela\^■are 
NV'estminster 
])orehester 
. London 

'Orford 
Howard 
Harwich 
Raleijih 
Tilbury, East 
RomiU'v 




'Kent . . . < 


Dover, East 
Do\er, West 
Chatliam 
Canulen 


>5 




Zone 
Dawn 




Sombra 






[St. Clair 


!> 






r* 




' IMersev 
Gostield 
Colchester 
.Maiden 




Essex . . . - 


Hurons 
Sandwich 
Alaidstonc 
Rochester 
/rilbury, West. 



LANDS (IHANTKI). IlKSK RVK I), .s^, 



<)M 



Tlic avrra«;t' territory of eacli t()\viislii|), iiicliidino its proportion of 
till' rcsiTVi'd lands, may be estimated at Ol.dOO acres, niakin"' an a<n.ir- 
gate (|uantity of 1(),«1(),«00 acres, which may he thus more particularly 
described. 

About 7.(M)(),()()0 of acres liave been granted to diflerent classes of 
settlers in free and conunon soccage ; 4,H().>, 100 acres are reserved for tlie 
crown and clergy (part of which has already been granted by the crown 
to the Canada Company): and 5,011,1.00 acres remain to be granted 
within the townships, exclusive of n mass of reserved lands ajjplicable to 
sale and special grants. This extent of country, bonlering the north 
shore of the river St. f.awrence from Vointe au Haudet to Lake Ontario, 
the northern side of that lake and of Lake Erie up to Lake St. Clair, 
and of the eoimnunieation between it and Lake Huron, a distance little 
short of five hundred and seventy miles, and stretching northward from 
the water to a depth varying from fifty to eighty miles, is composed of a 
soil which for i)roductive richness, variety, and applicability to the 
highest purposes of agriculture, may challenge com])etition with the 
choicest tracts of the new world. 



CIIAl'TKU IV. 

Niiliiiiil 1 )i\ i«.i(ms of iln' l'iii\ Iiu'i'. — It> lJi\ir>. Uomls, Snil, ami Sctlli'iiioiits iK'scriln'tl 
ill tlni'f Scfiidii"-. — (iciiiiiil stiiiistii'iil Simiiiiary. 



'( ; iM 



tM:l 



I\ atti'Mii)tii)<»; to <>ivt'to tlic rciulcr a view of so oxtciisivo and opon 
a coimtrv as rppt-r Canada, no division or feature so naturally i)ri'si'nt.s 
itself lo tlie mind of a to|)oj;ra|)iru'al deseril)er, as tlie eliains or ri(l«:fes of 
ITmli lands runniny,' tlirou«;li the eountrv, ii\ whieli the various rivers and 
streams take their sources, and dividing" the head waters of those of sucli 
ri\ eis as How in one direction from those that take the opijosite course. 
In a country };enerally level, abundantly watered by rivers of every di- 
mension, from the broad, full-flowing', and majestic stream, the imjjctuous, 
roaring, and resistless torrent, to the <;iMitle meanderinj;' of a |)urlin<;' brook, 
em])tyino; themselves into s])acious laki's, almost claimint;' the title of 
seas, as is the case with the province now usider notice; this ])artieular 
feature seems peculiarly to demand our attention : and the rather, as 
we thence form an idea of the various \ alleys formed by their windini's, 
through which the rivers take their course from their sources to their 
estuaries. 

The first of these ridii^es, or ranges of elevated or table-land, that 
presents itself to our notice is that which divides the waters falling into 
the Ottawa, from those that are lost in the St. liUwrence. This ridge, 
|)in'suing a course chiefly westerly, from the division line between 
Upper and Lower Canada, traverses the townships of liOchiel and 
Roxburgh, in the rear of Osnabruck, Williamsburg, and Matilda (in 
which last township the Uivierc des Petitcs Nations takes its source, at 
the distance of five miles from the St. Lawrence) ; thence, winding 
through Kdwardsbin-g and Klizabeth Town, where it divides the source 
of one of the great branches of the llidcau, near a small lake, from the 



lIKillLANI) HIDCil'S. 



7*1 



lii'ud of 'I'onm'Wiiiita, or .Ioiicn's Croi'k, at tlic tlistaiicc ol' ahoiit ten iiiili'> 
tVoin tlic St. Lawrciifi', the ri(lj;(' travi-rsi's Hastanl niul C'ro>l)y. in a line 
rxti'iidinji- diim-onallv tttwaiils tlu' nortli, and di\ idi's tlio uateiN and laki- 
of till' Uidcau, tVoin those of tlir (iainiano(|ui. 

This division shows that thi- ridj;i' now (h'scrihrd is the most lUvatid 
tahU'-hnid hi'twtrn thi' St. LuwiTncc and tht' Ottawa, towards oath of 
whii'h it has a ^nuhial lU'sci-ni of four fci't one inch to a niiU'. That from 
a given licinlit the line of descent shonhl he in the sanu' ratio, on a hasi' of 
fifty mih's, as on a hase of eij;iity miles, may appear a trin'onometrieal 
])arado\ ; hut. uudouhted as the faet is, it heeouies reeoni-iled hy tind- 
ini>'. tiiat thi' level of Lake Ontario is ahout one hundred and thirty feet 
Iji^her tlian that of tlu' Ottawa river. This faet was aseertannd and 
estal)lisiied hy the en<;ineer employed on the Hideau eanal, who fixes 
the highest point of land at ahout forty miles from Kingston, on the 
line of the eanal, and gives its elevation or summit-level at two hmulred 
and ninety feet ahove the surface of the (Jrand river at Hy Town. 'I'he 
long and lirudual descent north and north-easterlv from this tahle-land 
to the Ottawa, accounts for the level a])pearancc of the section of country 
lying on its hanks. 

C'ontiiming its course westerly, the tahle-land divides the head- 
waters of the Kideau from those of the Xapaunee ; thence winding 
nortlu-rl)- through Olden, towards Harrie. it separates the head-waters 
of the Alississi])pi from those of the Moira ; and pursuing its main 
westerly direction, winding along the heads of lunnerous streams, empty- 
ing themselves into the Trent river, and a chain of small lakes stretch- 
ing towards Lake Simcoe, the westermost of Avhich is Halsam Lake, 
passes about eighteen miles north of that lake. Through the Halsam 
Lake ])asses a water conununication. explored hy Mr. Catty of the Hoyal 
Kngineers, which ])enotrates through the range of high lands, and ex- 
pands into two or three i\arn)W lakes, successively u]) to its source near 
the head-waters of the Madawasca, through which chain of small lakes 
and four portages, a ready connuiuncation is given front the source of 
the stream to Lake Halsam. ^Vt the ])oint where this stream approaches 
the head-waters of the Madawasca, it is divided from them by another 
ridge of elevated or table-land, Avhich observation shows to be higher 



12 rPI'KR CANADA. 

tliiin tliiit wv have before been tracing, inasniucb as the water eomniu- 
nieation Ave bave just described descends from it tbroiigli tbe otbcr 
ridge soutb-west into lialsani Lake. Tiiis latter ridge, taking an easterly 
direction from tbe point at wbicb avc are now arrived, joins tbe former 
ridue near tbe sources of tbe JJideau. dividiuij tbe bead-waters of streams 
faUing into tbe Ottawa from tbose taking tbe direction of Lake Huron. 
From tbe same ])oint, stretcbing in a nortli-western course, it continues 
to diviile tbe waters falling into Lake Huron from tbose emptying 
tliemselves into Hudson's and .lames's liays, and terminates in tbe grand 
ridge of bigb lands. se))arating tbe waters of Hudson's Hay from Ibose of 
tbe Great Lakes. 

From tbe liay of (^uinte anotber ridge of bigb lands runs in a 
westerly direction along tbe nortbern sbores of Lake Ontario, at a 
distance, in some ))laces. of not more tban nine miles, wbicb is tbe case 
at Hamilton, dividing tbe numerous streams and head-waters of rivers 
falling into tbat lake from tliose descending nortlnvard into tbe river 
Trent, Kice liake. Otanabee river, and tbe ciiain of lakes before men- 
tioned. Tlie ridge receding northward and westerly from tbe hike to 
tbe distance of twenty-four miles from York, there se))arates tbe waters 
of Holland river and other streams falling into Lake Simcoe and Lake 
Huron, from tliose discbarging themselves into Ontario. Thence, bend- 
ing round tbe beads of the Toronto and its tributary streams, dividing 
tbem from tbose of tbe (irand t)r Ouse river, it ])ursues a south-easterly 
dircttion towards tbe bead of tbe lake, merges in tiie Burlington Heights, 
and runs along tbe sbores of l}urrmgi«)n Hay and tbe soutb side of Lake 
Ontario, at a distance not exceeding from four to eight miles, to Queens- 
town Heights. Still ])ursuing an easterly direction on the southern border 
of the lake, it stretches into tbe territory o,'the I'nited States to Lockport, 
<listant twelve miles from tbe lake, crosses tbe western canal, and, running 
parallel witb it, subsides at Kocbester, oii the banks of tbe Clenesec. 
Tins ridge, though bigb in many ])laces. and bounding tbe head streams 
of tbe smaller rivers tbat fall into Lake Ontario, does nc^*^ divide tbe 
bead-waters of many larger streams, taking tbeir sources far to tbe soutb ; 
but it constitutes a striking geological feature of tbat ])art of tbe country, 
wbicb points it out as tbe sbores of tbe original basin of tbe lake, 




KASTl'RX SRCTIOX.— SOIL, 5^c, 



73 






Havino; thus •>ivon ;i pivliminiirv (los('ri])ti()M of tlu> most i)roini- 
noiit fc;it;iir.s of tlio proviiur, tlu> snrfjuv oC nliicli is I'liiiractorizc'd by 
its n-ciuMal t'vctmc'ss, iiotwitlistan(liiii>- tlu' \iih\v ridovs of moderate 
i'lo\atioi) \\v liaM" traced, wo will endeavour to eonvev a more definite 
and distiiiet idea of the face of the country, its soil, and its settlements, 
without, nevertheless, enterint>- into those minute details or descriptive 
elaborations that are inconsistent with the plan of the present work. 
To do so the more elliciently it will be convenient to divide the province 
into three imaginary divisions, within the circumscribed boundaries of 
which it will be easier to travel in our description, and to dwell upon 
the ])articular |)oints that may a))pear most deservinn- of paramount 
not'ce and consideration, within their respective limits. 

Adopting for this purpose the most obvious and natural division of 
so extensive a territory that suo<.ests itself, the province may be divided 
into the three followins;- sections : 

'I'he first or eastern section, end)racin<;- all that tract or tongue of 
hmd lutween the Ottawa river and the St. Law rence, bounded on the 
west by the eastern line of Newcastle district, und on the east by the 
western boundary of the province. It includes five districts; Kasteni, 
Ottawa, .lohnstown, Midland, and IJathurst. 

'rh;> second or central section will com])rise the districts of Newcastle 
and Home, and extend from the bottom of the IJay of Quinte to the 
north-eastern limits of the district of (Jore. 

The third or western section. end)racino- the residue of the surveved 
parts of the ))rovince westward, will consist of the AN'estern, London, 
Niagara, and (Jore districts. 






§ I.-EASTERN SI':CTI()X — 

KASlKItN, OTTAWA, JOHNS lOHN, SIIDI.AM), AND lIATIirUHT OISTRirTS. 

Situated between two broad and navigable rivers, the Ottawa and 
the St. Lawrence, and centrally traversed in a diagonal course by an 
extensive and splendid sloop canal, connecting the waters of Lake Erie 
with those of Ontario,— this section of country evidently enjoys important 
geographical and local advantages. Its surface presents, almost unex- 



I, J. 






74 



UPPER CANADA. 



•|1 



mi 



' ' III 






ccptionably. a table level of inodcrate elevation, Avitli a very gentle and 
scarcely perce])tihle depression as it approaches the margin of the mag- 
nificent streams by which it is bounded to the northward and south-east. 

The soil, though sometimes too moist and marshy, is extremely rich 
and fertile in general, and chieHv consists of a brown clav and velloAV 
loam, admirably ada])ted to the growth of wheat and every other species 
of grain. In the innnediate vicinity of the liay of Quinte and the 
shores of Ontario it is still nu)re clayey, and rests u])or, a substratum of 
bluish limestone, Avhich a))])ears to be co-extensive with the section of 
country avc are describing, and sometimes penetrates through the soil 
above the surface. The forests abound with a variety of large and lofty 
trees : among which are profusely found white ])ine, white and red oak, 
maple, beech, birch, hickory, basswood, irouwood, butternut, and poplar; 
ash, elm, and cedar are also found in the forests in considerable qiumtities, 
but are less frecpient than those first enumerated. 

It is intersected by numerous rivers, remarkable for the imdtitude 
of their branches and minor rami(ications, and by frequent lakes and 
ponds, ])eculiarly irregular and fantastic in their shapes. Of the rivers, 
the most conspicuous are the Ilideau, Petite Nation, Mississip])i, and 
jNIadawaska, that take their sources far in the interior, generally to the 
westAvard of their mouths, and fall into the Ottawa ; and the Ciannanotpii, 
Raisin, Catara(iui, \a])anee. Salmon, ^loira, and ])art of Trent, that dis- 
charge themselves into the IJay of Quinte and the St. liawrence. The 
streams of most of these rivers, besides fertilizing the lands thnmgh 
which they meander, aiul attbrding, in general, convenient inland water 
comnumications. turn numerous grist, carding, fulling, and saw mills. 

Of the lake.') may be mentioned Ilideau, (Jar.nano(iui, U'hite or 
Henderson's, Miul. Devil. Indian, Clear, Irish, lioughborougb, ^Nlissis- 
sippi. Olden, Clarendon, liarrie. Stoke, Marmora, Collins, IJlunder, 
Angus, auvl Oj)inicon, besides numerous inferior lakes, the non-enume- 
ration of which in this ])lace will be efl'eetually supplied by the map. 

The ])rincipal public roads by which it is traversed are, the main 
front road along the St, Jjawrence, between Lower CaJiada and Kingston, 
passing through Cornwall and I^ancaster, and the front road on the 
Ottawa, between I'oint Fortune aiul Plantageiiet, The interior traverse 



IjOAOS—POPnT.ATION— TOWNS. 



75 






roads, loadiiio- from I^ancaster and Cliarl()ttonbur«>lj, tliroiiolj I.ocliii'l to 
Ilawkcslniry; those from Klizabctli and Aii<>-ustato Kingston, to the Kidean 
sottltMnont. to Perth and Lanark, and from these towns to Hielnnond 
and Hy Town, on the Ottawa; and the various roads ahmi*- the whole 
extent of the Uideaii connnunication. Above Kingston tlie several roads 
to tiK' liay of Quinte, passing eitlier by tlic ferry at Long Ueaeh, Adol- 
phus Town, or by the Indian village in Tyendinaga. are tolerably good. 
From the village of Sidney a road is o])en along the 'I'rent, and through 
Rawdon to the Marmora iron-works. Ik'sides these, a nund)cr of by- 
roads afford a ready access to neiglibouring or remote settlements ; but as 
they often penetrate a wilderness, and have been opened within a com- 
paratively recent period, they are indifferent at best, and often bad. In- 
deed, the generality of roads in Ui)pcr Canada necessarily suffer from the 
richness of the soil they traverse, and will always recjuire the greatest 
attention and constant repair. 

The po])ulation of this section of the province in 1S24 amounted to 
69,!)96 souls, and in 18^28 to 85,10.'5 ; giving an increase in four years of 
15,109 souls. 

The most populous and improved part of the colony is imdoubtedly 
that from Pointe an Uaudet to the head of the Hay of Quinte, a range 
of one hundred and seventy miles, in which are contained the towais of 
Kingston, Johnstown, and Cornwall, Fort ^^'ellington, the INlohawk 
Village, Ikockville. and several smaller villages; besides a continuation 
of houses (many of them spacions and well built) and farms by the side 
of the main road, as well as the other roads that lead to the interior set- 
tlements. Cireat industry and attention to improvement are displayed 
upon most of the lands throughout this tract ; the roads that were for- 
merly made have been gradually rendennl sound and good, and many 
new ones constructed ; bridges have been thrown across the rivers, and 
various conununieations both by land and water opened to the interior ; 
indeed, various indications of a flourishing and accelerated progress are 
apparent in almost every direction. 

Of the towns just mentioned, Cornwall, lying about five miles above 
St. Regis, and Johnstown, three miles east of Fort AVellington, contain 
each from eighty to one hundred houses, built of wood, with a church, 

L 2 



I f;ii 



76 



rPPER CANADA. 



i!<:c. ; tlicv stand close to the 



court-house, ivc. ; tiicy stand close to tiie river St. T.uwrcncc ; tlic around 
planned out for each is a mile s([uare. IJrockville, so called in honour of 
the lamented hero of Fp|)er Canada, Sir Tsjae Hrock, is (leli«>htfully 
situated on the St. l/nvrence, in front of Kli/.abeth Town. It is neatly 
built; has a church, parsonage-house, and court-house, and contains a 
population of live hundred or six hundred souls. A small steam-boat 
now plies regularly between IJrockville and Prcscott. 

Fort >Vellington, formerly called Prescott, is situated directly 
opposite to the American town and fort of Ogdensburgli, or Oswegat- 
chie, as it used to be named ; between them the river is no more than 
one thousand six hundred yards broad. During hostilities shot were 
repeatedly exchanged between them, jjarticularly on the passing of 
brigades of boats up the river. The village of Fort ^Vellington consists 
of forty or fifty houses: and, from its position at the head of ^1 out real 
boat-navigation and the foot of the sloop and steam navigation from the 
lakes, it enjoys important advantages, that must eventually accelerate 
and enhance its gnnvth and prosperity. A regidar line of stage is daily 
run between this place and Montreal (Sundays excepted), and steam- 
boats afford an easy connnunication between it and the different places 
on I^akc Ontario *. 

The town of Kingston, the largest and most populous of the I^jjper 
Province, is very advantageously seated on the north side of the river 
St. Lawrence, or rather at the eastern extremity of liake Ontario : it is 
in latitude 44' 8' north, and in longitude 76' 40' west from CJrcenwich. 
On the ground upon which it is built formerly stood Fort Frontenac, an 
old French post. Its foundation took place in 17H3, and by gradual 
increase it now presents a front of nearly three quarters of a mile, and 
in 1S28 contained a popidation ascertained by census to amount to 
.3,528 inhabitants, exclusive of the troops in garrison : including the 
latter, and making due allowance for two years' increase, its population 
may now be com})uted at not less than .5, .500 souls. 

The streets are regularly planned, running at right angles with each. 

* The fares for eabiii pas.soiigcrs now are as follow : To or from I'reseott and Niagara, 9.1. lO.v. 
Kingston and Niagara, or Kingston and York, 21. Between Kingston and Preseott. 154'., and 
between York and >iiagara, lO.v. 



KINGSTOX. 



77 



other, but not paved. The inmiber oi' lioiises may be estimated at about 
six luimh-ed and seventy. Most of tliem are well built of stone ; many 
of them s])aeious and eonnuodious : but very few are remarkable for the 
taste or ele<>anee of their strueture. An extensive wooden bridoc of 
mueh s,)lidity and beauty has reeently been thrown over the narrowest 
part of the ehaimel between Point Frcderiek and the town. It exeeeds 
six hundred yards in length, and has materially added to the scenery of 
the place and the convenience of its inhabitants. The public buildings 
are a government-house, a court-house, a protestant and a catholic church, 
a market-house, a gaol and hos])it!d, besides the garrison, block-houses, 
government magazines and stores. 

This town has obtained considerable mercantile im])ortance \vithin 
the last twenty year- : wharfs have been constructed, and manv spacious 
warehouses erected, that are usually filled with merchandise: in fact, it is 
now^ become the main entrepot between Montreal and all the settlements 
along the lakes to the westward. From the connneiicement of spring 
until tiic latter end of autunm, great activity ])revails ; vessels of from 
eighty to nearly two hundred tons, cm})loyed in navigating the lake, are 
continually receiving and discharging their cargoes, as well as the ba- 
teaux used in the river; and the magnificent steam-boats that ]dy between 
Kingston, York, and Niagara, contribute larg(>ly to the lively animat'.on 
of the scene. Its connnercial im])ortance must also be considerablv en- 
hanced by the opening of the IJideau canal, which will necessarily render 
it the emporium of the whole trade of the two provinces, whether carried 
on by the St. I^awrence or through the Ottawa. 

The harbour is well sheltered and convenient, accessible to ships not 
retpiiring more than three fathoms water, with good anchorage close to 
the north-eastern extremity of the town. The entrance to it is defended 
by a battery on INIississaga Point, and another on Point Frederick; which, 
with the shoal stretching from the former, with only five feet of water 
upon it, are (piite suflicient for its })rotection. Opposite to the town, and 
distant about half a mile, is a long low ])eninsu]a, formijig the west side of 
Navy Bay. The extremity of it is called Point Frederick. Point Henry 
is the extremity of another peninsula, but of higher and more command- 
ing ground, that forms the eastern side of it. This is the ])rincipal depot 



l! 



i 



7« 



riM'Ki} CANADA. 



t' 



!* I :: I 



of the royal iiavv on Lakf Ontario, and Avliorc tlic sliips arc laid up 
dnrin_t>; tlit' winter. The anchorage is good, but somewhat exposed to 
south and soutii-west winds. It is very well defended by batterie.s and 
bloek-houses on I'oint Frederick, and by a strong fort on l*oint Henry. 

On the western side of Xavy Hay are the dock-yard, large store- 
houses, sli])s for l)\iilding ships-of-war. naval barracks, wharfs, and 
several dwelling-houses for the master builder and other artificers, for 
whom, since their occupations have been so uiu-en)itting. it has been 
found necessary to erect habitations on the spot. In tins yard the sliips 
conii)osing the ])resent IJritisb Ontario armament were built and equip- 
ped. The construction of the St. Lawrence, a first-rate, mounting one 
iumdred and two guns, will suUiciently prove that the power of this fleet 
may hereafter be increased to a vast extent. At Sacket's Harbour, the 
rival of Kingston as a naval depot, the maritime forces of the I'nited 
States are kej)t. Huring the war large vessels were there ])ut u])on the 
stocks, one of which was represented as exceeding in dimensions the 
largest man-of-war in the IJritish service, being two hundred and ten 
feet in length on her lower gun-deck. It is a fact singular enough, and 
well worthy of remark, that the largest armed shi])s in the world should 
thus be found in the heart of an immense continent on the fresh waters 
of an interior lake, and ut so remote a distance from their more familiar 
element, the ocean. 

As a rival station to the ^Vineriean one of Sacket Harbour, Xavy 
Bay is entitled to eveiy consideration ; and as long as it becomes an object 
to maintain a naval superiority on the lake, the greatest attention must 
be paid to this establishment : particularly when we observe with what 
care our rivals complete such of their ships as were begun during the 
war, and also the measures they arc adopting generally to be enabled to 
contend against us, at a future period, with numerical strength in their 
favour : and, in fact, the methods they pursue are Avell calculated to 
obtain the object they steadily keej) in view. The conduct of an enter- 
prising neighbour should always be narrowly observed, and a counter- 
vailing power be prepared, conmiensurate to the means of aggression, in 
the event of hostilities. 

The Americans build their ships much faster than we do on our 



I 



TlIK NAVY— KINCSTON IIAWBOIR. 



79 



side, and for this reason — stren«;th is the chief object with them ; and if 
tjjat he obtained, tliey care but little about beauty of model or elef;anee 
of finishin<>- ; in fact, tliev receive no other i)olish than what is niven 
tlicin by the axe and the adze. On the other hand, we eni])loy as nuich 
time u])on ours as we should in the European dock-yards. They are \m- 
doubtedly as stron<>; as the iVmericans ; they are handsomer and nuu-h 
better finished; but they are far more expensive, and will not endure a 
longer period of service. When we reflect that ships built on this lake 
will not last more than five (.r at most six years of actual service, it may 
be a subject not unworthy of consideration, whether we cannot, with 
some advantage to ourselves, adopt the methods of our op])onents ; and 
if we have a fleet as strongly built, etpial in lunnber and size to tlieirs. 
and capable of keeping np the unrivalled splendour of our national ban- 
ner, be satisfied with it, although it be not a rival in beauty and s])lendid 
decorations to that which has awed every enemy into submission. 

The approach to Kingston harboin* is made by three different chan- 
nels : the first, called the IJatteaux Channel, is between \\'olfe Island 
and Forest Island, and is generally nscd by small craft only, having in 
several >>laces hardly two fatiioms and a half water : the next is the South 
Channel, formed by Forest Island and Snake Island, a small s])ot with, 
an extensive bank spreading from it ; — here also, in the fair way, the water 
shoals from three to two fathoms and a half: the third and best is the 
North Channel, between Snake Island and the nuiin land, which, although 
it increases the distance a little, is by far the safest, having from four to 
ten fathoms water in it. 

A little to the westward of Kingston is the liay of Quinte, very 
singularly formed betAvecn the irregular ])eninsula of Prince Kdward 
comity on the south, and the main land of the midland district on the 
north. The length, through the various crooked turns it makes, is little 
short of fifty miles, and its breadth varies between six and twelve miles. 
The isthmus formed between it and Lake Ontario, in the township of 
Murray, is not more than three furlongs broad, over which there is a 
portage. This inlet affords to vessels safe shelter from the heavy gales 
frequently experienced on the lake. The peninsula on every side is 
indented by nunierous small bays and co\es. Several rivers fall into the 



^ 



.so 



I I'PKR CANADA. 



bav, of which tho hir<>;ost arc tlic Xapannco, the Shannon, tlic ^Foira, and 
the Trent. The latter, Howinj;' (Voni Hiee Lake, is tlie ehannel hy wliieh 
the waters of a ehain of shaMow hikes in tlie Newcastle district are 
hroiiuht into Lake Ontario. On the sonth side of the 'I'rent, in the 
townshi]) of I'erey. are several springs highly ini))reu,iiate(l with salt, and 
from which that article is made, but does not answer the j)nr|)()se of 
eurini; ))rovisions ; being found, by repeated ex])eriments, not to possess 
the preservative cjualities of sea salt. The townships on the borders of 
the l)ay and on the jieninsula are thickly iidiabited. and in a prosperous 
state of cultivation. Their j)ro(luce of wheat and otiier grain is very 
abundant, the soil being- extremely rich and very easily tilled, although 
in general requiring manure to teiu])cr its clayey coldness. 

The thriving village of I'erth is situated in the township of Dnnn- 
mond. on a branch of the Hideau.and occupies a central position between 
the(iraiul Kiver and the St. Lawrence, conununicating by tolerably good 
roads with Kingston to the s((Uth, and Hy Town to the northward, at the 
opposite extremities of the Uideau canal. The first establishment fostered 
by government was made in 1815 by IJritish emigrants, chiefly from 
Scotland, many of whom are now at the head of excellent farms, ))ossess 
comfortable habitations, and reap the fruits of their perseverance and 
industry, 'i'he population of the village does not ])robably exceed, as 
yet, three hundred ai,d fifty or four hundred souls ; but its relative 
situatit)n with the surrounding country and tlie canal, making it the 
natural entrepot of the settlements on the St. Lawrence, and those of tlie 
Ottawa river, promises to contribute to its rapid aggrandisement and 
prosperity, independently of the advantages it derives from being seated 
in the midst of a fertile and luxuriant tract of country. The military 
settlements of I^anark and Richmond have also experienced the benefits 
of government patronage; and occupying, as they do, a propitious locality 
and excellent soil, are very ])ros])erous, and fast increasing in their agri- 
cultural improvements and population. 

liy Town, in Nepean, is situated on the soutliern bank of the Ottawa, 
a little below the beautiful falls of the Chaudiere, and opposite the 
flourishing village of Hull in Lower Canada. It stands u))on a high 
and bold eminence surrounding Canal Bay, and occupies both banks of 



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tlic ciiiiiil ; rliiit part lyin^ to the rust hi'lii^ calli'd tlic Louct. and that to 
the west. I'loiii a siipcrioiity of local i-lfvatioii, the I '|>prr 'I'owu. 'I'lii* 
stri't'ts aiv laid out with much ii';;ularity,aiid of a lihcial width, that will 
hereafter eontrihute to tiu> eouvenieiice, salulirity, and elegance n|' the 
place. Tile number of houses now huilt is not far slutrt o|' »»nc hundred 
and fifty, most of which are constructed of wood. fre(|uently in a style of 
neattiCNs and taste that retlcets t;reat credit upon the inhahitants. On 
the elevated l)anks (»f the hay. tlii' hospital, an extensiM- stone l»uildiu«;', 
and three stone barracks, stand conspicuous; and nearly on a le\tl with 
them, and on the eastern side of the bay, is delinhttully situated the re- 
sidence of Colonel lly. the conuuandin^' royal entiiiurr on that station. 
From his veranda the most spU ndid view is belu'ld that the manniliccnt 
scenery of the C'anadas affords. 'I'he bold eminence that eud)osom,s 
Entrance Hay. the broken and wild shores opposite, beyond which are 
seen a ])art of the flourishing- settlements and the church of Mull, the 
verdant and pictures(pie islands between both banks, and occasional 
canoes, barges, and rafts ))lyino' the broad surface of the (irand river, or 
desceiulin"' its tunudtuous stream, an- the innui'diati- obit'i'ts that com- 
niaiid the notice of the be'-older. In remoter perspective the eye dwells 
u))i)n a succession of varied and beautiful bridni's. abuttin;^; upon pre- 
ei])itous and cra<i,<iy rocks, and abrupt islands, betwei'U wiiich the waters 
are urued with wonderful agitation and \ ioleuce Hevond lliem. and 
above their level, tlu' nlitterin«;' surface of the river is discovered in its 
descent throu<;h the broad and majestic rapid l)es C'lienes. until the 
waters arc ])reei])itated in immense volmues o\er the ver<;e of the rock, 
forming the falls of the (Jreat and Little C'haudiere. l''roni the abyss 
into which they are involved with terrific force, rexolvinji; colunuis of 
mist perpetually ascend in refidj^cnt whiteness, aiul as they desceiul in 
spray beneath a j^lowinir simshine, freciuently form a partial but brij^ht 
iris, that seems triumphantly to overarch a section of the bridge. The 
landscape of the Union IJridges, althou<>h not taken exactly from this 
enchantin<>' spot, nuiy convey some idea of the scoj)e and sj)len(lour of 
the prospect which we have attempted briefly to describe, and partly 
secure to it that admiration to which it is so richly entitled. 

The talent evinced by Colonel By, and the z(>al he has disjdayed in 



8 



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I i'PKR CANADA. 



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tlio ])rosoc'uti()n of tlio ^roat and monuMiloiis works intrusted to his pro- 
fessional skill, are strikingly demonstrated by the vigour with whieh the 
operations are carried «)n upon the Hideau eanal, and the enudalion and 
spirit that pervade the settlements that have grown out of this stupen- 
dous undertaking. 

llawkeshury. about sixty miles east of l?y Town, v- d twelve miles 
above l*oint Fortune, at the eastern boundary of tin provinee, is an 
important village upon the southern banks of the Ottiiw a, at the lower 
extremity of the steam-boat navigation of the river, from the Falls of 
Chaudiere. The excellent saw-mills of Messrs. Hamilton and Huchanan, 
and their extensive tind)er establishuu nt, are well Avorthy of particular 
notice, and must have nuu-h contributed to the ])rosj)erity of the ])lace. 

Some distance above 15y Town is IJritannia, the valuable estate of 
Captain I>e lireton. It is exceedingly well situated, at the lower 
extremity of Lake Chaudiere, and near the head of the beautiful ra])id 
I)(',s C/n'iK'n, whose broad surface and agitated waters, gliding swiftly 
between ])artially inhabited, luxiunantly verdant, and ])icturesque banks, 
add in a high degree to the interest and beauty of the spot. The mills 
erected there have the advantage of an excellent site, and are t)f the 
greatest utility to the surrovuuling settlements. 

^Vscending along the shores of Lake Chaudiere, the next objects of 
note first presenting themselves are the rising colonies in front of the 
townships of March and Tarbolton ; they are ehicHy composed of families 
of high respectability, possessed in general of ade(iuate means to avail 
themselves of the advantages that are incident to a newly opened country. 
Higher up, at the foot of the various cascades t)f the C/taf.s; is tlie esta- 
blishment of John Sheriir, Ksq., ])leasantly situated in a very romantic 
and desirable spot. Above this, an im])ervious wilderness extends to the 
north-westward along the raj)ids of the CV/r/Av, and part of the lake of the 
same name, until human habitations rea])pear in the township of Mac- 
nab. High up, on the bold and abrupt shore of the broad and pic- 
tiu'es(iue lake of the C/taf,\-^', the Highland chief Macnab has selected a 



* Tliis correct and orijiiiial Frciidi aj>j)L'llation lias now become an Anglicism, and is fre- 
quent!) written as pronomiced — S/ia>rs. 






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MACXAB'S SETTLKMENT- CENTRAL SI-CTIOX. 



83 



romantic residence, Kincll liodne, Avliich lie lias siicccciled, tl)roii<;'li the 
most iinsliakeii ])erseverance, in rendering exceedingly comfortable*. 
His unexanii)led exertions in forming and fostering the settlements of 
the township, of which he may be considered the founder and the leader, 
have not been attended with all the success that was desirable, or which 
he anticipated. Most, if not the whole of the inhabitants, were members 
of his clan, Avhom he brought from the Highlands at considerable trouble 
and expense, Avith a view of improving their condition and ameliorating 
their circumstances. However, they do not appear to have fully appre- 
ciated the benelits intended to be conferred, nor the multi])licity and 
magnitude of the obstacles that were surmounted in locating them to 
their ncAV lands, although they in some measure nuist themselves have 
partici))ated in the difficulties incident to the formation of an early settle- 
ment in the heart of an absolute wilderness. The colony is nevertheless 
making sensible progress in its improvements, and will doubtless in a few 
years be a valuable accession of industry, loyalty, and strength to the 
province. 



►1 



§ II.— CENTRAL 8ECTI0X.— 

DISTllK'TS OF IIOMK AM) NKWCASTLK. 



This section of the province embraces the districts of Home and 
Newcastle, which occu))y a front of about one hundred and twenty miles 
upon Lake Ontario, extending from the head of the liay of Quinte west- 

iMthough less popu- 



ward, to the line between Toronto and Trafalgar 



* Tho characteristic liosjiitality tliat distinguisliccl our reception t)y the fjaliaiit chief, wlicri 
in 1}!2}{ we were returiiiiiy; down tlie Ottawa, after liavin^ exjdored its rapids and lakes, as far 
up as Grand Calunu't, we cainiot pass over in silence. To voyajjeurs in tlie remote wilds of 
Canada, necessarily strangers for the time to the sweets of civilization, the unexpected comforts 
of a well-furnished board, and the cordiality of a Highland welcome, are blessings that fall upon 
the soul like dew upon the flower. " The sun was just resigning to the moon the empire of the 
skies," when we took our leave of the noble chieftain to descend the formidable rapids of the 
Chats. As we glided from the foot of i. . btdd bank, the gay plaid and cap of the noble (Jael 
were .seen waving on the proud eminence, and the shrill notes of the piper tilled the air with 
their wild cadences. They died away as we approached the head of the rapids. Our caps were 
flourished, and the flags (for our canoe was gaily decorated with them) waved in adieu, and we 
entered the vortex of the swift and whirling stream. 

M 2 






U' !•• 



84 



T PPKR CANADA. 



!• i 



lous than tlic tract of country composing the first part of the division 
wliich we have adopted, this portion of the province does not yield to it 
in point of fertility, and is ecpially well watered by numerous lakes, 
broad and beautiful rivers, and innumerable rivulets and brooks. 

The Trent, whicli is the largest river flowing through it, issues out 
of Rice Lake, and taking a Avinding and circuitous coiu'se of about one 
hundred miles falls into the IJay of Quinte, near the village of Sidney, 
after receiving: the waters of the ^larmora and numerous other tributa- 
ries. The Otanabee, discharging itself, from the northward, into Rice 
Lake, might be considered a continuation of the Trent. It is a full, 
broad stream, navigable, as well as the Trent, for boats : and a spot, since 
called I'etersborougli, in the township of Monaghan, was selected on its 
western l)ank, eighteen or twenty miles north of Rice Lake, for the 
location of 2()24 settlers sent out by government in 1825. It communi- 
cates from its source, in Trout Lake, with a chain of lakes stretching- 
west wardly towards Lake Simcoe. From Ralsam Lake, the last of this 
chain, a short portage is made to tlie source of Talbot river falling into 
Simcoe; tluis opening an almost continued interior water conununication 
between the Ray of Quinte and I^ake Huron. Rut the rapids and cas- 
cades by Avhich the navigation of the Severn, connecting Lake Simcoe 
with Huron, is interrupted, operate, in some measure, against the advan- 
tages tliat might be derived from so singular a fact. Tlie route is, 
nevertheless, practised by voyagcurti, by means of portages at the most 
dangerous ])asses of the river, whicli render available this abridged 
distance into I^ake Huron. 

The Xottawasaga, descending northward to Xottawasaga Ray, Hol- 
land, MukketehsebcS Reaver, Talbot, and Rlack rivers falling into Lake 
Simcoe, — Credit, Etobicoke. Humber, and Don rivers, flowing into Lake 
Ontario, are tiiu most worthy of particular mention. They in general 
abound with excellent fish, and especially salmon, great quantities of 
which are annually sjieared in the river Credit for the supply of the 
western country. Resides these rivers, a great number of " creeks" of 
considerable importance discharge their streams into the lake, fertilizing 
the lands through which they How, and generally furnishing hydraulic 



I 



LAKE SIMCOE— RICE LAKE. 



S5 



M 



powers to work various dcscriptioiis of mills. cliicHy applied at ))rcsont 
to the ])ur])oses of grinding' grain and sawing timber. 

Lake Simcoc, situated in Home Distriet, between Lakes Huron 
and Ontario, eovers a surfaee of about ;j()0 scpiare miles, and is the most 
extensive interior lake of the Up))er Provinec. Judging from the height 
of the frequent falls and cascades by which its outlet is broken, the 
elevation of its surface nuist be, at least, one hundred feet above the 
level of I^ake Huron, and therefore nuich higher than that of liakes 
Erie and Ontario. The ])roject contem])lated of linking Lakes Huron 
and Ontario, by canals, with I^ake Simcoe, though not imi)racticable in 
itself, would, nevertheless, be attended with some dilliculty, from the 
fre([uent lockage that would necessarily be recjuired in a comparatively 
.short distance. Yet there can be little doubt that, eventually, when the 
shores of Lake Huron are covered by a dense agricultural and commer- 
cial population, such a communication by water will be found of the 
highest utility in facilitating the intercourse l)etween the settled ])arts of 
the colony. The lands in the vicinity of Lake Simcoe arc remarkably 
fine, and, like most of the lands of the province, peculiarly easy of culti- 
vation, from the depth of the soil and ecjuality of the surface. 

Rice Lake is about twenty-five miles long, and four or five miles 
wide. It lies nearly south-west and north-east, in the district of 
Newcastle, and about fifteen miles from the shore of Ontario. The 
name it bears is derived from the wild rice growing upon its margin ; 
the grain is not, however, restx'icted to its shores, but is indigenous 
to that part of the country, and is frecjuently found in marshes, and 
upon the borders of lakes. It yields abundant food to quantities of 
wild foAvl, and is gathered by the Indians, who beat it in their canoes, 
and a))ply it to their own uses, or disj)ose of it to the inhabitants. The 
exposed situation of York has freipiently suggested a removal of the 
.seat of govermnent to .some iiiore defensible spot, and Rice Lake has not 
injudiciously been mentioned as ofi'ering su])erior advantages under that 
aspect. Rice I^ake could easily be connected by a ship canal with Lake 
Ontario, and the capital being thus removed from th.e iunnediate frontier, 
and covered by the rising ground between the two lakes, which might 
be made a very effectual secondary barrier of dei'ence, -would be less open to 



I 






86 



riM>KR CANADA. 



invasion, and therefore hcttiT ealc iilatod to be the depository of the public 
arebives and records of tiie province. Tiie lakes forming tbe chain, of 
which we have before s])oken. are lialsani. Sturgeon, I'idgeon, Sbeniong, 
Shibauticon, and Trout. Several other small lakes are scattered over the 
country, which it would be too tedious to particularize. 

In the iVont of Newcastle district, on the borders of I^akc Ontario, 
the soil consists of a rich black earth ; but, in the district of Home, tlie 
shores of the lake are of an inferior cpiality. The lands upon Yonge- 
street, which coiniects 'N^ork with Tiake Simcoe, are exceedingly fertile, 
but so destitute of stones as to create some inconvenience to the settlers. 
A sandy plain, of some extent, exists some distance north of Ontario, 
towards Uice Lake: but saving this, and ])rol)ably one or two more com- 
paratively insignificant exceptions, the soil of this tract of country is 
extremely fertile, highly conducive to agricvdtiu'e, and yields luxuriant 
cro])s of wheat, rye, maize *, j)ease, barley, oats, buck wheat, dvc. 

The po])idation of these two districts amounted, in lH2i, to 2.5,P01 
souls, and had, in 1828, increased to 3(>,264. souls, being an accession of 
10,.'J().'i inhabitants in four years, or an increase, in that period, of 40 per 
cent, which exceeds that of any other ])art of the ])rovince. 

The front ])art of all the townshi])s from Kingston to Vork are, 
with few exceptions, well settled ; roads lead through them, from which, 
in many places, others branch off to the interior. ^Vt intervals, rather 
distant indeed from each other, there are a few small villages, the prin- 
cipal of which are lielleville, Coburg, Port Hope, Darlington, and 
AVindsor ; but single dwellings and farms are continually presenting 
themselves along the road, which is that followed by the mail. On the 
lands that are occupied great progress has been made in agricultiu'e ; the 
houses, generally speaking, are strong and well built ; and the inhabitants 
appear to be possessed of all the necessaries as well as most of the com- 
forts that a life of industry usually bestows. 

The town of York, the infant capital of Upper Canada, is in latitude 
43" 33' north, and in longitude 79" 2U' west, exceedingly well situated in 
the township of the same name, on the north side of an excellent harbour. 



> -i 



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* Culled in Caiiiida Indian corn. 



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.1 



YORK— NKW COLLKCii:. 



87 






111 11 inilitiiry point of view, its position is weak and cxtromt'ly viiliicra- 
blc; yi't, if JiKiit'iously fortified and c't)nipcti'nt Avorks tiirown upon the 
peninsulated beaeli in front, it niiglit be eapable of considerable resistance 
ag-ainstan attaekfroni the lake. It is very re<;ularly laid out,\vitli tbestreets 
running' at right angles, and promises to become a very liandsome town. 
The ))lot of ground marked out for it extends about a mile and a half 
along- the harboiu', but at present the number of houses does not greatly 
exceed foiu- lunidrcd and lifty,the greatest part of which are built of wood, 
but there arc however many very excellent ones of brick and stone, and 
most of the munerous dwelling-houses annually added to the town are 
of the latter description. The pid)lic edifices are a goverr.ment-house, the 
house of assembly for the provincial parliament, a church, a court-house. 
and u gaol, with numerous stores and buildings for the various purposes 
of government. 

The new college stands iumiediately o])])osite the government-house, 
and comprises five neat brick buildings of two stories high. The ccutre 
building, a])pro])riated exclusively to collegiate instruction, is eighty-two 
feet in length by eighty-five in depth, and surmounted by an elegant or- 
namental dome. The buildings forming its Avings are respectively forty- 
five feet square, and are dedicated to the use of the ])rinci])als, professors, 
and masters of the college. The lieutenant-governor of the ])rovince is. 
by virtue of his oflice, the visitor; the princli)al is the Rev. J. H. Harris, 
1). I)., late fellow of Clare Hall, Cand)ridge; and vice-principal, the 
Rev. J. riiillips, 1). 1). of Queen's College, Cambridge. The avowed 
course of studies pursued comprises the " classics, mathematics, Knglish 
composition, and history, writing and arithmetic, geograpliy and French;" 
and it a})pears that pupils are not allowed to confine their attention to a 
part of the system laid down, to the exclusion of any of the subjects 
V !iich it embraces. Such institutions are ])ecidiarly interesting in anew 
country, and have long been among the dcfiidcrata of the ])rovince ; they 
are, at the same time, a pledge that intellectual cidtivation will go hand 
in hand with local im])rovements, and that whilst the industrious agri- 
culturist and the enterprising trader are prosecuting their various me- 
ritorious pursuits and s])eculations, the youth of the colony will be 
receiving the benefits of collegiate educaaon, the stejiping-stone to 



fl 



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§ 



I ll 



( I 



88 



rPI>i:i{ CANADA. 



c'lniiicucc in the learned prot'essions, and an advanta^^e no less valuable to 
the philosopher, the statesman, and the gentleman. 

The new |)arliament-lu)use, the emigrant's asylum, the law-soeiety 
hall, the Scots kirk, and a l)a])tist ehapel are also eonK])ieuous in the list 
of the recent improvements of the town, and are evidence; of nuieh public 
spirit and prosjjcrity. 

The garrison is situated to the westward of the town, at a mile 
distance. It consists of barracks for the troops usually stationed here ; a 
residence for the connnanding oflicer, now most fre(iuently occuj)ied by 
the lieutenant governor of the province;; a battery and two block-houses, 
which together ])rotect the entrance of the harboiw. The space between 
the garrison and the town is wholly reserved for the use of government. 

The harboiu" of York is nearly circular, and formed by a \ery narrow 
|)eninsula, stretching from the western e\treu)ity of the townshij) of 
Scarborough, in an obrujue direction, for about six miles, and terminating 
in a curved point nearly opposite the garrison; thus enclosing a beautiful 
basin about a mile and a half in diameter, capable of containing a great 
lunnber of vessels, and at the entrance of which ships may lie with safety 
during the winter. The formation of the peninsula itself is extraordinary, 
being a narrow slip of laiul, in several ])laces not more than sixty yards 
in breadth, but widening tcmards its extremity to nearly a niile: it is 
principally a bank of sand, slightly overgrown with grass ; the widest 
part is very curiously intersected by many large ponds, that are the con- 
tinual resort of great (piantitics of wild fowl ; a few trees scattered upon 
it greatly increase tlie singularity of its ap])earance ; it lies so low that 
the wide expanse of Lake Ontario is seen over it : the termination of the 
peninsula is called (Gibraltar Point, where a block-bouse has been erecttci. 
A lighthouse, at the western extremity of the beach, has rendered the 
access to the harbour safely practicable by night. The eastern part of 
the harbour is bounded by an extensive marsh, through ])art of which 
the river Don runs before it discharges itself into the basin. \o place 
in either province has made so rapid a progress as York. In the year 
179.3, the spot on Avhicli it stands presented only one solitary Indian 
wigwam ; in the ensuing spring the ground for the future metro])olis of 
Upper Canada was fixed upon, and the buildings conniienced under the 



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ininuMliatc" siiprriiiti \Mice of tl late CicHM'iil Siincv, tl .1 Jieutoiiant- 
oovcriior, whose lilKTat ;vn(l iMi' i^od pi. «»♦' 1111)11 >ii'nu*«it ' tvo matc- 
riall\ advanced the welfare and i)r<»s|>('iil 1 the pr mee . hithespaee 
of five or six years it heeaine a respeitaiti j#)aii', ;in» 'Mpidly increased to 
its j)resent importance : it now contuinn « |N»j)uhHM«i of four thousand 
souls. 

The parliament of the province annually holds its sittin«;s here, as 
do all the courts of justice. Considerable advances have also been made 
in the commerce, general opulence, and eonsi'cjuent amelioration of its 
society, lieino- the residence of the chief olllcers of oom.] nuient, both 
civil and military, many of the conveniences and comi'orts of polished 
life are to be met with. Several newspapers are there ])rinted weekly. 
The lands of the adjacent townships for several miles round are in a hii^h 
state of cultivation, so that the market of the town is always well sup- 
plied. The jH'essure of the late war has been considerably fi'lt here, as it 
was ca])turedby thei\meriean army on the ;27th i\pril, 1S1:{. They held 
it, however, only a few days; but in that time the <>()vernment-house and 
all the public buildings and stores were burnt, after remo\ int;' so nuich 
of their contents as could be conveniently carried off | . 






" 'i 






Hk 



* It ft'll to my lot to niakf the first survey of York Iliirliniir in IJl^'J. Lieutonaiit- 
Ciovcnior the lato (ioiicral Simcoc, who then resided iit Xavv Hidl, Niagara, having formed 
extensive jilans for tlio iniiirovenient of tlie cohiiiy, liad resolved njxm hiyin^i;' the foundations of 
a ])n)vincial capital. I w as at that jieriod in the naval service of the lakes, and the survey of 
Toronto (York) Harbour was intrusted by his excellency to my jierformance : I still distinctly 
recollect the untamed aspect wiiicli the country exhibited when first I entered the beautiful 
Ijasin, which thus became the scene of my early hydrographical operations. Dens ■ and track- 
less forests lined the margin of the lake, ami rcHected their inverted imai:es in its glassy sur- 
face. The wandering savage liad constructed his eplienieral habitation beneath their luxuriant 
foliage — the group then consisting of two families of ^lessassaga.s, — and the bay and neigli- 
bouring marshes were the hitherto uninvaded haunts of inmiense coveys of wild fowl : indeed 
they were so abundant as in some measure to annoy us during the night. In the spring 
following the lieutenant-governor removed to the site of the new capital, attended by the regi- 
ment of Queen's Rangers, and conunenced at once the realization of his favourite project. His 
Excellency inhabited during the suumier and through the winter a canvas house, which he 
imported expressly for the occasion ; but frail as was its sid)stance, it was rendered exceedingly 
comfortable, and soon became as distinguished for the social and urbane hospitality of its vene- 
rated and gracious host, as for the peculiarity of its structure. 

+ The defenceless situation of York, the mode of its capture, and the destruction of the 

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111 



Hi 



90 



VVVV.n CANADA. 



Imnii'diatcly in the rear of tlir town is a very j^otxl road, i-alk'd 
Yon^e-strc'i't, that li-ads to (iwillindjury, a small vilhii^c tliirty-tu'o 
jniU's t(» the noitliward, and thcnir tivi' miles more to Cook's Hay, 
from wliicli liv Tiukc Slmcoc tlit'iv is a commnnieation to Lake Iluroti. 
Tills heinj;' a route of mueli importance was j;ivatly improved by the 
North-wi'st C'om|)any, for the double purpose of shortenini^' the distance 
to the U])))er Lakes, and iivoidinjif any eontaet with the i\meriean fron- 
tiers. 'I'he land on each side of it for a eonsiderable depth is very fertile, 
and many settlements are already formed, where some of the farms are 
In a <;()od state of cultivation. 'IMie advantai;c' of this connnunieation 
will be in some de>;ree sliown by the followln<;' recapitulation of it. From 
Vork to Cook's Hay. on Lake Simeoe, the distance is thirty-seven miles; 
the navi<;ali()n through that lake and the Itiver Matchedasli uj) to tlie 
old tradln<^'-])()st on Matcbedasli I5ay Is seventy-seven miles more; makinjr 
together one hundred and fourteen, A shorter route even than this is 
now formed by a road wliicli was orij^inidly traced at the expense of the 
late Xortb-west Company, from Kempenfelt Hay, on liakc Simeoe, to 
Fenetengushene Harbour, openini;- Into (ilouccster 15ay on Lake Huron, 
wbcre a town ])lot has been laid out and a naval depot established. This 
line of road beini^' oidy twenty-nine miles reduces the distance from 
York to liakc Huron to eiglity-ci<5lit miles, going by water from Cook's 
1 Jay Into Kem])enfelt Hay. ^Vnotlier small reduction might still be made 
by opening a road from Holland river up to the last-mentioned bay. 
By pursuing this route, the distance from York to St. JNIary's Rapid, 
between I^ake Huron and liake Superior, is about four lumdrcd miles; 
Avbcrcas by the circuitous one of I^ake Eric and tlie river Ste. Claire it Is 
full seven hundred : the importance of the connnunieation is therefore 
obvious. 

hirj^c sliip then on tlif stocks wcro Imt too prophetically (lonionstriiti'd in my report to hciid- 
(piarters, in Lower (':nKi(l;i, on niv return from a responsible mission to the capital of the U|)per 
province in the early part of April. Indeed the conmmnication of the result of my reconnoi- 
tring operations, and the intelligence of the successful invasion of York, and the firing of the 
new ship by the enemy, were received almost simultaneously. 



I 



I 



' 'I I 



WKSTKUX DISTincTS— POI'ILATION-SITIATION. 



fJl 



§ III.— WKSTKHX SKiriOX. - 

liOHi:, MA(>AII.\, I.K.NDllN, AMI \\i;^riniN IIIKTIIII TH. 






'i 



Tilt' western division of the orj^ani/ed ));irts of rpper C''inii(l;i com- 
prises four (listriets — Xiajfiira, (lore. liondoii. and Western. In iHfil- it 
contained a popnlation (tf •>."). UOO inhabitants, and appears i)y tlii' eensus 
of IH'JH to have inereased in four years to ()4,1.57, thus givin<;' a ratio of 
increase of Ki', per cent, (hn-inj;' tliat ))erio(l. 

Situated between the paraMels of V2" and l.'t :i()' nortli hititude, 
it has the advantaj^c of extending;' furtlier south than any other portion 
of tlie British North American possessions, and henee ( ujov in an emi- 
nent (k'l^ree a superior fertility of soil and milder temj)era;i ''climate. 
Hut 11 correct idea of its nieteorolo<>}- is not to be f ni" ' ^. ■ 'ever, from 
tlie analo<;y of similar latitudes on the old continent; .' . . ■ not exactly 
to be assumec' ihat the atmosphere of this ))art of th ' ' o\ince is 

possessed durmjj; winter of as moilerate a decree ol ri.^our as that of tjie 
places situated imder the same circles of latitude in Italy, or any other 
part of Europe. The climate of America is indeed essentially different 
from that of any other (piarter of the i-lobe ; but to what precise ])hy- 
sical agency so wide a dissimilarity is ascribable has not yet, it is believed, 
been very satisfactorily discovered, although various causes have been 
already assigned i'ov it. 

A^'^ith the aid of a little fancy, the tract of country we are now de- 
scribing may be sha])ed into a vast equilateral triangular ])eninsula. whose 
base, extending from Fort Krieto Cape Ilurd on Lake Huron, measures 
21(5 miles, and Avhosc perpendicular, striking the Detroit river at And)crs- 
burgh, is about 1<).5 n)iles. It is bounded to the north and west by I.,ake 
Huron, Jliver and Lake St. Clair, and Detroit river ; south by Lake Erie; 
and cast by Niagara river, liake Ontario, and the western limits of the 
district of Home. The surface it exhibits is uniforndy level or slightly 
imdulating, if we except a very few solitary eminences, and those parts 
of the districts of Ciore and Niagara traversed by the ridge of elevated 
land traced in a previous chapter, the general altitude of w hicb does not 



<f-'i 



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m 



I l'l'i:n CANADA. 



rxcvc'd ouv liuiulivil lc>ot. !iltli()ii_<;li iit s(iim< points it niny iipproadi very 
iU';ir tliri'c humlivd and fifty. It is not. tlicivl'ori>. in a conntry so little 
varic'i;atrd i)v liill and dale, and so ntterly a stranger to llie towerinj:; 
iirandeur of the nionntain, that suhliinitv oi" seenery is to he sonnht : vet 
the inn)i( use ixtent. n\ai;nitu(le. and beauty of its forests, and tiie pro- 
digious \astness of its waters, are no insi<>nitieant sourees of the sublime; 
whilst the exuberant fertility of extensive ])lains, the luxuriance of 
orchards ninnnbent with the weight of tlii-ir delicious fruits, the graeeful 
nieanderin<;s of full tlowiuL!,' streams, or the sot't nuuMnurinns of more 
hund)le rivulets, added to the busy sciiies of rural and thriviny; industry, 
cannot i)e denied eminently to })ossess the most interesting charms of 
tlie pietui'es(|ue. 

The variity of soils, and the diversity of their combinations, observa- 
ble in these (our districts, are by no means so great as might be ex])ected 
in so extendi'd a region. TIu' v.h.olc tract is alluvial in its formation, 
and chieily consists of a stratum of black and sometimes yellow loam ; 
above which is deposited, when in a state of nature, a rich and deep 
vegetable mould, the substratum beneath the bcnl of loam being generally 
a tenacious gray or blue clay, -which in some parts appears at the 
surface, and, intermixed with sand, constitutes the super-soil. This 
species and a sandy loam highly i'ertile in its jn'operties are of more fre- 
(pient occurrence in proceeding from the uestern district eastward, and 
appear to predominate in the districts of (Jore and Xiagara. The almost 
total absence ol' stones or gravel within the greatest arable depth is a 
])cculiar feature of the generality of laiuls in the Upper I'rovince, which 
lias been felt as a serious inconvenience by the inhabitants in the pro- 
gress of their rural im])ro\ ements, whatever may be its ])robable advan- 
tage as facilitating some of the operations of husbaiulry. There are, 
however, numerous and extensive (puu-ries of limestone to be found in 
most of the townshi])s of these districts, that supply the farmers with 
excellent materials for buihling; the ])rice of the (piarried limestone 
fluctuating from five to fifteen shillings the toise. Freestone is also 
found, but in small (piantities, and generally along the shores of the lakes. 

The forests are remarkable for the sturdy growth, the variety, and 
the '-'ch foliage of their trees. Out of the long list of their dilFerent 



I! .' 



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i 



1 

1 



TniBi'K— iM..\iNs-iii\ i:us. 



f».'3 



S))ec'ios, tlic lollowiiiu; ni:iy ho sclcftcd ;is bi-iiiu,' of most fVr(|iK'iit ocfiir- 
iviu'c: mapli', hctrli, oiik. hiisswood. iisli, i>liii, ))ino. Iiickorv. walnut. 
biittiMHiit. tlu>stiuit, I'licrry. birch, ccchtr, aiul |)iiu', and their si>vrial \ a- 
rictii's. 'I'ho (vdar and pine arc much pri/cd in C(>nsc(|ucnii' oi' thi-ir 
scarcity, particularly in the \\'cstcrn and London distrit'ts. wIumc tlicv 
arc barely I'ound in sullicicnt quantities to furnish materials i'or durable 
buildings and fencini>; enclosures. In the heart «)f thesc> deiisi- woods. 
and on the borders of rivers, extensive plains suddi'uly present them- 
selves, that lay open to view a beautiful ari'a of natural meadow, often 
ext)andin_i;' several thousand miles in e\tiiit. and di-lij^ht fully relieved by 
occasional cluni])s of lofty ])ine. white oak. and po])lai-. a<;ri'eably clustered 
in the various vistas of the ))laiu. In the m^i^hbourhood of I,oni;- Point 
aiul on the banks of the (Jrand river an' situated the most extensive^ of 
these vast and often fertile plains, whii-h are j^'cnerally in a Mourishin^ 
state of cultivation. In thi' townshi])s of Hurford. Stamford, Niagara. 
Toronto, York, Dumfries, and Ancaster. broad and beautiful natural 
meadows are also to hv found ; but in general tlu>v aie considereil more 
])revalent in the London district than in any other section of tin- province. 

These four distiicts are remarkably well waten-d by sevi-ral larm' 
rivers and their various branches, intersect in i;- the country in every di- 
rection, and generally aiU)rtlini;'exceedin<fly convenient means of intirnal 
conveyance, as they are for the most ])art navigable for lit;ht boats to 
very remote distances, and for ri\ er sloops and craft for several miles 
above their mouths. The rivcMs entitled to more partii'ular considera- 
tion are the Thames, the Ouse or (Jrand river, the \\'elland or Chippewa, 
the IJig- Hear, and the Maitland. 

The Thames, formerly called the IJiviere a la Tranche, riscN far in 
the interior, rather north of the township of Hlandford ; and alter pur- 
suinu,' a serpi'Utine course of about one lunulred and lifty miles, in a 
direction nearly south-west, discharges itself into I -ake St. Clair. It is 
navigable for large vessels as far up as Chatham, lifteen miles abo\c' its 
mouth, antl for boats nearly to its source. A bar across its entrance is 
certainly some drawback; but as there is at all tin\i's sullieient water u])on 
it to float small craft ])erfectly e(pii])ped, the resources of art would vi'ry 
easily ])ass those of a much larger burden. Camels, for instance, might 



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94 



rPPER CANADxV. 



be used ; or even common li<>liters, dexterously managed, would, as 
it is lielievcd ex))erience already lias shown, prove adequate to the service. 
The river winds thr<)u<;li a iine level country, highly fertile, and rich in 
every requisite for new settlements. Its banks present many line plains 
and excellent natural meadows. The soil is principally a sandy earth, 
intermixed with large quantities of loan), and sometimes marl, under 
which is a s\d)stratum of clay ; and the flats of the river amnially acMjuire 
nnich richness from the overflowing of those parts of its banks, by which 
rich alluvial deposits arc made upon the surface. The oak, maple, walnut, 
beech, and ])ine growing in its vicinity are of very superior <puility. 
There are roads opened along its course, and on each side of it lunnerons 
scattered settlements down to Lake St. Clair; but the roads are rather 
neglected, from the preference generally given to the use of the river as 
a highway. The DeUnvare Indian village, and another of Moravian 
settlers, are situated on it. The last is about thirty-five miles from the 
mouth of the river, and is under the superintendence of missionaries from 
the Society of Moravian United IJrethren, who maintain a chapel here. 
There are many Indian converts residing in it, whose peaceable conduct 
and general demeanour show some of the benefits derived from civiliza- 
tion. The village is surrounded by thriving corn-fields, and tillage has 
made considerable jirogress in its neighboiu'hood *. 

About twenty miles further down the river is a small place called 
Chatham, very desirably seated at the junction of a large stream with 
the Thames : it is in a very centrical situation, and at the head of the ship 
navigation of the river. A dockyard might be advantageously established 
on the point of land formed by the confluence of the two streams, from 
whence vessels might be conveniently launched. London is situated in 
the township of the same name, on the banks of the main branch of the 
Thames, about ninetv miles from the mouth of the river, and in a tole- 



* These villiifres liavc acf|Tiii'c(l niucli celebrity as the theatre of the in"morablc battle 
fought on the ')tli October, 1H13, between the united British and Indian forces, under General 
Proctor and the Indian cliief Teeuniseli, and the army of the American general, Harrison. It 
was in this action tliat the famous Indian warrior fell, after maintaining, at the head of a few 
Indians, a most desjierate engagement with the left wing of a mounted American corps, under 
the command of Colonel Johnson. 



THE TIIAMl-S-CRAND RIVER. 



9.5 



'ably central position between the surrounding lakes. From the obvious 
analogy intended to be drawn between the local appellations of tiiis ])arl 
of the province and those of the mother country, it has been inferred 
that Governor Simcoe coiitem])lated, at the time the surveys took place, 
the j)Ossibility, that London might idtimately become the metropolis of 
the colony. However imj)robable or visionary such a change may now 
appear, there is no antici])ating the ciumges tiiat the ])rogressive anil 
rapid improvement of the province may dictate; especially when it is 
recollected that the ])resent capital is considered by many as untenable, 
■whilst the interior position of Ivoiulon,and its numerous and improvable 
advantages, arc adnuttcd to give it a superiority under various asj)ects. 
although deficient as a shipping port, in which ])articidar it yields alto- 
gether to York. 

The Grand river is next in magnitude to the 'riiames, and takes its 
source in the interior of the country towards Lake Huron. It Hows 
in a general south-easterly course, with very serpentine windings, and 
traversing a tract of the highest degree of fertility, discharges itself 
into Lake Erie at Sherbrooke, between Point au IJarbet and (irand river 
Point. At its mouth it is upwards of nine hundred yards wide; but its 
access to large vessels is rendered difficult by a sand bar stretching across 
the entrance that fluctuates in its elevation, but upon which is generally 
found eight feet of water. The river is navigable for schooners about 
twenty-five miles above its mouth, and considerably farther uj) for large 
boats. It offers one of the few harbours that the north shore of liake 
Erie affords; andmight, if judiciously fortified, be rendered very safe and 
secure. Its banks abound with gypsum, Avhich may be easily obtained 
from copious beds, and conveyed to any part of the extensive region the 
river traverses, by the convenient means its navigation allows. The lands 
on both sides of this beautiful river were originally a])])ropriated ex- 
clusively to the Indians of the Six Nations ; but part of them have since 
been laid out into townships. A'illagcs of the various tribes are dispersed 
along its picturesque banks ; and in ascending the stream, we come first 
to the Senecas, and then in succession to the Delawarcs, Mississagas, 
Onondagas, Tuscaroras, and Cayugas. The Mohawks, although not one 
of Six United Nations, have also several settlements upon the Grand 



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96 



rPPER CANADA. 



river, the largest of wliieh contains about two hundred souls, and is 
situated about three miles below the ferry. 

The W'elland or C'hi])])ewa is a remarkably fine river, wholly iniob- 
strueted by falls, and flowing through the heart of the district of Niagara. 
Its source is in IJinbrook, about fifty miles west of its junction with the 
Niagara river, nearly three miles above the stui)endous falls of the latter 
river. It is about one hundred yards broad at its mouth, and for upwards 
of five and twenty miles varies in general depth from nine to fourteen 
feet. The stream is rather turbid, and appein-s to hold in solution a quan- 
tity of lime, that iin})arts to it a whitish colour, observable even below its 
discharge into the Niagara, as it flows a])parently inuningled with tlie 
crystalline waters of that romantic river. It is coimected, ])y elegant broad 
sloop canals, with Lake Ontario to the north and I^ake Krie to the south, 
the canals being linked by a section of the river about ten miles in length, 
which is used as ])art of the connuimication, and forms one continued 
canal, from one lake into the other. This magnificent work of art and im- 
portant connnercial undertaking has but recently been c()m[)leted, and in 
the early ))art of last August was thrown open for the ingress and egress of 
vessels. The linll Frog, Lieutenant Jones ,1{.N., Avas the first vessel that 
passed doAvn the canal. The towing was so effectually performed by one 
horse, that in sixteen hours slie descended through that section of the 
canal lying between the Welland river and Lake Ontario, and met on 
her way, an American schooner bound upwards. The efliciency and im- 
portance of this great work, in a connnercial and military point of view, 
will be more particularly touched ujjou hereafter : it may be suflicient 
here merely to remark, that it must also serve essentially to benefit the 
settlements of the flourishing district it traverses, and give much addi- 
tional value to landed property in its vicinity. 

The Big Bear river, or " Creek," as it is usually styled, rises near the 
limits of the Huron tract, granted by the crown in 182G to the Canada 
company, and falls into the Chanail Kcarte, one of the numerous chan- 
nels of River St. Clair. Its course, which is not far short of one hundred 
miles, runs generally ])arallel to that of the Thames, to which, in the 
progress of its meanderings, it approaches at one point to within four or 
five miles distance. 



I 



i\ 



r 



II 






RIVERS-ROADS. 



97 



IVwcY ^Nlaitlaiid lias not been c()ni])lotely c\i)lorecl. It appears to 
have its soinx-e towards the eastern limits of the Indian territory, lying 
on the eastern shores of Lake Huron; traverses part of that vast traet ; 
and winding through the north section of the Canada company's territory, 
discharges itself into tlu' lake, forming at its mouth Godrich Harbour. 

The river Aux Sables winds singularly through the southern part of 
the Canada company's traet, and bending abruptly about ten miles above 
its mouth, and within 800 or 900 yards of the margin of Lake Huron, 
it runs parallel to the shore of the lake, im;o which its waters are dis- 
charged, at the angle of a tract of Indian reservations. A small lake, 
called IJurrell, has an outlet to th(> river, and lies parallel to, and about 
three miles from, the coasts of Huron. 

Considering the com))arative infancy of the settlements of this section 
of Upper Canada, the numerous roads by which it is intersected, are 
evidence of the rapid improvement and prosperity of the country. 
Dundas Street, Talbot Road ^^'est, the Middle Road, Talbot Road East, 
Talbot Road North, and the road east from Port Talbot, along the shores 
of I^ake Erie, along the Niagara, and the southern shore of Lake Ontario, 
to Dundas village, are the leading public roads, connecting the extremities 
of the settled parts of this section of the province. There are, besides, 
upwards of fifty other main, bye, and cross roads, several of which are 
of considerable length ; the principal of these being, the roads leading to 
Gait and Guelph ; the new routes opened by the Canada company to 
the town of Godrich, on the shores of Lake Huron; those between 
Burford and ^Ldahide ; between IJrantford and Charlotteville ; between 
Grimsby and Rainham ; and several others. 

Dundas Street, styled a military route, traverses Gore and I^ondon 
districts centrally, connnencing at the capital, York, passing through 
the villages of Neilson, Dundas, Oxford, and Londc i, and joining the road 
north of the Thames, which is opened along the I uiks of the river, down 
to its mouth in Lake St. Clair. Ry this road the mail ])asses between 
York and Dundas ; and from the latter place a branch or by -post is de- 
spatched to. the Avestward, by the Dundas route to Sandwich and Am- 
herstburgh, and another to Gait and Guelph. The village of Dundas, 

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98 



I'PPKR CANADA. 



about forty-five mik's from York, is ])rt'ttily situated at tlie head of 
Burliu<>tou IJay. near the spot known by the name of Cootes' I'aradise*. 
It is yet inconsiderable, as well as the other villages that have just been 
noticed; but from the advantages they all enjoy, of being on a post 
route, added to an excellent fertile locality, they nuist very soon increase 
in po|)idousness and importance. Numerous settlements are scattered 
ah)ng this extensive road, which are euierging from the rudeness of 
primitive cultivation, and exhibit some a})pearance of agricultural success 
and rural comfort. 

From Dundas the mail route lies through the village of ^Vncastcr, 
the settlement at Stony Creek, and the villages of (irimsby and St. 
Catherine's, to Niagara. ^Vncaster contains a church, and about three 
hundred and fifty or four hundred inhabitants, and is nu)st eligibly situ- 
ated in the centre of a picturesijuo and champaign country, in a high state 
of cultivation. Indeed, the vilhmes t)n this road generallv are seated in one 
of the most diversified ])arts of the ))rovince, and are much relieved by 
some of those grateful varieties of surface that yield so man) charms to 
the romantic scenery of more hilly regions. From Ancaster posts are 
forwarded to IJrantford, AVaterfonl, Simcoe, and N'ittoria, and also to St. 
Thomas and Port Talbot, on the shores of Lake Erie. 

Fort George, or Niagara, formerly Newark, but changed by law, in 
179s, to its present appellation, oi.'cui)ies the west bank of Niagara river, 
opposite the old fort of the same name, on the ^Vmerican frontier. Its 
position, on the shores of Ontario, and at the mouth of the river, — that 
together form Mississaga Point, upon which a lighthouse has been 
erected, — is peculiarly advantageous ; but its proximity to the frontier 
boundary lays it open to the depredations of foreign hostility, in the 
event of war. In IJecembcr, 1813, at a period when the town seemed 
most flourishing, the American forces, under General JNrClure, of the 

* This s|)ot owes its naiiio to the rhapsoilic expression of an enthusiastic sportsman, who 
being here stationed, between IJurliiigtcn Uay and a marsh to the westward, found the sport so 
excellent, as tlie game passed in lieavy flights from the one to the other, that he dignified the 
spot, otherwise uninteresting, with its present deluding appellation. INlajor Cootes belonged to 
the British army 






^ 

' 'il 



NIAGARA— QUEl-NSTOX. 



99 



New York militia, barbarously sot it oi. fire in abandoning' tlic fort, and 
it was totally burnt to the ••round *. Niagara has, however, risen from 
its ashes with astonishing rapidity, and is deeidedly beeome one of the 
most thrivini^' villa<;es of the ))rovinee. Its population in \H'2H amounted 
to ]!2()a souls, and it will not now (18.'J0) be overrated at 1500. It eou- 
tfiins many neat houses, numerous slio))s, two or three respeetable taverns, 
and lias a market, held once a week, to whieb the farmers of the siu'- 
roimdin<>' country brin<^ their various produce. Nor is it divested of the 
means of sug<>esting' public improvements in print, or of discussing foreign 
politics; two weekly newspapers, publisbed in so infant a town, are 
positive evidence of a laudable spu'it of literary enudation, as well as 
general advancement. Its harbour is remarkably good, and exbibits the 
gay scene of fre<[uent arrivals and departures of sloops, barges, and steam- 
boats from and to every part of tbe lake and tlie St. Lawrence, as low 
down as Prescott. 

The fort is garrisoned by a strong military dctaclnnent, the appear- 
ance of Avhich contributes greatly to the cheerfulness of the place, whilst 
the officers and the residents derive the nuitual advantage of contri- 
buting reciprocally to their ])leasures, by forming a small circle of society. 
Niagara was formerly the seat of govei'nment of Upper Canada ; but 
Governor Simcoe, who resided there, having laid the foundation of 
York, transferred his residence to the latter place, which afterwards be- 
came the capital. 

Queenston, in the southern ])art of the township of Niagara, and 
distant seven miles from Fort George, is })leasantly situated at the base 
of the romantic heights to which the village gives its name, and at the 
northern extremity of the portage, from the foot to the head of the Falls. 
The village contains a cluu'ch, a court-house, and government stores, 
partly a])propriated to the use of the Indian department, and a population 
of four or five hundred inhabitants. The lands around Queenston are in 

beautiful 



'T 



.hly 



* It is but just to stiito, tliat this unjustitiable measure, greatly aggravated liy the severity 
of the season during wliich it was adopted, was disapproved by tlie United States government, 
and dechired unauthorized. Such a deed belonged not to this age, but to the barbarism of 
ancient warfare. 

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IPI'I'H CANADA. 



as])t'('t of tlie fortilt' fields tlio ovi' surveys, is agreeably contrasted with 
dense foliau;e of distant forests, and tlie hold rid<;e rising; niajestieajly to 
the soutlnvard of the village, and stretehinj^' west and east aeross the 
deep and toilin<j; stream of the Xia<;ara river. Several steani-hoats, most 
cle<ji;antly fitted up and with excellent accommodations, run re<;nlarly 
between this ])lacc, and ^'ork, and Kin<>ston*. 

'rhe(^iieenston IIeii;hts have become fatuous in the annals of Cana- 
dian historv, much less for the battle which was fouuht there on the Sth 
of October. IHlii, than for the disastrous event to Avhich it led. It was 
here that CJeneral Ib'ock fell, whilst u;allantly leading two eom])anies u]) 
till' hill au;ainst a su])erior force, strongly statit)ned on the heinhts. 
Shortly after this awful catastrophe, Cieneral Sheafle arrived, and suc- 
ceeding to the command, innnediately collected all his eflective forces, 
and making a judicious and spirited attack, conipletely routed the 
Americans, and took seven hundred and sixty-four prisoners. 

The province still cherishes tiie memory of (ieneral Hrock ; and its 
])atriotic inhabitants have erected on the heights, that were the scene of 
his gallant but fatal ex])loit. an elegant moiuunental colunni i, to perpe- 
tuate the fame of the hero, and to connnemoratc at once their regrets for 
his loss, and veneration for his virtue^, lie was president of the colony, 
and is now styled the " Hero of I'^pper Canada." 

Innnediately o])])osite Queenston is the rival village of Lewiston, 
on the iVmerican bank of the Niagara river. Hoth places are similarly 
circumstanced, from the ])osition they respectively occupy at the corre- 
sponding extremities of the ])ortagcs on either side of the Falls of 
Niagara. Queenston has hitherto enjoyed the advantage over Ijcwiston 
in its growth and consecpience, but it is believed that the opening of the 

* Tlio FiiONTENAc li'iivL's Queeiistiin and Niagarii every Siiturilay, and Kiiiijston every 
A\'ediK'sday. Tlie Qikknston leaves '.he two former jilaeesoii Thursdays, and the latter jdacc 
on ^londuys. There are also several stv'ain-hoats on the American side of the Lake Ontario. 

t Tlie vignette o])i)(isite ])a<j:e (iO liives a view of the heights and the monument. The 
column contains a spiral staircase, by which visitors may ascend to the gallerv, near its 
sunnnit. The prospect beheld from the gallery is truly commanding and grand. In October, 
1821, the mortal remains of the deceased general and those of his aide-de-camp, Lieutenant- 
Colonel John ^rDonell, were renioved in solemn procession from Fort George, and deposited, 
with all military pomj) and honours, in the vault of the monument. 



J 



^ 



ST. DAVID'S— cm i>im:\v.\. 



101 



?i 



Wcllaiul Canal will niatorially aflc'ct its iJi-ospt'i-ity, by transl'errinfv the 
C'aiTyiii«;' trade iVom tlie j)()rta};v to llu' canal, (^ucvnston, lu)\vc'vc'r, com- 
mands many valuable advaiitaj^es, independently ol' tlie one of wliieli it 
lias been thus deprived : the fertility and beauty ol" the surrounding- 
imtry, the exeellenee of its harbour, it' sueh the Niagara may here be 
called, and the inidiminished attractions of the si)lendiil .scenery in its 
vicinity, will always secure to it an eminent degree of interest, iiud insure 
its j)rogressive aggrandisement. 

Nearly four miles west of (^uecnston is the village ol' St. David, 
eligibly located on one of the leading roads from \'orl< to the head of 
I.,akc Krie, and on the borders of a small stream called Four-mile Creek. 
Six miles to the southward, branching oil" from the portage, is Lundy's 
Lant', the scene of a desperate but doubtful conilicl on the 'J.jth .Inly. 
181-i, between the 15ritish forces, \mder (ienerals Kiall and Drunnnond, 
and the ^Vmerican troops, conunanded by (ienerals Seott and IJrown. 
The ])roximity of the field of action to the ))rodigious l-'alls of the 
Niagara, must have awfidly blended the nuillled thunders of the cataract, 
with tlie loud din of battle. 

The village of Chi|)pewa is tea miles from (^ueenston. at thes«)nthern 
extremity of the ])ortage, and occui)ies both banks of the W'elland river, 
near the mouth of which, it is situated. It contains several neat houses, 
and about two hundred inhabitants: near it is a small fort, and also 
barracks for troo])s. The relative position of Chij)))ewa, with regard to 
Queenston, renders both villages, in some measure, de])endent upon the 
same causes of eonnnercial prosperity, and both will inevitably be, to 
a certain degree, influenced, in the rapidity of their im))rovements and 
increase, by the changes that nuist trd^e ])lace in the direction of the 
trade, by the opening of the AN'ellano Canal. Chi])pewa will, however, 
suffer the least of the two from such a circum.stance, owing to the ad- 
vantage it enjoys of being upon the banks of a navigable river, linked 
with, and, as it were, forming part of the canal itself. The AN'elland is 
in fact used as an eastern branch of the canal already, and is the channel 
through which produce passes to and from IJuffalo. 

On the opposite bank of the Niagara are situated the villages of 
IManchcstcr and Fort Schlosher, the latter at the termination of the 
portage, occasioned by the Falls, on the American side, between Chi])- 



iJH 



'■1 'I 



4* 



m 



Vi 



10-2 



UPPER CANADA. 



K'ft 



S 



V 

I: 



II 



t( 



1; 



•> 



M 



■i\ 



M 



i' 



It 

r 



I' 

Hi, 



uewii iuul Fort Sdiloslier, uIumv tlic river is two miles and a half wide, 
a f'eriy is established just ahovethe line where the strenj^th of theeurrent 
heg'ins to ri|)])lc in its deseeiit towards the Falls. The Hridjrewater mills 
are on the hanks of the Xiat!;ara, a few miles below the mouth of the 
W'elland. iV short distance from these mills, the western bank of the 
river disel()ses, a little above the water's surface, some very curious 
Ijurning s])rinos, that omit a highly intianunable j^aseous vapour, which 
readilv ii;nites on the approach of a lighted candle, and burns brilliantly 
for se\ eral minutes. The heat of these springs is stated to be so intense 
that it Avill cause water to steam, and, in some instances, even to boil ; 
but the expcrinu'Ut itself has not come under our inuuediate notice. 

The ])lains near the village of Chi])j)ewa, south of the river, have 
ac(juired historical celebrity, as the scene of the famous contest, gallantly 
maintained on the ath .luly, IHli, by Cieneral Uiall'sarmy, against a su- 
perior ^Vmerican force, under the command of (ieneral IJrown, aided by 
the troops under (ienerals Scott, Porter, and Itipley. 

The distance between Chip])ewa and Fort Erie is sixteen miles; 
the road is excellent, and follows the sinuosities of the river, whose banks 
are low, but ])icturesque. The intervening country is renuu'kably fine, 
ami in a very good state of cultivation ; the lands along the road arc 
generally held by Dutch farmers. 

Fort Krie is the last ])lace on the main post route, from the oth'j- 
extremity of the liritish dominions, at Halifax, but by-posts are for- 
warded from ^Vncaster, west\vard, to the remotest settlements of the 
province. The small village of Fort Erie, at the head of the river Niagara, 
occu})ies a rising ground of no great elevation, yet commanding a very 
extensive and interesting pros])ect. The fort is famed for the spirited 
resistance it offered, whilst under the American flag in 1813, to an ob- 
stinate siege by the British forces, (jonmianded by General Drummond, 
during which several very gallant and sanguinary assaults took place. 
Several steam-boats ply upon Lake Erie between the fort and Amherst- 
burgh, and up the Detroit to Sandwich and to Detroit, and as far as 
Michilimackinac, at the head of I^ake Huron. 

Bearing nearly north-east from Fort Erie, and on the opposite bank 
of the river, is the village of Black Kock, near which the great northern 
or Erie canal passes ; and, about two miles to the southward of Black 






f; i 



lU'FFALO— NIAdAHA DISTHKT -I'HIi: 



lo:"; 



Hock, on the shores of Liiki* Kiic, is the thr'n inn' viljiiueoi' IJnllalo. at I lie 
mouth of the creek of that name, and on the main sta^e road tVom Albany. 
It was one of those ))laces that snllered from the measiu'cs of retaliation. 
ado])ted hy tlie llritish army, after the total destruction of Niagara l)\ 
the Americans, under Colonel M'C'lure. Hnllaio, however, i'rom the 
advanta<;i's of its situation, at the jmu'tion of the (ireat Krie Canal 
with the lake, has since risen \\ ith astonishini;' vigour, to a ))o))ulonsness 
and importance, far superior to those it possessed before it fell a victim 
to the desolation of war. Many of its houses are eleL>ant. and it contains 
two or three excellent inns. 

Hefore ))assin<;' from the consideration of the district of Niagara to 
the description of the settlements west of it, the ])eculiarly favourable 
•••eo<;raphical position it enjoys shoidd not go unnoticed. Forming 
nearly an oblong scpiare, bounded on three sides by t>"vigabli« waters, 
and traversed centrally by a splendid canal, the access to all ])arts of it. is 
rendered extremely easy and inviting. The fertility of its soil and tlu' 
congeniality of its climate, are not excelled in any district of the ])rovince. 
unless it be, ])robably, by the AN'estern. The choicest fruits seem to be 
indigcnt)us to its soil ; ])caches, nectarines, and a])])les are richly clustered 
on the branches of crowded orchards, and ac(|uire a degree of ])erfection. 
equalled only on the luxm-iant banks of the Detroit river. The sublimity 
of the views disclosed in the Niagara river, and the picturescpte varieties 
of landscape produced by the Queenston heights, and occasional inecjua- 
lities of surf^icc, give the scenery of this district a decided superiority, 
over that of any other in l^j)per Canada. 

The northern shores of Lake Erie, exclusively within the liritish 
dominions, are almost uniforndy low and level, but irregular and broken 
by the projection into the lake of several elongated points, that have a con- 
siderable intluence on its stream, and render its navigation more intricate 
than that of the other lakes. Of these projections, Point ^Vbino. Loiig 
I'oint or North Foreland, Point aux Pins or liandgiuu-d, and Point 
Pelc or South Forehmd, are the most prominent and conspicuous. 

Point Abino is about nine miles to the west of Fort Krie, and forms 
a cove on its eastern side, affording safe anchorage for vessels. Ten miles 
west of Point Abino. an insulated sand hill rises conically from the shore. 



I 



I I' 









I • L 



^. 



I 



>i:vi 



i! 



104 



riMMlll CANADA. 



1 



n 



'i 



ii 



hi: 



i 



I 



wliicli serves as a coiispieiioiis laii<lniiirk in tlie naviniitioii of the lake. 
Passiiij;' Ix-yond tlii' moiitii of the (iraiid river, and in front of the 
townships of Kainhani and W'alpok'. we eome to tlie small Nillaye of 
Dover, in front of the township of W'oodhousi' : and ten miles fnrthi'r to 
the viilayc of C'lu'rlottevilli-. in the township of that name, and near 
Turkey I'oint. At the latter ])laee, a spot was surveyed and planned 
out for a dock-yard, and a small fort has been built. Fi\e miles north 
of diarlotteville, and in the same township, is N'ittoria, a little village o?i 
the ])ost road to ^Xneaster. Iron works are estahlished at diarlotteville, 
that ai'e adecpiately supplied with ore from the vieinity. 

liOni>' I'oint, nr N>>rth Foreland, is a narrow peninsula, little more 
than one hundred and einl.fy yards wide at its broadest ))art, and stretch- 
ing singularly into the lake f;'oni the south-west angle of ^^'alsingham, 
eastward, to the distanee of nearly twenty miles. It forms a deep blind 
ehamiel or inlet, called Long Point Hay, at the bottom of which, when 
the waters are high, a passage for boats is open across the neck of land 
into the lake, through a smaU brook ; when the waters are low, batteaux 
are easily haided over the slender istlunus intervening. 

Proceeding westward from Long I'oint, and passing near a grou]) 
of sand hills upon the lake's borders, the road, which is opened the whole 
way from Fort Flrie, goes through the small hamlet of Stirling, about 
thirty-six miles from the carrying ])lace over the North Foreland, to 
Port Talbot, seven miles further west. Port Talbot is almost ecjuidistant 
from the extremities of Lake Flrie, and at the bottom of a sweeping bend 
of its northern shores, ])lacing it at the broadest point of the lake. This 
was the s])ot selected in 18();> by Colonel Talbot, a niend)er of the legis- 
lative council of the province, for the formation of a settlement which he 
had planned on a large scale, and has since, in a great measure, haj)pily 
realized. Having obtained from his majesty's government a grant of 
one hundred thousand acres of crown land, under the specific condition 
of locating an actual settler to every^ two hundred acres of the tract, he 
courageously ])enetrated the dense forests of Canada, and at the above 
date laid the foundation of the colony which now bears his name. The 
Talbot settlement is spread over a considerable extent of country from 
the principle and policy that dictated the plan of its formation. With 






4 



m 



NORTH SIIOIIK or I'.IUK-AMlll-.UsTm lUill. 



lO.i 






I 

i 



a vli'w (»f opciiiiifT a coiiiimmiciitinii \vitli tin* sittlcmcnts «»f tlic Detroit 
and flic Niagara, tin* si'ttli'i's wciv ju(lii'i«nisly linatcd tn (onti^iious 
lands on tlic honlors of two oxti-nsivi' roads, hading to tlii' cxtri initii's 
ol'tlir lake, and upon anotlior road leading into the Ijack conntry, uliicli 
lias sint'f lu'cn prolonj^cd to (iodriih. on tlic margin of Lake Ilindii. 

Till' tract of country the settlement occupies is not excelled in ler- 
tility by any of ccpial extent in the proviiue: and the inhabitants, eniii- 
hitin^- the example of their jierseverinj;' leader, ha c industriously turned 
to account the advantages of their situation. Most ot them have very 
good houses and harns, horses, horned cattle, hoj^s and shei'p. In fact 
the settliMiieiit is populous, prosperous, and rapidly increasing', and is 
altoj^'ctlu'r a conspicuous instance of sucei-ss in the history of coloniza- 
tion, that cannot fail to reward the j>'enerous exertions of its intellij;ent. 
but eccentric founder and promoter. 

From Port Talbot one road leads to the \illa<;e of St. Thomas, 
distant ten miles, and another to the Delaware Indian \illa^es, and the 
well-known wilds called the Lony; Woods, on the Thames, distant thirteen 
or fourteen miles. 

About thirty-Hve miles west of Port Talbot, in front of the town- 
ship of Harwich, is Point aux Pins, or Landnuard. which embays a 
surface of water fully eijual to eiyht s(|uare miles, that communicates 
with the lake throuuh a small outlet. Tlu' anchorini'-j'round to the 
westward of the point is oood ; but it is not properly ascertained whether 
the bay within it is accessible to the lake vessels, and capable of kee])in<r 
them afloat. Hoads lead from this Point to Chatham, on the Thames, and 
to the Indian village, on CJreat Hear Creek. 

Point Pele, or South Foreland, lies fifty-two miles nearly south- 
west of Landguard, and extends nearly nine miles due south into the 
lake. The bay formed by it on the west is called Pidgeon Hay ; and 
another on the east side affords g'ood anchorage. The distance from this 
point to the mouth of Detroit river is thirty miles. 

Amhcrstburgh, in the township of Maiden, about three miles up 
the eastern side of Detroit river, contains nearly two hundred houses, 
a church, court-house, and gaol, many good shops, and a popidation ex- 
ceeding twelve hundred souls. It is decidedly one of the most delightful 






i 






1'« ' I 



J 



'r m 



■f«r 



I0() 



I PIM-ll CAXAIJA. 



towns of tlio ])roviucv; and. IVoni tlu' woiiltli and rcspt'ctability of its 
inliahitants, is by no means a strani^tT to the pleasures of <;'ood soeiety 
and the eharnis of soeial lelinenient. ^\ndierstburi;li was a frontier 
])ost nnd naval depot during the war: but tlie military works, doek- 
yard, and stores Avere destroyed by tiie Knglisli in ISl.'i. when tliey Avcre 
forced to evacuate it by an overwhelmino- ^Vnieriean force. There 
's a very safe and convenient liarbour, Avith good anchorage in three and 
a half i'athoms. 'Die Mt)rks have been partly restored, and a military 
detaclunent is kept in garrison there, a sub-division of which is stationed 
on Isle an Uois Hlanc, Its situation is extremely ])ictin'es(iue ; the 
country arouiul ])erfectly exuberant w ith richness and fertility ; and the 
climate must salubrious and invigorating, notwithstaiuling the intensity 
of the heat during some parts of the summer. Indeed, the banks of the 
Detroit rivi'r are altogether peculiarly I'avoured by nature: they stand 
uuri\;dli'd. if e(|ualled. in I'pjjer Canada, for the generous luxuriance of 
their soil, the crystalline beauty of the streams by which they are watered, 
the cerulean purity ol' the skies, and the deliciousness and delicacy of the 
fruits th ' orchards produce in the most abundant ])rofusion. Peaches, 
pi'ars, plums, a))])les. nectarines, and grapes are |)roduced in the highest 
degree of perfection, and seem far more the spontaneous ollsj)rings of a 
congenial earth andatnios])liere,than the result of horticultural cultivation, 
which is. in general, rather neglected. The rivers abound with a variety 
of excclieui lish, and the riarshes and woods with a still greater diversity 
of g;!!iie; whilst the numerous orchards, loaded with their impending 
treasures, and skirting the uiain road a short distance from the banks of 
the Detroit, re-echo with t!ie shrill, sweet, and merry notes of thousands 
of w ild warblers. 

The settknients in this part of the ^^'estern District, the most re- 
mote of any in the province, originated w hen Canada was yet uiuler the 
dominion of France, and are therefore composed chieHy of French 
Canadians. The distributioii of the lands in narrow elongated slij)s, the 
conse(|Ucnt c<»ntiguity oi' the farms, the mode of cultivation, and the 
manners of the |)eO; . • are strongly contrasted with the same features in 
the other st'ttled parts of I'pper Canada; but they bear so striking an 
analogy to the character of the seigniorial settlements in the sister pro- 



'^ 



SANDWICH— GKNERAL sr.MMAHV 



107 



: 



vincc, tliat it would bo easy to fancy ourselves iu one of its many flou- 
risliint;; parishes, were it not Tor tlie su])eriority ot" the Detroit fruits that 
wouUl (lissi])ate tlie illusion. 

Fourteen miles beyond ^Vndierstbiu'gli, ])in-suin<;' the course <>i' tin- 
river, stands the town of Sandwich, containinu; IK) or l.)() houses, ;i 
cluu'ch, distinguished by the a])])ellation of the Huron Church, a ct)in't- 
liouse, and <;'aol. There are wharfs alonij the river side, where vesst-ls 
may be safely moored during the winter. Opposite Sandwiv'h is {\\v 
American village of Detroit. The surface of the Dilroit is almost annually 
frozen over in winter, and then affords a convenient comnuniication 
with the iVmerican settlements on the other hank, and with those at the 
up])er and lower regions (»f the river. From Sandwich, the Middle l{t)ad 
takes its dej)artm-e east ; and a branch of it leads down to Iielle I'oint. on 
I^ake Frie, from whence a traverse-road strikes the borders of Fake St. 
Clair. The lands on this lake are laid out into townshi])s, but not yet 
settled: lujwcver, thev are not likelv to be long uniidiabited. as their esta- 
blishment promises to 1)e accelerated by the progressive extension of the 
settlements of the Canada Company on the shores of l^ake Huron. lU-- 
yond these tiiere is no cultivated land; and the northern shorc^s of IIiu-(Mi 
and the borders of Fake Su])erior remain in their ])ristine state of wilder- 
ness, exce])t where occupied by a straggling fur-trading ])o'^t. established 
by the late Xorth-AN'est Com])a!iy. Fort William, at the \h\h\ of Fake 
Superior, is by far the most important of any of these posts, and tlii' 
only one, on this side the height of land forming the boundary of Ilud- 
.son's Hay territory, deserving ])articular notice. The village, which was 
the head-(piarters of the late com))any, is remarkable as the scene u])on 
•which Ford Selkirk came in innnediate collision with several of the nu)st 
distinguished members of the north-west, during the height «)f tlu- 
trading and territorial feuds between the rival companies. 

(iEXKHAL STATISTICAL SU.ALAIAIU'. 

The subject of ])0])ulati«)n is decidedly one of the most important 
branches of political economy ; and its iluctuations are. ])crhaj)s. the best 
pulse of a state, from the knowledge of which its decline or ])ros])erity 



m 



iiy bo fairly inferred. It is, however, a subject but too go 



ner 



alb 



I' 2 






. I ■ 'wi 



h 



; 451 



u 



H--I 



M 



1 I.S 









lOS 



ri'I'KR CANADA. 



noiflcctcd in the early establisliiiiotit of colonies ; and altliouu,li not wholly 
overlooked in Fpper Canada, has been so loosely attended to as to pro- 
duee results niueh less satist'actory than would be desirable. The first 
liritish settlements of the province are not referable to a ])eriod anterior 
to ITH'J; but, ))revi()us to that date, a few eoni))aratively insionifieant 
French colonies had been establisluil on the baid<s of the Detroit, and at 
one or two other })laces on the St. Lawrence. In 1S11 the ))o])ulation, 
calculated from the data <;iven by the assessment returns made to the 
])rovincial legislature, amounted to nearly seventy-seven thousand souls; 
and thirteen years after, a set of district returns, deduced from more 
correct sources, was laid before tiie <>'overnment, and furnished the fol- 



lowing result : 



Ciciicidl lictnni of tlw Voiuiltil'ntii ufVppcr Vamidu a.s per District Re- 

liniiN made in 18(24. 



nistpic! 



liulcrKi. 



AI)()V 



■\ 






w. 



.Ma I 



jKilstoni L'.'.MIJ! 

OU:i\va I ."i(!l 

.loliiistdwn I I!,7'^'' 

Ha'Imrst 1 lM41 

.Midhnul (i.!!(;i 

Nowciistlc I rJ,:i;t."i 

iic.iiio ;j,!»if(i 

(Joiv :{..1!!1 

Niatiara l.."»7- 

Loiidoii -l..")!!! 

Wi'storn ! l.Jii."' 



i:$7.:5i 



r. t.iiiiis. 


.■\hii ■>. 


•-'7-'7 


4,7i»!l 


.•..")(» 


itl.-. 


:M7-' 


1,147 


1 •_'.:{( u 


l',!!;W 


(;,(;:i7 


7.! '-'7 


I'.-jo;? 


i2.( >,"..'{ 


; 1 -'-'7 


Mill 


1 ;M:r. 


;}.L'.-i7 


1 \:i\\\\ 


:{..■)!!■» 


] -i.4(>:i 


J.7(M 


l,(i.")(» 


l,!l()4 


';!.").<;(»(; 


ll.:«t;$ 



• lfi._ 

I'lnKili's. 

4,44.1 

.■);u 
:{.:«!4 
■_'.-. 14 

(;.L'7() 

L'.()41 
:i.7!tl 

r.,i:.){ 
;{.){.■. 1 

1, ;■).-);{ 

:?(i.7.vj 



'J'dtal uiinibL'r i)t" .Alali's, 
Fcinalcs, 



Tnliil. 

I 14.)!7!» 

! i2..")()(> 

! 14,741 

Kl.liM 

l'7. ()!•."» 

i l(i,(i(>!t 

i i:{,i:.7 

i7..'.r.i.' 

! 17.."):?!t 

I (),!•;")-' 

J.'.l (>!t7 

~7ii.7:«!»" 
7i>,:5.-.}{ 



Lc.s Kfiiialfs, ().:«ll 



as 



% 



i1^ 



\\\ this statenu'ut we perceive an increase in tliirteen years of seventy-four 
tlu)usand and ninety-seven soids. makini;' the ])i)pulation in ISiil nearly 
double that of ISll. Totlie great influx of emigration to the ])rovince 
from the Tnited States and Cireat IJritain is attril)utable this rapitlity of 
increase, as it appears to have been during this interval that its tide was 
directed princij)ally to that colony. 



'N. 






POPULATION. 



100 



Stati'Dioit of the Population of I ^pper Canada in 1S2(), 1827, and 182S, de- 
duci'd/roni the Returns and Ccnsn.s of those Years, and shon-iii<>; the annual 
Increase. 



Distrii 



ll!2li. 



111-7. 



lll.Nt. 



KilstiTIl 

Dttiiwa .... 
Johnstown. 
Kiithurst ., 
Midland .. 

Xl'WCMStll'. 

Homo 

(tore 

XiMjiaiM . ., 



IiuTcase 
in lil:.'7. 

1,1.>()!) 
1121 

1 ,:$().-. 



I7.<»!'i' I l»,:{(i)f i)!,i(i.') 

:{,o(»!» \s.vx\ i :{,7;{2 

i"»,;5.vi 1(1,71!) I7.:«t!» 

ll..'U)l 1 •_>,->( »7 ILfiKi 

l'ii.-JlV) \ :?o,()(((» ;u .'-'!»;{ 

12,(H7 I i-V2fi:{ i:{,:5:57 

1!),()(K) ! 21. !»!).") 22!»27 

i:{,(t2(» i."),iii:$ i.".,)i:$i 2,1(1:? 

I l!t,(l.">i» l!l."i(l(t 20.177 ill 



London ' l(i,H22 l!i,!(12 

W'u.stiTn ' 7,;"):!;} 7.i'"'<> 



i!).ni:s 2,(i!i() 
\\;,\\\\\ \ 123 



llUTlIlsl' 

ill UL>II. 
2(t:{di'c 
"»!»!» 
(if to 
2,:ui!) 
'uh I i,2it;{ 

2()(> I.O.VI 
2.1i»i I 1,12!) 

:!.■.! 
<i77 



Totiil, 



l(i3,702 17(10.".!) l».".,r.2(> I12..T.7 9.1(57 



•)01 

:J77 



Inc. !),(i70 
Dec. 2();{ 



it.4(i7 



Tliese rctuni.s arc admitted to be, and indeed were, obviouslv ])re- 
pared with little attention, a.s is nianiCe.sted by the deerea.se .stated to have 
taken plaee in the district of Niagara, in direct contradiction with tlie in- 
ferences to be di-awii from the demand for new lands in 1827 and 1828. 
which ])rodiiced the surveys of the townships of W'alpole and Uainham. 
Hut assumin<>; the table to be ct)rrect — and it is suHicientlv so for u'eneral 
purposes — the population of the })i-oviiu'e appears to have increased from 
182G to 1827 in the ratio of eight ])er cent, nearly*, and from 1827 to 
1828 in the ratio of live per cent, and a fraction, giving a mean ratio of 
increase for two years about six and a half per cent. Increasing in the 
latter progression, the ])opulation would double itself in about fourteen 
years and a half. l>ut it must since 1828 have advanced to even a higher 
ratio, from the unparalleled tide of emigration directed to the province, 
by the united eilbrts anil encouragement of the government and of the 
Canada C\)m])any. The ])rovince now contains a population ])robably 
not far short t)f 21. >.()()() souls. Of this number about .'J.7,()()() men are 
enrolled in the militia, which is organi/ed into Hfty-six battalions, com- 
j)Osing the constitutional military strength of the country. 



HA 



"I lur 









!«*! 



* M'luit ])roiiortiou of tliis I:irj:c iiU'Vi'aso is natnral, and wliat adventitious as arising from 
cniiiiration, \\f liavo no satisfactory nican.s of di-stinjinisliinti here; hut tiicrc is no donbl much 
of it is iiscrihahlc to the latter source. 



flfl^ 



no 



UPPRll CANADA. 



If tlie population of U])])or Canada bo viewed in relation to tlie 
total superficies of the j)rovinee, it will be found to bear but a slender 
])roi)ortion of inhabitants to eaeh scjuare mile ; but when eoui|)ared with 
the urea of land luuler actual cultivation its density will become ap- 
parent. In 18!iS, when the whole po|)ulation amounted to lS5,i>iJ() inha- 
bitants, the numl)er of acres luuler agricultural im])rovement did not 
exceed in round nund)ers .'jTO.OOO ; and we have thus a proportion of 
three acres ami about one-sixteenti» for the sustenance of each individual, 
or — admittiu"' the usual number of six to u family — eijibteen acres and 
two-ei«'hths for the support of each family. 

The following table, deduced from the same district returns, will 
coiivey a more defined idea of the statistics of seven out of eleven 
districts : 

Tabic of Katcahlc Property and ^hscfisuteufs Jhr 1828 of Sere// J)/,sfr/cf.s- 

in Upper Canada. 



l>i>iTi|iti.in. 


\\ i^tirii. 


77,229 
412,498 

£272.701 

.£1130 

2201 

l<i,75(i 

105 

2f) 


(Icirc. 

3(i,.".39 
175,052 

£205,210 

2020 

14,387 

112 

212 


Ihiine. 

78 808 
374,038 

£328,387 

.€1407 

2888 

10,282 

121 

7t 


~2872yo 
204,475 

£203,401 

.£924 

131(i 

7079 
52 


,f nlii'stoU'ii. 


( lll^lW.l. 


Ac-ivs ciiltivatcil ... 

Acres uncultiviiteil 

Amount of Ratoublo 
ProDortv 


25,(>75 
154.700 

£112,8.'.0 

£470 

1017 

0040 

13 

101 


55,2,59 
241,970 

£217,340 

.£1811 

2244 

11,012 

70 

57 


9098 
00,017 

,£170 

354 

1990 

15 

7 


Assessment to be 
levied 


Horses 


Horned Cattle 

Grist and Saw Jlills 
Pleasure Carriaires 



In 1824, when similar returns were made, the total valuation of 
assessed property in the ])rovince, on wliicli the rate of one penny m tlie 
pound is collected for the public fimd of the several districts, amounted 
to l.OGOjOTl/. 13*. 111. Halifax currency. The niimerous improvements 
that have since then taken place must have amazingly increased that 
amount, from the magnitude of which a tolerably correct estimate may 
be formed of the intrinsic value of the colony. 



Hi 



m 



(JEXERAL IMPROVl'Ml'NTS. 



Ill 



■fH 



In takino- a general and coniintlicnsive view of Upper Canada, and 
glancing- retrospectively to what it was fifteen years back, the accelerated 
march of its prosperity and improvement is remarkably striking. Within 
that ))eri«)d, the mass of the country has been surveyed, settlements 
formed in almost every township, and towns and villages have sj)rung 
up with extraordinary energy, in various directions. Canals of an ele- 
gance and utility, and of dimensio!-* um-ivalled, if etjualled, on this 
continent, have been o))cne(l tlu-ough the province. The A\'ella;.vl and 
the Kideau canals remove from the frontier, the internal eomnuniication 
by water, from the remotest Uritisli settlements of the St. Lawrence, to the 
sea. The lUdington ami Desjardius canals allbrd important advantages 
to the fertile district in which they are situated. 

The navigation of the lakes and rivers has undergone the greatest 
amelioration. ]''ight or ten steam-boats, some of them of great elegance, 
now form several corn])lete and convenient lines of conunimication be- 
tween the remote parts of the country. Manufactures and mechanics 
have also made considerable progress ; coarse linens and woollen cloths 
are successfully manufactured for domestic use by most good farmers ; 
and mamifactories of iron are established at Marmora and Charlotteville. 
Saw and grist mills (there are u])wards of five hundred of them), distil- 
leries ami breweries, are to be found in all the settled parts of the pro- 
vince. The princi])al towns in most districts contain ])roper public 
buildings, such as churches, court-houses, gaols, warehouses, iJvc. 

At York, a provincial bank is established under legislative authority, 
with branches at Kingston and Niagara. District schools, under the 
general sui)erintendence of u board, and the iuunediate direction of trus- 
tees, are established throughout the ])rovince ; ami a college, upon the 
principle of similar institutions in Kngland. has been founded ami re- 
cently opened in the capital of the colony. The learned ])rofessions — 
the meud)ers of which are in general munerous — have also their orna- 
ments : and eight or ten ])resses issue weekly news])apers, for the most 
part very intelligently edited, and circulating widely tlu-ough the pro- 



H 

I 

1 






V 



.■: M 






m 






* I'liderstciod as to l)i-oa(Uli iiiul (l('[)tli. The Grand Eric canal is indnitoly Idiiiror than 
any of thcso ; hut it is only calculated for vessels of inferior harden. 



112 



UPPER CANADA. 



vince. Post towns arc frequent, and afford conveniently tlie means of 
conimiuiieation with celerity and safety. 

In fact, Ui)])er Canada is rising in a large f>eoi>ietrical ratio into 
agricultural and commercial im])ortance ; nor can we, in thus contem- 
plating its ra])id prosperity, forbear attributing it as well to the ability 
and efficiency that has almost invariably distinguished the administration 
of its government, as to the great natural energies and resources of the 
country. 



II 



C nAPTEll V. 

Tlic ('iiiiiiilii Company. — \v> u( liiforiKtratioii. — Lands ot' tlio C'oniinniy.- — dodiii'li. 
— (liii'lpli. — Ikiiolits to L'pi'fi" Canada. 






In the future liistory of the coloui/ation of Upper Canada, the in- 
corporation of tlic C^anada Company will form a conspicuous epoch. The 
compreliensive nia<i,nitude of their judicious ])lans of settlement, and the 
promptness, intelliji;ence, and vigour with Avhich they were carried at 
once into effect, liave given a prodigious impulse to the ])hysical and 
moral energies of the province. Kntailing enormous expenses in its 
consummation, the scheme of successfully throwing o])cn avast territory 
for the reception of a dense emigrating mass, could only fall within the 
reach of an opulent association, whose finuled resources, like those of tiie 
Com])any. were commensurate with the broad scope of the undertaking. 

On the l})th of ^Vugust, 182(), the Canada Co:vii'anv was incor- 
porated by royal charter, in\der the ])rovisions of the (jth (ieo. IV. ciiap- 
ter Ixxv., the title of which is " An act to ciialili' Hi.s Ma/cst;/ to }>raiit to 
a Company to he iiicorporatcd Ixj charter, to tw called ' The Canada Co:\i- 
TANV,' certain hnuhs in the province o/'UiTEii Canada ; and to invest the 
.said Company with certain poirer.s and priviteji>e.s; and Jhr other p/frjto.scs 
re/afini>' thereto." After reciting the 31st Cieo. III. chaj). xxxi. by which 
the reservations for the crown and derg) in tlie Canadas are created, 
and stating that "■ divers persons had nnited together to establish a Com- 
pany for purchasing, improving, settling, and disposing of la?ids in I'pper 
Canada," and that a ca])ital of one million sterl'.ig had been subscribed, 
upon which ten per cent, had been ])aid by the subscribers, the act au- 
thorizes His Majesty to grant a charter of incorporation, and to sell one 
moiety of the clergy reserves of the ])rovince to the Com])any, the pro- 
ceeds of which sale are to represent the lands, unless His ISIajesty deem 






M 



II 



'*1'. 



114 



ri'I'KR CANADA. 



fit, to rcappropriatc an equal (piaiitity of land for tlio same purposes. 
The shares are then deelared to be jjersonal estate, and liable to forfeiting 
by the sul)seribers, in tlie event of defaidt in tlie ])aynient of c<(ll,s, within 
six months after tliey siiall have been made; the shares bein<^' further 
deelared to be misaleable until sueh ealls are ])aid. The Company is 
then authorized under eertain restrietions to hold lands in any part of 
His Majesty's dominions, and is restricted to a eertain form of eonvey- 
ancc*. ^\fter verifieatiou at W'estminstir, the aet is recjuired to be re- 
j>'istered in U])])er Canada, and is declared a ])ublie aet. 

Under the sanction of their incorporation, the Com])any | entered 
innnediately into extensive contracts with Ilis Majesty's jvovomment for 
the purchase of reserves and other large tracts of crown lands in the pro- 
vince of Upper Canada, liy these ])urchases the Company became pos- 
sessed of upwards of two n)illi(Mis three hundred thousand acres, one 
million three hundred thousand of which, they hold in dispersed tracts of 
two hundred, two thousand, and ten thousand acres, and also in a few 
cases of blocks containing from twelve thousand to forty thousand acres. 
The residue, amounting to one million acres, composes one vast section 
of territory on the shores of Lake Huron, known by the denomination 
of the Huron tract, which was granted in lieu of the moiety of the clergy 
reserves scattered through the various townshi^js of the ])rovince. 

The consideration given to goveriunent by the Company for sueh 



t^ 



* Furw. — " \\\', the Ciiiiada Coinpaiiy, iiiCDrpDratcd iiiulor and by virtue of an act niado 
and passed in tlie sixth yeiir of the roif^n of Ilis iMajesty King George the Fonrtli, intituled An 
art In c/idhlr Ills Majvslij to grant lo a Coiii/iniij/, to lie incor/mratrd In/ c/iartcr, to hr ritllcd ' IVie 
Canada Company,' cvrtuiii hinds in the jiroviiuc of I'pper Canada, and to Invest the said Cnm/jaiii/ 
with certain jjoirers and privileges, and /or other purposes relating thereto, in consideration of the 
sum of to us paid, do hereby grant and release to all 

and all our right, title, and interest to and in the same and every part thereof, to have and to 
hold unto the said and his heirs for ever." 

I The following is a list of the Directors: — Charles Bosanquet, Esq. Governor; Edward 
KUice, Vj»{\. M. p. Deputy-Governor; Robert lliddulph, Esij. ; Robert Downie, Esq. i\I. P. ; 
.John Easthope, Estj. ]\I. P. ; Charles Franks, Esq. ; John Fullarton, E.sq. ; William T. Ilib- 
bert, Esi| ; John IluUett, Esq. ; Hart Logan, Es{[. ; James ^Maekillop, Es(j. ; IMartin T. Smitli, 
Esq.; Henry Usborne, F.sq. Auditors: — Thomas S. Benson, Esq.; Thomas Poynder, jun. 
Es(| ; Thomas ^\■ilton, F]sq. ; John \\'oolley, Esq. Secretary : — N. S. Price, Escp The office 
of the Company is kept at No. 113, St. Helen's-place, Bishopsgate, London. 



CANADA COMPANY. 



11.5 



extensive and valuable possessions, will best a|)])ear from tlie following,' 
statement, laid by the Lieutenant (iovernor ofUppe- Canada before the 
provineial le<^•i^'..ture, 



\ « ''(1 



Stdtoticnt ofauiiual junpnents made, and to be uindc to Ili.s M(ijcst!f.s ^^u- 
vcnuiu'iit hij I lie Canada fumpamj, under an agreement eonc/nded on 
the 2'.ird Mai/, 1 Slid. 



In the yciir conimciiciiii^ 1st .Inly, 1}]2(), 

and cnilinn' 1st July, 1»27. 

In t!ie year I'lidin^r tla. J^t .Fiily, l}!2i!, 

1st Julv, W2\), 



1st .Inly, l!i:«), 
1st .July, Di.ll, 
1 .Inly, 1»32, 
Isi .Inly, 1«3;», 
1st Jnly, Km, 
1st Jnly, IH:!"), 

And tliercafter the sum of X'20,000 annnally until sixteen years shall have expired from 
1st July, 1H2G. 



SlrrliiKj. 
120, (»()(( 

ir.,(t()o 

l'),(IOO 
1".,(HK) 
1 (>,()()() 
17,000 
IM.OOO 
IDOOO 
20,000 



Thus, at theex])irationof the stated period of sixteen years, the sum 
that shall have been received from this source, by government, for its wild 
lands in that colony, will be 129.^,000/. sterling. 

Out of the large annual and increasing sums now paid by the Com- 
pany, the expenses of the civil list of the province are in a great measure 
appropriated *, leaving at the same time considerable surplus stuns, ap- 



ii • . 



;;ia 

'1- 



?'h 



* Yearly payments out of Canada Company's funds: — Administration of justice. 

Sicrli/iff tnoiici/. 
To the Lieutenant Governor ... 

The Chief Justice _ . - - - 



One Puisne Judge - 

Ditto 

Surveyor General 

Five Executive Councillors 

Clerk of the Crown and Council 

Receiver General 

Secretary end Registrar 

Attorney General - 

Solicitor General 



X'3(X)0 
ISOO 
900 
900 
300 
.'')00 
200 
300 
300 
300 
100 



i'4 



i! 

H 



Q2 



!f. 



I I 






'II 



llfi 



I IM'l'Il CANADA. 



plied to |)iir))()sos of local improvement. Uy the eontraet the Company 
is avithori/ed to expend, under the sanction of the provincial ^overmnent 
or of the colonial secretary of state, ni)\vards of 1.), ()()()/. of the pm-chase- 
nioney, towards the construction of works of |)ul)lic utility, within the 
Huron tract, which, independently of the larj^e sums applied out of the 
corporation's own funds, is the most satisfactory pledge of the rapidity 
w ith which its amelioration and settlements nuist increase, as it is well 
known that caijital judiciously laid out, is the very hinge of successful 
colonization. 

Tlu' Iliu'on tract, which is the largest collective mass of territory 
helonging to the C'omj)any. is nearly triangular in its general outline, and 
extends ahout sixty miles along the south-eastern and casteri\ shores of 
Lake Huron. It is boundt il to the southward hy a tract of waste land.s 
of the crown, and the townships of Loho, London, Xissouri, and Zorra ; 
and to the north-ea>it by imsurveved erown lands and Indian reserves. 
It lies between l.'J' 10' and I'.i .l;]' of north latitude, about forty miles, at 
its nearest point, from the head of Lake Ontario, and not more than thirty 
miles from the borders of Lake Va'w. The whole tract has been sur- 
Acyed, and subdivided into twenty townships, vi/. Colborne, Ilullett, 
Mackillop, Logan, Kllice, Kasthojje North, and South, Downie, Ful- 
larton, Tucker Smith, Hiddulpli, Lsborne, IJlanshard, IJosancp-.et, Wil- 
liams, M-Ciillivray, Stanley, and (iodrich. 

The general surf;ice of this territory is remarkably level, and fre- 
((uently presents rich natural meadows and excellent pastures. The soil 
chieHy consists of a deep, rich, black loam, with a subsoil of clay inter- 
mixed with sand, which, in point of facility of cultivation and fertility, 
docs not probably yield to any in the province. The forests are composed 
of the most valuable and useful tind)er, and are not of that almost im- 
penetrable thickness, that in general characterizes a Canadian wilderness, 
but are so disposed as to diminish considerably the labour of clearing, 
which is one of the i)reliniinary o))crations of a new settler. The maple, 
beech, elm, and basswood are the predominant species of trees to be 
found in these forests; the i)eri'mnal foliage of which, decaying during 
successive ages, has formed on tlu surface a deep vegetable mould, endued 
Avith a degree of richness, that will not rccjuire manure after years of 



It' 



t 



;. "i 

■ if J 

1 



I' r? 



ill 



;» I 







f< II 



11 



■l^' 



OODItlCll. 



117 



iiilliviitinii, aiiil would almost (Iffy rxlimistit)U. Tlio niiiplf. in liolh 
proviitci's, is a soiinc of ivssi'iitial profit to the t'ainur, (Voni tiic copious 
suppliivs of su^ar lu" tU'rivi's from it,l)y tlu' mtist siinpli' pniiTss, ami with 
tiic least possible labour and i-xpeiise.. 

I'lu' soil is well wateri'd by the river Maitlaiid, a lar.^c branch of 
the Thanus and its tributarii's, the rivir Aux Sables, and numerous 
ri\ulels and brooks, i'resh sprin<;s abouml throuj;hout the tract, iiMil 
salt Nprin<;sare fri'(pient. 'J"hi' rivers an- partially navij^able, and are well 
adapted to the erection of mills; indeed many of the minor streams are 
eipially ea|)able of workin^i; machinery, and olfer many sites whire _u,ri^t 
and saw mills, carding;' and fidlini!; mills, mi^ht conveniently be built. 

In the township of (lodrich, a town has been laid out on the borders 
of Lake Huron, a^ d at tlu" moutl. of the river Maitland, from which a 
road is opened to join Talbot lload North, and another has bi-en traced. 
conuiiunicatin;j; eastwa/il thriuij^h W'ilmot and (Juelph, with tlu' Iiead 
of Ontario. The t(.wn is ry jud" ously planned, aiul ))eculiarly well 
situated, upon the elevated shores « .he lake, and (»n the southern sick- 
of the harbour formed bv Mail.smd rivi : . This harbour is capable 
of ad'ordiu''' safe slu'lter t( Vv sels of two iiiUidred tons' burden, and is 
well calculated to admit lureafter of the constructioti < ('(piays. to facili- 
tate the loading- and nnloadiuij; of produce and merdiandise. The ri\fr 
Maitlaiul, of nhich a partial ilescription has been <;iven in a precedinj; 
chapter, allbrds of itself many important advantages, arisinj^" out of the 
numerous sites that it presents for the erection of mills of every descrip- 
tion, and likewise from the excellence of the fish with which it abounds. 
The lake is ecjually well stored, and yields especially <>reat (piantities of 
sturn'oon. 'I'he broad exi)anseof its beautifullv transi)arent waters, whilst 



it adds to th(> interest of the locality, and faxourably infiuences the 
atmospheric c!..':es, allbrds an advantageous means of forwardinu,' and 
receivin<>; ^oods, to ami from the lower extremities of the ))roviiice, 
throu<;h the straits, lakes, and canals, by which, in fact, an uninterru))ted 
water coiniminication is (Opened to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Thus circumstanced, it is iini)ossil)le not to contemplate an early 
))eriod at which (iodrieh nuist accpiire a consiilerabk< (k<<;ree of com- 
mercial c(»nse(iucnee ; especially when the exertions of the Companv, 



I 4 



,1 



:* 



I 



I' I 



r 

'•If 

K;||ft'~ 



(.■I I 



1' 



il 



1 IS 



ri'l'i:i{ CANADA. 



Iiitlirrto siu'crssfiil, ;nv duly i-stimiiti'd. \N'lu'ii, at no very ivnidtc date, 
till' interior 1)1' tlie Huron trait uill he tliii-kly inliabited — and it iseajiahle 
ol >n.stainin<>; a population of ei<;lity tliousand souls and u))\vards — its 
pioduee will natinally lind its way to (iodrieli. as the t'oeusof'that seetion 
of'eountry: whilst the manutaetured supplies oi' the settlements would, 
iVoui the advantages of the navigation to that town, he eonstantly for- 
warded to the interior through the same ipiarter. The town, although 
not yet two years in existenee, eontains upwards of three Innidred in- 
hahitants ; and this nund)er is daily inereasing. A tavern is now opened, 
a saw-mill erected, and u grist-mill in progress: the immediate ereetion 
also of a hrewery and distillery is eontem])lated. In fact, no ineii)ient 
eolony ever promised to rise in the same ratio of importanee, or to he- 
I'ome more tlourishing. w ithin a eomparatively hrief lapse of time. It 
will he a eom])etitor for rapidity of growth with IJy Town and (iuelpii, 
that have risen mushroom-like ahove the surface, and are both now 
populous and im])roving places. 

'IMie to\vn of (iuelph is. as it were, the capital of another extensive 
tract belonging to the Company, covering in superficies about forty 
thousand acres, and situated in the comity of llalton. district of CJore. 
The town was founded under the direction of a distinguished literary 
eharacte" .lohn (ialt, Ksquire. the first secretary to the Company, on St, 
Cieorges day, at so late a date as IS'JT, and now contains u|)wards of one 
hundred dw^Hing-houses. several shops and taverns, and seven or eight 
hundred inhabitants, amongst whom are found tradesmen and mechanics 
of every description reipiisite in an infant .settlement. A grist and 
saw-mill have bec.i for some time in operation: a school-house has just 
been erected, and a teacher appointed, who is already intrusted with the 
education of thirty or forty children: a printing-oHice also is lunv 
established. The town is well situated u])on the ri,er Speed, whicli falls 
into the Kramosa. a branch of the (irand river, and through it connnu- 
nicates with Lake ImIc. The streets are munerons and judiciously laid 
out : part of them are concentric, and imite in a crescent formed within 
a bend of river Speed in front of the town*. The country around 

* Till- liuildiiiji lots arc lialt" an acre, ami sell for X'H>; the farms in llii- vicinity niay be 
hail at from Kt.v. to l'2s. (•(/. ]ii'r acri'. 



Z 
< 



X 



1! • 




o 
^ 



t'' 



I: il 






J 









Ill 



1*1 



\i 



1 1 









GL'ELPII— GALT— GEN !• R.A I R VM.\ W KS. 



119 



?{■<! 



GiU'l])li enjoys most of the a(lvaiitai;cs of tlie Huron tract in ivspcct of 
climate and fertility ; but a nearer proximity to the older settlements of 
the province, j>;ive it ))rol)al)ly a su])eriority of relative local situation. 

CJuelph and CJodrich are decidedly rivals : each ])osscsses certain ad- 
vantages over the other which will for some time render their ])r()s])erity 
co-equal ; but it is believed that the ])osition of the latter on the shores 
of a great lake, accessible as it is to large vessels, and having a good 
harbour to protect them — su})eradded to the advantageous circumstance, 
of being at once made the focus of ])o])ulous settlements, that will soon 
be flourishing around — will evcntuallv give it the ascendancv. 

The little town of (Jalt is seated on the banks of the (irand river, 
in the township of Dumfries, and about ' venteen or eighteen miles 
from (iuel])h. It is another of the villages founded by the C\)m|)imy; 
and however its imjjortance may be considered secondary, as compared 
with the other towns, its situation is ])ieuliarly eligible, and cannot fail 
to attract many settlers of respectability and capital. 

l^])on an inspection of the geiUTal geogra])hical ma]) of the British 
Empire in North ^Vmerica, accompanying this work, it will be seen 
that the Canada Compan\' holds large tracts of land in almost every 
township of the province *, exclusive of the Huron territory and other 
extensive blocks. It may, therefore, be safely asserted, that the Company 
have at their disjjosal a vast and valuable ])ortion of the colony, em- 
bracing, from its singular distribution, every possible variety of surface, 
soil, tindier, and climate which that section of the king's dominions 
affords. It cannot, therefore, l)e doubted that the s])here of tluir settle- 
ments will soon be co-extensive with the ])rovince itself; and that from 
the impulse given by them to emigration, and the accelerated march in 
which their settlements are advancing, the landed ])roperty of the country 
will almost suddenly become greatly enhanced in value. It is probable, 
that, before the la])se of five years, lands that may now be obtained upon 
terms extremely moderate, even as sections of a forest, will cost treble 
what they now do, owing to the extraordinary demand that has been 
created for lands, by the encouiagemcJit held out by the government and 

* Tlu' f(iwiislii])s (if I ']>|ior ('im:i(la, in which the ('(iiii|);iiiy holds liiiuls, urc distiiigtiisht'd 
oil the map liy iiu astorisk *. 



il 



n '■Si 



i 



m 



|. 



120 



ri'lM'Il CANADA. 



il 






- h 



the Canada C()m])any to oini^ratc to I'ppcr Canada; and tliis increased 
value of tlie land is the more to he antiei])ated (Voni the geooraphieal 
situation of that ])rovinee. That section oi'it whieh is most desirable for 
settlement is hy no means unlimited or exhaustless, and may probably 
be confined, northward, by a line drawn from the head of Lake Chaudiere, 
on the Ottawa, to Matchedash [Jay, on Lake Huron, whieh includes, to 
the southward, all the or<;anised and surveyed ])arts of the province, so 
nuich of whieh has already been stated to belong- to the Company. Thus 
circum.scribed, with a ])opidation whose natural increase is great, and 
whose adventitious increase is far greater, every acre of ground nuist 
daily ac(|uire a high degree of augmented appreciation. The growth of 
Lp])er Canada, we believe, is unprecedented for its rapiility, in the annals 
«»f colonization; but it must be considered, that few countries in the 
world can eom])ete with it as a Held for new settlement. Few sections 
of the earth are so csj)ecially endued by nature with richness, exuberance, 
and fertility, with bright and pure skies, a salubrious atmos])here, a 
climate calculated to ri])en luxuriant fields, and mature delicious fruits; 
in fact, eiulowed with all the advantages that can render any s])()t emi- 
nently desirable as the abode of man, or rivet his alFections to the soil. 

The Canada Company have done nuieh, to promote the welfare of 
the settlements of the colony, and it a))])ears to be their inclination, as 
well as their interest, to do more. The nund)er and respectability of the 
settlers for whom they have ])roviiled on their iunuense demesnes, have 
already added considerable strength to the country, whether in a ])hysical, 
moral, or political point of view. The accession to the })opidation of the 
province accruing by emigration from the united kingdoms, transfers 
so nuich loyalty to the opj)osite shores of the western ocean ; especially 
when that emigration is under the direct influence and guidance of an 
association of Hritish capitalists, whose studious endeavours, consistently 
with the a))))ropriate badge of their incorporation, '" Xott nmlat ^tiiks, 
ttoliim," nuist be to foster IJritish feeling in the remotest regions of the 
empire. 

From their general applicability to the subject, the Instructions to 
Emigrants, printed at the back of the Company's prospectus, have been 
thought entitled to a ])laee in the i\])pendix at the end of the volume, 
where they will be found under the No. !2. 



I 



..f .j^ 



CIIArTKK VT. 



(lovcriinu'iit — Constitution — iuid Courls of f.inv. 

i\N'ii'.('Ki)i-,Nii.v to 1791 tlio admiiiistriition of tlu" oovcninu'ut of 
the province of Quebec, which was co-extensive with liower and l'])|)er 
Canada, was peremptorily vested, inider the ])rovisions of an act passed 
by the British ])arlianienl in 1771. in the g-overnnient and council only. 
By this act, the catholic relioion was not otdy tolerated in its plenitude, 
but the tithes and other ecclesiastical privileges confirmed to the clergy 
of that persuasion ; the Knglish law was established in criminal matters, 
and the French law declared to ])rescribe the ride of decision where the 
rights of ])roperty were concerned. 

In 1701, as was before mentioned, the province of Quebec was 
divided into U])])er and Lower Canada, and the land before established 
in French seigniories and that recently allotted to the new settlers were 
se])arated and distinguished as before alluded to ; the former falling 
within the T.,ower, whilst the latter constituted the ' '])per ])rovince. 

The basis of those institutions by which rp])er Canadii is now 
governed was laid by an act of the Ihitish legislature, .'ilst (Jeo. III., 
which invests the su])remc power in a legislative council and an assend)ly, 
conjointly with the king, luuler the denomination of the Provincial 
Parliaments. The council nuist consist oi' seven niend)ers at the least, 
but the crown has the jxiwer of increasing this luunber. The members 
arc ap])ointedby the crown : they must have attained the age of twenty- 
one years, and be liritish sidjjects ei*:her by birth, by iiatiu'alization, or by 
the concpiest and cession of Canada. They are api)ointed for life, but may 
forfeit tlieir ])lace by treason, by swearing allegiance to a foreign ])owcr, 
by two years' absence from the colony without ])ermission of the governor, 
or four years' absence without the sanction of the king. 

H 



■m 



1*1 



'♦"•1 



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V -II 



III 



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I !.Li:. 



I >M 



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I oo 



I'lMM'R CANADA. 



The speaker of the couiu-il is appointed by the governor, lientenant- 
governor. or other ])erson achninistering the government, and may he re- 
moved hy the like authority. 

The assembly is eoiiii)()sc'd oi" not fewer than sixteen members, 
ehosen by the electors of districts, counties, circles, or townshi])s. in 
a ))ro])ortion to be declared by the governor, but afterwards alterable by 
decision of the ])rovincial ])arlianient. Sid)se(iucnt provincial acts have 
increased the nund)er of both councils, and have fixed that of the as- 
sembly at forty. The districts returning members are dilferently con- 
stituted : some consisting oidy of a single county, others of two counties, 
a riding, or a eoimty and a riding together. The (pialiHcations of the 
electors are ascertained by the same act; wliich fixes the age of an elector 
at twenty-one. requires the same (lualification of allegiance as in a 
member of the council, and, ])roviding for some contingencies which 
have ne\ er occurred, ascertains, that to vote in a (/is/fief election the 
elector nuist ])ossess a freehold in the (Hntncf of the clear aimual value 
of forty shillings, ^'oters, before admission to the poll, are re(piired to 
swear that they have not before voted at the same election. This enact- 
ment raised the ([uestion of the right of Quakers to vote, that people, as 
is well known, being prevented by religious scruples from taking an t)ath ; 
but this has been decided in the same '.upiitable spirit that governs the 
jurispnulenee of (Jreat liritain, and the allirmation of those persons ad- 
mitted as ecjuivalent to an oath. 

To be eligible as a mend)er, the candidate nnist be twenty-one vears 
of age. a iJritish sul)ject by birth, naturalization, or the conciuest and 
cession of Canada: and he nuist not be a niend)er of the lej-islative 
council, nor " a minister of the church of Kngland, or a minister, j)riest, 
ecclesiastic, or teacher, either according to the rites of the church of 
Home, or under any other form or ])rofession of religious faitli or wor- 
shi))." A doubt for some time subsisted wliether this dis(jualifying 
clause extended to laymen occasionally acting as religicnis exhorters : but 
the (h'cision of the asscnd)ly in the cases of Messrs. Koblin and \\'ilson, 
which upon that ground excluded those niendx'rs from their seats, seems 
to have detinitively settled the ])oint. The provincial i)arliament has the 
power of prescribing disciualifications by its own act: by one of these, 






I ( 



Ki.iXTORS— norsi-: of asskmi?i,v. 



123 



;. 'It 



f 



passed in 179'. it was dcdarcd tliat any person eoniin';- into the jji-ovince 
from a ])laee not under liis majesty's ^-overnment must iiave resided 
seven years, wiiieli period hy an aet passed in 1S14 is extendi'd to tour- 
teen years, and tlie most reeent .laetments re<|uire tliat his jjropertv 
should eomjjrise tour lunidred aeres of land free from incund)ranee, to 
render him eligible as a mend)er of the assend)ly. 

The provineial le<;islature seems to liave involved itself in a sort of 
anomaly by its deeision with re<4'ard to (Quakers olferinj^ themselves as 
candidates for the representation: for thouj^h in the case of an elector 
their aflirmation is admitted in lieu of an oath, as a member it has '.)een 
rejected, and that valuable portion of society eycluded from all share in 
the lej^islation of the colony. 

A new assend)ly is called by proclamation of the governor, who 
fixes the time and jdace, and a))])oints the returning tiflicers, to whom he 
issues writs of election, returnable in fifty days. 

When a petition is ])resented against the return for any district, it 
is to be taken into consideration by the assend)ly in a ])eriod not less than 
fourteen days from its presentation, notice of which is given to the peti- 
tioners and the sitting members, and the mend)ers of the house ])resent 
are sworn to decide according to the evidence. 

The duration of the assenddy is four years : but it may at any time 
be either prorogued or dissolved by the governor, who ap])oints the tinu> 
and ))lace of session, but is obliged by law to do scat least once in every 
year. The ])rorogation contimies no longer than forty days, and must 
be prolonged from time to time by repeated ])roclamations. The time 
of meetinji for the transaction of business is comnnniicated to the mem- 
bers by letter, nor can the session commence till o])ened by the governor. 
The assembly elects its own speaker, subject to the a])pr()bation of the 
governor, and lays down its own rules and orders, referring in cases for 
which they have omitted to ]m)vide,to those which govern the commons of 
the mother country. To constitute a law, a bill having passed the house of 
assend)ly and council, must receive the assent of the lieutenant-governor 
in the name of his majesty, an assent which it is in his discretion to with- 
hold, or to reserve till after a conununication with the government at 
home. In the latter case, the royal assent may be signified at any time 

K 2 



m 



•i 



I ^* 



"' ti, 



*i si 



V24 



IVVVM CANADA. 



!*' 



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within two years, and from that time- the law takes eff'eet. His majesty 
haN likewise the power of (lisallowiii<j; any law Avithin the period of two 
years from its adoption, whieh eeases to he a law froni the time that l>is 
])leasnre is made known. There are eertain suhjeets, of whieh reli<>ion 
is the ])rinei])al. on wliieh no law ean be |)assed withont the eonsent of 
the two houses of the Ihitish parliament, ratified by the kin^-. The ri<;ht 
of ))assin^' laws for the taxation of the ])rovince is exclusively and ex- 
])ressly reserved to the ))rovineial le^i^liiture. 

iVs in the mother country, the executive ])ower is vested exclusively 
in the kin^', or his rejjresentative, the lieutenant-<'()vernor : that repre- 
sentative ajjpointed by the crown, as are his principal o.Oicers, the mem- 
bers oi' the executive council, the juil<;es of the court of king's bench, 
and all oiHcers at the heads of departments. The lieutenant-y;overnor 
is assisted in his administration by a council, a])pointed by the crown ; 
and all )i 'titions addressed to him are. To Ii'in KArclh'tivij in CoiiHcil, in 
which style run also all orders and documents made thereon. 

The j)rincipal court of law subsisting in the colony is the court of 
king's bench, consisting of a chief justice and two puisne judges ; the 
jurisdiction of which cond)ine.s those of the courts of king's bench and 
conunon ])leas in England, and, as respects matters of revenue, even that 
of the exchecpier ; holding four regular terms in a year. An a])peal lies 
from its decisions, by writ of error, to the court of appeals, comj)osed of 
the governor and his council, but only in causes where the matter in dis- 
])ute amoimts to one hundred pounds, or is some annual rent or duty ; and 
from this judgment there is an ultimate apjjcal to his majesty in eoimcil, 
where the subject in (juestion is of five hundred pounds' value. There 
arc also two circuits, the eastern and western, of assize <ind nisi prius, to 
each of which a judge of the king's bench is appointed, associated in the 
commission with some principal gentlemen of the district. Hesides these, 
there are district courts, whose jurisdiction extends to all simple con- 
tracts nnder the Aalue of forty ])ounds ; to qnestions of j)ersonal property 
and trespass ; but not to any cause involving a title to land. Quarterly 
sessions are likewise lu)lden in each district, by the justices of the peace, 
for the trial of misdemeanors and ])etty offences, with the regulation of 
the general police. Courts of request, principally analogous to those 






II! 4 






fOl'RTS or LAW, Jkr. 



1 :■) 



wliicli rc'frulati' such courts in (Jrcat Hritain, sit twici' in i-acli niontli. 
und.T the ])rcsi(lc'iK'y of two justices of tlio ])oaco, for the trial of petty 
causes under forty slnllin<i;s' vaUie. A probate coiu't for the province, 
with a surrojfate c(»urt in each district, a board of land connnissitiners. 
having jurisdiction over claims to lands nranted by the crown, conipKte 
the list of tribunals invested with t!ie judiciary authority in this pn)vinic. 
In noticinj)- the ori<i;inal constitution of the province, it was mentioned 
that the Kn^Tish law Avas established as the basis of the criminal law of 
('p))er Canada; and in all respects t!i;' laws of Kn<i,lan(l regulate the 
decisions of the courts, so far as such laws arc a|)plicable to the circum- 
stances of the province, or are not su|)erseded by provincial statutes. 



*^ii 



^ 



t ' 



CHArTKl? Vll. 



'I'lii' ItiviT St. Lawii'iico. — Till' (iirat Lakes. — Tlio (.iiiH.— C'aiiais. 



li 



1^ 



II ' 



Tm: St. Lawrcncr, ori^iiiiiUy vMvd the (Jreat llivfr of Canada, or 
tlic'(ir<.'at KivtT, toniark its prc-eininciur, is the iiukliljU' link fori nod by 
natnre l)t't\vocn theCanadas.and thi' sonrce at once of the wealth, beauty, 
and prosperity of both provinces. In passin<^-, therefore, from the to|)o- 
^raj)hy of I'pper to that of Lower Canada, the de.seri])tioii of that splendid 
river seems natnra' to sn<i<;('st itself as a typical illnstrati«)n of that 
link. The introduction of it here, froni the circumstance of its followin"^ 
the account of one province, and immediately precedinj;' the description 
of tlie other, will at the same time enable the reader the more easily and 
intimately to associate the topographical features and characters of each 
province with the utility, ma«i,nificcnce, and i^randeur of that nioantie 
stream. 

The St. Lawrence, though not the longest river in the world, is 
certainly the largest in every other respect, if, as a])pears proper, its 
immense lakes be considered to form part of it. I'nder this as])ect it 
will be found that the surface it covers, and the cubic mass of its waters, 
far exceed those of the ^Vma/on or the Mi.ssissi])pi, but it ])rol)ably does 
not carry to the ocean a greater volume of water than either of tliese 
two majestic streams. The source of the river St. Lewis, which may be 
deemed the remotest spring of the St. Ijuwrence, is in latitude W IJO' 
iKMth, and longitude about [)ii" west. From its source the general di- 
rection of the St. Jiawrence, through Lakes Superior and Huron, is 
south-east to Lake Erie, nearly due east through that lake, and then 
north-east to the Gulf, through which its Avaters are mingled with the 



f\ 



i{ivi:ns or tiik st. lawuknce— lakr sn>i:i{ini{. 



V27 



•mi 



iVtlaiitic'Oi'oan, after an imintrrni))to(l course M' upwards <>(' t\V(» tlioiisand 
statute miles. 

Tile St. Laureiiee receives nearly all the rivers tiial liavi- their 
sources in the extensive ran<;e of mountains to the nortiiwards, called the 
Land's Height, that separates the waters t'aHin<^' into Hudson's Hay still 
further to tiie north from those that descend into tlu- Atlantic, aiul all 
those that rise in the ridn-e which connuences on its southern hank, and 
runs nearly south-westerly until it falls upon Lake t'ham|)lain. Of these, 
the principal ones are the Thames. Ouse, or (irand river, the Ottawa. 
JMas<|uinoni>;e, '^aint Maurice, IJatiscan, Saint Anne, .laccpies C'artier. 
l)u (iouM're. Saguenay, IJetsiamitcs, and Manicouaj;an on the north; and 
till' Salmon river, C'hai"an<;ay. C'luunbly or Itichelien, Vaniaska, St. 
Fr.incis, Xicolet, Hecan(our, J)u (liene, C'haudiere. du Sud. du I-oup. 
Matamie, and Mitis on the south. In diifcrent ])arts of its course it is 
known under diU'erent api)ellations : thus, as hi^h uj) from the sea as 
Montreal, it is called St. liawrence; from Montreal to Kin<;ston in 
l'])per Canada, it is called the Catara([ui, or Irocpiois; hetween J^ake 
Ontario and liake Lrie it is called Niagara river; hetween Lake Krie 
and Lake St. Clair, the Detroit; l)etween Lake St. Clair and Lake 
Huron, the river St. Clair; and hetween Lake Huron and Lake Su- 
|ierior, the distance is called the Narrows, or the Falls of St. Mary. 



.1 


1 


' 1 


1 




11 




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■ i 


4 




/^ 


.; 


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LAKK .sri'KHIOH. 

liake Supcriol', without the aid of any great elfort of imagination, 
may be considered as the inexhaustible spring from Avhence, through 
unnumbered ages, tlie St. liawrence lias continued to derive its ample 
.stream. This immense lake, uneijualled in magnitude by any collection 
of fresh water n])on the globe, is situated between tlie ))arallels of Mi" 2.'}' 
and 4i)" 1' north latitude, :ind the meridians of 84" 'H and D'i" 11' west 
longitude. Its length, inciisured on a curved line through the centre, is 
about three hundred and sixty geographical miles, its extreme breadth 
t)ne hundred and f(U'ty,and its circumference, in following the sinuosities 
of the coasts, about one thousand five hundred*. Its surface is about 



,i ^..fl 



'4 ><l 



* These ilimensions, as well us other pnrticiihirs relative ti> Lake Suiicriiir, me taken 
tVoin the able and scieiitilic paper ])re>eiitecl to the Literary ami Fli^torieal Socii ty of (^uelne. 
together with a valuable colleetioii of geological and mineral sjiecimens, by Caiitain JJaytield, 



I OH 



LAKi: SI I'KHIOll. 



si\ liiiiiilit'd and tu'cnty-si'vi'ii (Vet iil)o\i' the ti(l« ^ tii of tli<^ Atiaiitir; 
Imt till- shoivs I'xiiihit almost coiu'liisivi- iiiditiii' is liavliij; lu-iii, in 
foniiir a^is, as mmli |>t'ilia|)s as forty or fifty frtt liiglur than its present 
li'xcl. Various soundings liavc lu'cn taken, from eighty to oni- hunched 
and lifty fathoms; hut its j^reatest cU-pth prohahly exeeeds tw») hunih'i'd 
fathoms, thus (lemonstratinj; the hottoni of the hike to he nearly six 
hundred feet //t'/otc tlu' level of the oeean. The crystalline transparency 
of its waters is uiu'ivalleti, and sui-h as to render rocks, at extraordinary 
<le|)tlis. distinctly visihie. The hottom of the lake chietly consists of a 
very adhesive clay, whiih speedily indurates by atmospheric exposure, 
and contains small shells of thi' species at presiiit existinji; in the lake. 

A sea almost of itself, this lake is suhject to many vicissitudes of 
that eli'Mient, for here tin- storm rayes and the hillows hreak with a 
violence scarcely surpassed hy the tempests of the ocean : hut it is not 
subject to the oceanic phi'nonu'non displayi-d by an unerriui;' and pe- 
riodical llux and reflux. Its expansive surface, however, yields to the 
influence of heavy winds; so that when these blow stronj;" from oni' 
(|uarti'r. they produce a very perceptible rise of the lake in the (opposite 
direction. 'I'he s|)ring' freshets ar«.' also known to have occasioned a rapid 
swcIliuL;' of the wati'rs. which has been espcc-ially conspicuous after a 
rii-orous winti-r. That its waters were once salt is l)v no means unlikelv: 
aiul the supposition staiuls in some d(><iree supjiorted by the natiu'e of 
the fish that inhabit tlu'm, and tlii' marine shi-lls that are found alouif 
the beaches, or imbi'dded iu the shores. 

The ])asin of Lake Superior is considerably lartj,"er than the area its 
waters now occupy. It may be s;'id to be jjoiinded by the surrounding 
mountain ridges, in wlucii are found the sources of the rivers that are 
tributary to the lake. 'IM'.ese bounds are at various distances from its 
actual shores, reei-ding lVc.:u them at some points to the distance of fifty 
or seventy miles, and at oilurs a])i)roaching ^t■ry near, or forming the 
margin of the lake itself. 'I'iie suuuuits of the hills rise, in some 



Hoyal .\'a\ V. Tlie cxtciisivo li\ dnmiMpliiiMl >iirv('vs of tliiit scicntilic otru'cr aiv an important 
acoossicin til tlic ;r('(i|_'raj)liv lit' tlif Canadas, and t'nmi tlic aMIitifs and rcscari-li iit' the tijicralor 
Iiiivf alMi liccn tlic means of cxti-ndinj; i-oiisideralily tli«' know It'd^L' of \-ari(ius brancla's of tlic 
natural liistory of liotli jirovinces. 



; *» 



STH.AIT or ST. MAItV. 



I'.'!) 



iiistiiiu'i's, to ill! ('lcviitii)M of oiu> tlioiiMiiid \\\c liiiiidii'd Icct al)oM> tlio 
lake, as trii^^tnoiiu'trirally asccrtaiiii'd l>y (.':i|>taiii i{a\ H< Id; and tlii'MHirci-s 
of sonu' <»(■ tlu' rivers flowing into tlu* laki- liavr lu'iii rstiniatid l)y Mr. 
Sclioolcrot't and Dr. Itiosliy to lii< (Voni tivi' luindrcd and livi' to six imn- 
clrt'jl and I'om'ti'i'ii fVi't lii^lii-r tiian tlir \v\v\ of tlii'ir innnllis. Tlii' rivi'rs 
discliargini;' tlicnisi'lvos into I iak(.> Superior ar(> indicd nnnu rows, hut none 
are ri'niarkal)li' i'or tlicir li'n;>th, altlion;;'!) siNcral ul' tliini ari> Hue liroad 
streams, ponrini; ample stores into tlie l)o>,(ini of tins innnensi> ri'eipieiit. 
On its north and north-east sides are several islands, the lar;;ist of uhiih 
is ealli>d Isle Hoyale, measurin<{ ahoiit one hundred miles in len<>th hy 
forty in hri'a<lth. 

The outlet of Lake Superior is the Strait of St. Mary, ahout forty 
miles \ou^, eoimei-tin^- the south-eastern extri'mity of that lake with the 
north-west anf«;le of Laki' Huron. The Falls of St. .Mary are nearly mid- 
way hetweeii the two lakes. This denomination, though jfenerally j^iven, 
but little aeeords with the usual appellation of l-'alls as applii'd to the 
descent of lar<;e hodies of water pri'ei|)itate(l fmm <;reat heij;hts, that so 
frecpiently oeeur on thi- rivers in .Vmi-riea. In this plaee it is only the 
impetuous stream of the enormous diseharne from Laki' Superior foriin^- 
its way throu<;h a eonfined ehaimel, and hreakin<;' with proportionate 
violenee amon<i^ the impediments that nature has thn)wn in its way ; 
yet this seene <>'' tumultiu)us and mu'easiiij»; a<;itati()n of the waters, eom- 
hini'd with the noise and da//lin<;- whiteni'ss of the sur<>;e, is not delieient 
either in tirandeur or mau'iiideenee. The total descent of the fall has 
hei'U ascertained to be twenty -two and a half perpendicular fi'i-t. It has 
bi'cn found impracticahli' to ascend the rapid, hut canoes have \entured 
down, although the experiment is extremely nervous and hazardous, and 
in jreneral avoided by means of a poi'ta«i;e about two miles lonj; which 
connects the navi_<;able parts of the strait. 

Helow the diseharye of St. Mary's Strait are situated the islands of 
St. .Joseph and Drunnnond ; the former of which is under Hritish domi- 
nion, and the latter within the limits «if the I 'nited States. There are 
upon each a small military detachment and dei)»)t, maintained by the 
respective governments, which are the most remote stations, at least on 
the British side of the frontier, where a military force is maintained. 



'i' r' 






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if 



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I 'JIt 



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I.AKl- IICIIOV. 



Tlii'so isliiiuls aboiiiid with curious minoralooical spocimcns, fossils, aiid 
|K>tri(';u'tions. inany of wliicli arc to hi- st-cn in tlic inust'Uins of the Na- 
tural llistorv S(H"ii'ty in M'.utival, and tho lati-rarv and I listorit'al 
So('ii't\' of (^u('l)t't'. 

LAKH IllHON. 

\ Aike Huron \ ii Ids in its (hmcnsions to Lake Superior only. Tt is 
\vr\ irrcnidar in sliape. yi't with the assistanee of a httk' fancy may be 
fornu'd into soiuethiniL;; like a trianyle, havini>' its base to tlie north, and 
its opposite an^le at the somct' of the St. Clair river, which is its outlet 
to ihe so\ith. Its <;reatest U nuth on a iur\c'linear lini' hetween the dis- 
charu,e of St. Marys Sir., 1 and the outk-t. is about two hundri'd and forty 
miles: its deptli. diu' north and south, one hundred and i-inhty-six ; and 
its extrenu' breadth, ni-arly W. N. W. and Iv S. M.. about two hundred 
and twent\. In eiri'unil'erenee it will bi' found not far short of one 
thous;ind nnles. l-'roni the liead of river St. (."lair its coast to the west 
trends first north-eastward about thirty-live miles, then stretches north- 
ward abodt one hundred and fii'teen to Cape Ilurd. which terminates tlu> 
west point of Cabot's I lead, a peninsula averan'inif tweKi" miles broad, and 
])rotrudinL!; fifty niili-s into the lake. From \N'in<;lii'l(l Point on the east, 
correspondini;' with Cai)e Ilurd on the west, the coast breaks to the 
south-eastward, forms Nattawassai;a IJay, and then, after adniittini>; the 
waters of Lake Simcoe. ri^ascends northerly to the Kith dei;ree of north 
latitude, nnich broken and indented, and frin<;i'd i)y a midtitude of islets. 
At this point the lake receives the waters of Lake Nipissino- thr()u<;h the 
I'rench ri\ cr : the shore thence bends to the west. contimiin<>' that uoneral 
direction till it strikes tlie Strait of St. Mary, beyond which is the broad 
strait of Mii'lnliniackinac. the outlet of Lake Michigan into Lake Huron, 
or rather the link by which both lakes are united, for it is believed there 
is little or iio diHerenee of elevation in their relative l(>\els. 'I'lie coast 
then swellinii' «»iit eastwardly takes a southerly course to the bottom of 
Sai>uenam I{ay. reascends on the eastern side of it about forty miles, and 
then trtMuls again southward t») the head of river St. Clair. 

'I'he surface of Lake Huron is about thirty-two feet lower than that 
of Lakc> Sui)erior, and thirty feet above the le\ el of l-ake Erie. It is 



l.AKI' IllHON. l.')l 

nearly as (Ici')) as \\\v lonm-r; and its water is cM|Ually told. transparcMit. 
and pure, l-'roni its westi'rn side a serii-s of txtensixc islands called 
Maniloulin, of wliieli St. .losepli and I )nnnni()nds Isi;inds already 
mentioned form part, stretches in an easterly diici'tion one Inmdred and 
twenty mill's. ( )ni' of thi'se islands is ii])\\ards of sevent\-li\e miles 
loiiii,', and varies in width from thni' mili-s to twenty-three, heinn' sin- 
gularly indented by dei'p inlets and i-oxcs that j;iM' it an extremely irre- 
gular and broken «)Utrme. A superstitions veni-ration is attached to these 
islands hy tlu" Indians, who l)elie\e them to he I'onsei'rati-d hy the pn'- 
sence of tlu'Cireat Spirit, or, in their own lanu,uan'e, the "(i/ra/ Mtiiiitou ;" 
and luiiee has originated the ap])ellation they still hear. IJetween this 
])rineipal chain and the north shore is comprisi>d a section of the lake 
almost completely cut oil' from the main body, in which are scatti>red 
many other islands ol' inferior s'l/.c : whilst another group, exti-ndini;' 
I'rom Cape llnrd {o the southern angle of theCireat Manitonlin Island, 
forms together the Manitonlin series, a kind of archi|)i>lago that conlines 
the lake to th.- northward. (.'ond)ini'd with Cabot's ))romontory or pen- 
insula, this archipelago separates from the lake a large body of water 
consti'.nting, as it were, an inner lake, whose extri'me length, from N'at- 
tawassaga Hay, on the S. V... to the mouth of the Nairows or St. Mary's 
Strait, on tlu" west, is about two hundred and twcnty-(i\i' miles, and its 
greati'st breadth about liity. 

Several rivers and mnneroiis minor streams descend from all sides 
to levi>l the bosom ot' tlu- lake. IJut although the Maitland, Si'vi'rn. 
Moon, and l-'ri-nch rivers, which are those most w.Tlhy of being enu- 
merated. How in ample streams, it is probable that they do not together 
])oin' into the lake more water than is dischargetl by tlu- l-'alls of St, .Mary 
alone. Tlu' shores ot' Lake Huron an- generally barrt-n and broken, 
especially towards the ni»rth, where a bold ridge of hills, called the 
Clodic Mountains, arc conspicuously to be si-i-n, extc nding about forty 
mile.-; along the coast, and exhibitin<>' distinctlv three or four loftv 
summits. Clay cliil's, rolUd stoiu's, al)ru])t rocks, and woody steeps, of 
various ele\atit)ns, from thirty to eighty or one hundred feet in lu>ight, 
constitute the general characters of the coast in most parts of thi' lake: 

s 'Z 









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132 



LAKE HURON— LAKE MICHIGAN. 



but the lands above tliese forbidding!; shores are fre(iuv'ntly of an excel- 
lent (|nality, es|)eeially to the eastward. 

This lake is eentrically situated between its rivals, Lakes Superior, 
lMiehiu,'an, Krie, and Ontario, Mith all of which it has a direct connnuni- 
cation. l?v St. Marv's Strait it coinnuniicates witli Lake Superior; by 
Miciiiliniackinac with Micliigan, and through it with the waters of the 
Illinois: bv the river and Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit, with Krie; 
and bv Severn river and I^ake Sinu'oe, then a short ])(»rta<>e. a chain of 
lakes, and Trent river, with Ontario. There are, besides, two known 
water conuniniications i.ith the Ottawa; one of which, explored by Mr. 
Cattv. ol' the roval engineers, '\\\ 1S1<). ascends from Lake Siincoe through 
a chain of lakes and their connectiny; waters, to the height of land, over 
which a portage is made to the source of the >Li(lawasca, which falls into 
the Lake of the Chats. The other is up French river into Lake Xinis- 
sing, and thence down a rapid riv(>r into the Ottawa, where it dis- 
charges itself near a ])lace called Mataouin. This is the route in general 
adopted bv the north-west traders in proceeding to the remote ])arts •,\' 
the country, and the point at which they traverse from the waters of th;' 
Ottawa to those of the St. Lawrence. 



t 



■'f I 



ifil 



LAKE .AIIC'IIIGAX. 

Lake Michigan lies exclusively within the boundary of the I'^nited 
States. Its ])osition is nearly north and south, its length little short of 
three hundred miles, and its greatest breadth about seventy-five. In shape 
it is elliptical and regular, if we except a break in its western coast, 
formed by the >'ntrance of (ireen l?ay, which is about one hundred miles 
deep, and extends parallel with the lake, and another inferior bay on the 
o])posik> side. None of the tributaries of Michigan are of any consider- 
able length, but they are extremely munerous ; and several of them are 
full Howing rivers, that elfectually feed the lake into which their streams 
are lost. From the bottom of CJreen Hay, boats can ascend the Onta- 
gamis or Fox river to within two miles of the Oniscousin, to the head 
of which a i)ortage is made, and a descent thence olfered to the Missis- 
si i)pi. 



f'»^'; 



LAKE ST. CLAIR— DKTUOIT Rl\ KR. 



1 '■'•} 






T\w river St. tMair, ji Hiit', clear stream. navi<;al)le lor schooners, is the 
outlet of Lake Huron. It issues at the soutliermnost cxtreniitN of the 
lake, and tlows between moderately hif^h hanks, adorned In many natural 
beauties, for a distance of thirty miles, when it aj;ain expands into the 
comparatively small lake St. Clair. Few settlements have as yet bei-ii 
formed alon<4 its banks; but the excellence of the lands which it traverses. 
and the ra))id im))rovements of the districts in its vicinity, nnist brin^' 
them under early cultivation. Forts (iratia and St. Clair, on the western 
bank, are the only partial settU'ments u))on the river. 

Lake St. CMair occupies an intermeiliate position between Lakes 
Tliu'on and Krie : being connected by river St. CMair with the former, 
and by Detroit river with the latter. It is almost circular, and about 
thirty miles in diameter. The shores are low, level, and generally in a 
state of natmv ; a few strau;u,Tmi;' habitations, humble in their structure, 
.studded in diU'erent ])arts of the wilderness, bein*;' the oidy indications (A' 
])ro<>ressive settlement. The water of the lake is oeiu'rally sh()al. yet 
sufliciently deep in the channel to atlimit safely of steam-boat and schooner 
navigation. Its surface is much contracted by a grouj) of flat islands to 
the northward. ))ro(luce(l by alluvial accunndations from the discharge 
of the St. Clair, by which numerous channels are formed to ap|)roach 
the mouth of the river, the principal one being that called the ()/</ Ship 
Channel. liake St. Clair receives two large rivers from the eastward, the 
Thames and the (ireat or Hig Hear, which we have formerly described, 
besides several streamlets and brooks. It discharges itself by the Detroit. 

Detroit river, ]>iM}<erly the Jh-lroit or Strait, directs its course out of 
the lake, first t;> ihe westw;:i(l, and ther.ce, bending in a regular curve, 
flows about due s.>i,th to its influx into Lake Krie. It is twenty-nine 
n)iles in lengtii. broad and d'ep. and divided into two ch»ipnels I'or a 
great ])art ot sis course by elongated islands, the largest oi" which are 
(irosse Isle, within the American lines, eight miles long, and Turkey 
Island, further up. within the Hritish boundary, in lengtii : bout Ave 
miles. Isle an Uois IJlanr, lu'longing to Lpper Canaila. is not ujore than 
one mile and a half long, but its situation is im])ortant. It is nearly 
o])])osite ^\ndierstburgh, and divides the channel i)etween Cirosse Isle 
and the east bank of the river, leaving the dee])est chaimel to tin east- 
ward, and connnunding the entrance of the river. The Detroit is navi- 



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LAKi- KHli:. 



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j;al)l(' lor vcvs.sds of any si/c iniploN i-d upon tlu- lakes, and oU'crs at An)- 
licrstburuh an oxcL-lk'nt liaibour. Tlic banks of tlii" river are of mode- 
rate elevation, anil in a liij;li state of eidture, e\hil)itin<>- very |)leasin<jf 
and ))ietures(jiic ])ros])eets, in wliieli are eonibined fertile fields and 
jtardens. numerous oreliards, neat and freijuent d\vellin<;-h()uses, and ex- 
tensive barns, the objects bcin^' at the same time so a<;reeably grouped or 
distributed as to <;ive nnieh interest, diversity, and beauty to the laiid- 
seajje. Sandwieh and ^Vmherstburo'h * are the only two towns of any 
conseijuenee u])on the liritish side; Detroit the most in)])ortant place. as 
to ])()])ulation, u])on the opposite shore. The latter town contains about 
two hundred and fifty houses, a ])rotostant and catholic church, a few 
buildinus belonuiuu' to <';overnment. and wharfs on the river. ^Xmou"- the 
inhabitants there are many old Canailian settlers. The fort and military 
works at this place are stronj;'. Tiiev were taken by the IJritish forces 
under (General Hrock in IHl'J, when (ieneral Hull surrendered himself 
and his army ])risoners of war. 

L.\KK Kinr.. 

Lake Erie receives the Detroit on its northern shore, about thirty 
miles from its western extrenuty. This lake lies about north-east and 
south-west, betAvecn 41" .'iO' and 4.2" 't'S nt)rth latitude and 7H" -J.'i and 
83" 2.>' west longitude; is about two hundred and sixty-five miles long, 
sixty-tlu'ec miles and a half broad at its centre, and six hundred and fifty- 
eight miles in circumference. Its surface is calculated to be five hundred 
and sixty-five feet above the nearest tide-water of the ocean ; and its 
greatest depth varies from forty to forty-five fathoms, with a rocky 
bottom. From its northern coast several extensive ])romontorics f j)ro- 
jeet into the lake tt) considerable distances, and render its navigation 
more dillicult than that of the other lakes, by occasioning a diversity of 
bearings. For instance, in leaving Fort Krie. or liufl'alo, the course lies 
west-south-west, about two luuidred and fifty miles, to the St. (ieorge or 
IJass Islands ; thence northerly to j\mlicrstburgli, and westerly to tiie 
head of the lake. A very })erce])til)le current, that runs constantly down 

' S.M- p. 10.-.. 

t Fur a description of these promontories or points, luul of the north -liore generally, see 
pp. 10.3, 104. 



ifj 



l.SLANDS AM) SOUTHERN SHORES. 



133 



' lb 



till' lake, and tlif ])iwalciu'e of south-west winds, also add to the diMi- 
cultics of tlio navi<;ation in ])nuTcdin_L!,- westward. 

The islands of the lake are entirely confined to its western (|uarter. 
These are I'ele and Middle Islands, the lien and Chiekens, and the Kast 
and Middle Sisters, on the Hritish side the line: and C'unninu,hani and 
Slate Islands, the Hass Islands, and the West Sister, within the Ignited 
States' limits. 

The southern shore of the lake falls exehisively within the territory 
of the I'nited States. At its eastern extremity are Hlaek Uoek and 
HuHhlo, which were destroyed duriuj;' the war: hut they lune since heen 
rehuilt. and have made the most rapid progress in im])ro\ements and 
pojndation. From Hullalo u]) to the Detroit, tiie shore of Lake Krie is 
j^enerally low : exce])t near the ])ortaj;e of C'hatausili(|ue, where for a 
short distance it is rocky and hold ; and hetwccii C'levc^land and the We- 
neshoua river, where the dills rise almost perpendicular nearly twenty 
yards above the water's level, and so conlinue until they approach 
the Hiver Huron. ^\lon<4' this side of the lake there are but few points 
nieritin<;- particular notice. The entrance of C'atarai>us Creek allbrds 
a <;()od harbour for boats, whence there is a road to the interior. 
Pres(iu"ilc harbour is situated opposite to the North Foreland, or IiOn<i' 
l*oint, and formed by a sandy beai-h or narrow |)eninsula stretchiuj;' a 
<i;rcat distance, and eoverinj;' it from the lake. In form it bears so stronj;' 
a rescnnblance to Vork harbour on Lake Ontario, that the same descrip- 
tion Avou'jd apply almost etpially well to both ])laces, with the diUerence. 
that the latter opens to the south-west and the former to the north-east. 
The breadth of it is ahout a mile and a hall, but it runs inward nearly 
three miles. The entrance is not more than half a mile wide, with a bar 
across it, on which there is in general not more than six or seven feet 
Avater. 

The town of Krie is seated on the south side of the harbour. It is of 
a rcsj)ectable si/e, well laid out, and the streets re<>ular. The houses al- 
to<j;ether amount to three hundred, with a church, court-house, and a 
public prison. Kastward of t!ie town stands a strong battery, and on the 
point of the ))eninsula a large- blockhouse, which together completely 
defend the harbour. .iVt this \()v n there is a dockvard. with store- 



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I.AKI' l.lJiK 



limiscs. wliiirfs, \('. fdi-niinu' tlic Anicrican iiaval depot on the lake, and 
at nliieli they have huih and e(|ui|)|)e(l hrins nioiintinn- twenty j;'iins. 
A road U>a(ls I'roni it by I-'ort Le Hd'uf to MeadsviMe and I'ort l''rankHn, 
on tlie Alli'<;any river, and another hy the niariiin of tlie lake to IJnU'alo. 
A little sonth-west ol" Mrie is the small villaji'e of I/ieliHeld, whence 
a road eontinnes hy the lake-side to IJalplisville. and hy the Ashtahnla 
river down to .lefl'erson and A»istiijhur<;h, from which ])lace another pro- 
ceeds to the towns of Warren and New I.ishon. 

From a small settlement called Newmarket, on the east side of 
(irand river, a road ^oes to C'lexcland, thence tnrns oft' to New Lisbon, 
and continues on to I'ort M'lntosii on the Ohio river. From Cleve- 
land there is a very good road to Sandusky, that ])roceeds on to the 
old I"\)rt Miami. Half a mile beyond it is Fort Meu<;s, a place of 
some strenu,th, and mounting eij^hteen jfuus (lurin<;' the war. The 
two bays of Sandusky and Miami allbrd fj;ood anchorage and shelter, as 
do most of the islands at the west end of the lake. In Cuimingham's 
Island, is a fine harboiu' called Put-in Hay. opi'U to the north, and 
very Avell sheltered, with excer.nt anchorai;'.'. It is nearly of a circular 
form, and the entrance to it not more than a (piarter of a mile wide, 
having on the western side a narrow rocky ])oint about forty feet high, 
but where it joins the islaiut the istlnnus is so low as to be generally 
overflowed, l^'rom the point a blockhouse and strong battery di'fend the 
harbour. The Fnglish ships Queen Charlotte and Detroit were carried 
in here after their capture. a\ hen the IJritish s(|uadron was defeated by 
an i\nicriean arnuunent of nuich superior force. 

The invaluable advantages enjoyed by Lake Firie from its geo- 
giaphiial position and relative connexion with surrounding navigable 
witers. ;uid the scene of commercial animation it exhibits, are so eorn'ctly 
described in a .Tournal ))ublished at IhiHalo. that we cannot do better 
than give the following 'xtraet from it. " It is ])eculiarly gratifying 
to notice the annual :, crease of busiv.ess upon the waters of Lake Krie. 
The lake navigation connnenced thi.^ spring (IS.'JO) nuieh earlier than 
usual, and it has alri'ady assumed a degree of importance and activity 
une(|ualled bv that of any former jieriod. Hesides the numerous 
schooners that constantly crowd our wharfs, waiting their several tiu'iis 



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'fVi 



to load or unload, scncm (iiic stcani-hoals Iia\c lull and prolitaMc cni- 
|)lo\ nicnt *. ()ni> of tlu'sr hoats nou leaves imh- liarluiin- c\('r\ morning-, 
crowded Avitli lVeii;lit and |iassi'nj;c is, destined to the fertile regions of 
the west. It is impossible to reflect on the almost ineredilile increase 
of business upon Lake I'-rie for the last fixe or six years, without in- 
didnin;^- in what to some uk'.v a))i)ear extravagant antieipations of the 
future. 

'• The map of the cMitire u,loi)e does not present another sheet of 
water so stril<iiii:,ly ]>eeuliar as that of r.ake I'lric'. It literally eommands 
the niivij';ahU' waters of Xorth America, l-'roni the soulji, ii steam-hoat 
has already ascendi'd the A!leu,any to \\ arren : and a tiiilini^' improvenu'nt 
of the ("hatauciiie outlet \\ill enahli' steam-hoats from New Orleans to 
a])])roa( !i within three miKs of I'ortland harbour. Froni the north, the 
vessels of I.aki' Ontario have alriady ^isite(l Lake Krie, through the 
A\ t'lland Canal and river. 'I'he same spirit of enterprise that produced 
tlie ^^'ellalul Canal, it is belicxed, wil! soon be mabled to oxercome the 
natural ini))i'diments to the navigation of the St. Lawrence, and open an 
easy and uninterrupted eomnunrication from Lake Lrie, throu_u,h Lake 
Ontario, to Montreal and (^uebic. 'I'lu' ease with which a canal of suf- 
ficient capacitv to ])ass steam-boats can i)e opened between Lake .^lichi- 
uan and the navigable waters of the >rississii)])i i;, well known. This 
enterprise has been lou<^' agitated, and will, it is believed, soon be accom- 
))lished. Hut this will not be the only channel of intercourse bet v. eeii 
Lake Fa-ie and the (iulf of .Mexico, l-'rom the southern shores iA' Lake 
Krie, the Ohio and I'ennsyKania canals will open a conununication 
through the Ohio river to the .Mississippi. 

" Lake Lrie. thevefort>. may be reuarded as a oreat central reserv(>ir, 
froni which o])en in all directions tlu> most exten-i\e channels of inland 
navigation to be found in the world: enabling \ essels of the laki> to 
traverse tho Avhole interior of the coinitry, to visit the Atlantic at the 
north or i)i the south, anil collect jjroducts, the luxuries and wealth of 
every eliine and country." 

* Previous to tin- opi-iiiiig of tin- (iraiid I'.ric C'liiml, tlicrc were not more than twenty 
vessels in the lake. In less than tliree years after there were two hundred and eij;liteen. — Gc 
ncral Heir of the lit Hand Citiuil, hi l'(ii>luiii CniL.lilon. 



li 



l:]H 



MAfiAUA I{l\ I'M. 



Till' Niii^MPii river conimcuccs nt the cxtirnu' iiortli-i-ast point of 
Liiki' Mi'ii', iiiid is till' only «)ntli'l llnouj^li wliirli its wutrrs pass into 
Lakr Ontario, from tliiiu-i' to tin- hroad lied tif'tlii-St. I iaurriu'c. and nlti- 
niatcly to tlii' oiian. Fnun itsi-llliix out of I ^aki- Isrii- to its discliari^i' in 
Ontario, its ^I'lUTal conrsi' is fronisoutli to north. It is tliirty-tlni'i-and a 
half mill's lon<>- hy tlii' bends of the river, hut the direct distaiiee seareelv 
amoimts to twentv-eiiilit. No one section of water on the liiohc. of so 
limited an extent, loiild most prohahly he fonnd to cond)ine i't once so 
manv objects of interest, intrinsic or adventiticnis. as are blended in the 
Nia<;ara. It traverses a district unrivalled for its richness and fertility, 
constitutes the frontier betwein two fiireii!,n states, and discloses various 
])henomena in its course that are justly ranked amongst the sublimest of 
the natural wonders of creaticn. 

In desci-ndiu';' the \ia_<;ara. wi' lia\e on our li'fi I'pper Canada, and 
on our rij^hl the state of Xi'W ^'ovk. It first assuim the character of a 
rivi'r at l-'ort Mrie. \vliere its \'. idth is one uiiK': but soon contractinu," its 
bed. opposite Black Rock, to something' less than half a mile, it bei-omes 
rapid, until. i'\))andin_i;, a<i;ain to its original dimensions, the current 
tlows on w itli nH)re ji,'entleness. From the foot of this rapid the ri\er is 
divided intt) two channels i)y four successi\c Hat islands, included within 
the American linnts; t!ie two first and smallest beinjji; S(piaw Islands, 
the others Snake and Strawberry Islands. Helow the latter, whose 
northern point is six miles and a half below F«)rt Frie, the banks of the 
river respectively di\erne north-east and south-east to an extreme 
distance of upwards of six miles, and sweepinur round to their a])j)roacli 
ai;ain em])osom (irand Isle. Tlsis extensive isl.tnd covers a su}>ertieies of 
1 1 COO acres, and, toirether with all the other islands of the Xiiay^ara, ex- 
C'e])t Xavy Island, has been att.icbeil to the Ignited States' territories by 
the decision of the commi^sioi»ers, iiiulcr the sixth article of the treaty 
of (thent. It is remarkabiv >vell wooded, and contains some settlements 
along its south-western si':ore. Of the two iliiitnuls formed by (irand 
Isle, that to the westward is the bioadest and divpest. About mi'lway 
down the eastern chamiel is Tone\ aaita Island. op])osite the eriek of 
that name, which is navigable for boats twelve miles above its mouth, and 
used, in consetpience, as part of the (w'and Krie Canal. Navy Island is 



I 



M \(, \i\.\ I! I \ I'll. 



131) 



at till' foot of tlic Wist C'liiiniu'l ;iii(l tlic noitli-riist iin! of (Jninil Islr, 
till' Main C'liiiniirl passing- l)it\\i'( ii botli islamls. Tjic ((nirsc of tin* lixi-r 
tlii'iici". to tlir (/(/')/(/■ of till' I'alls. is diii' west, tlir distaiU'i' tlirci' mill's 
ami a half, and its hri'adlli ratliir moiv than onr mill'. At (iill Creek, 
near I'ort Sehlosher. where the portaj^e on the .Xineriean side terminates, 
a convenient harhonr is formed for sloops navi'iatin^j; Lake l''rie and that 
])art of the river; aiiil a mile and a half lower down, on the point formed 
by the abrupt turn of tlu' river, are the villinc and mills of Manehester. 
o|)po'.ite (ioat Is! :n(l. The proprietor of this sin^idar spot has. with 
admirahle in^cimitv. eoiitrived to eoniieet it with the main shore, at a 
distanee si'areely of lifty yards, alioM- the xcrne of tin American section 
of the Kails of Xia<;ara. by a hrid^e, npwards of s!\ Imiidred f- et in 
length, supported by wooden piers, driven with astonishiiii;' stability 
amidst the impediments arising' from a resistless Hood ot' waters. mo\ ini^' 
tumultuously at the rate of nearly seven miles an hour. o\cr an irregular 
and broken bed of rov ks. lletweeii I-'ort Sehlosher and Manchester is the 
viilai;e of Chippewa, on the opposite bank, situated near the mouth of 
Welland liver, ami at the southern extremity of the |)orta<;e on the 
Hritish side. 

The ilistaiice from the source of the Niagara to the lu'ad of the 
Falls is twenty miles, and tlie diirereiice of elevation si\ty-si\ feet : but 
of this height lil'ty-one feet descend abruptly in the space ol" half a mile, 
immediately above the I'alls. The slion s of the river are low. and. to- 
wards Lake l-aie. so Hat on the eastern side as to oiler but a slender 
embankment. It is naviifable the whoU' of this distai'.ce. exce])t be'ow 
Chip|)ewa, where the rapids produi'cd by the deep iiuTination of the bed 
of the river, and tl ;.■ indraui'ht of the cataract, beconir too formidable to 
be tempted. .\ boat, uowever, can pass from l''ort Sehlosher, or from 
Chippewa, toCioat Island, by carefully keepim;' the slender line of rather 
.slackened water between tin- foamiiii;- rapids, above the channels formed 
l)\ its intervention : indeed, this nervous ap])roach to the island was the 
only alternative existing before the erection of the ingenious bridge we 
have already noticed. 

At the Falls the river forms a sharp angle, by departing from its 
previous course, which is almost due west, and bending suddenly to tlio 

■V l> 



I "J 



4 



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W yf'. 



140 



.M.\(i.\ii A i;i\ i;ii-riii: i".\i.i.s 









N.X.I'".. lUlou tin- Tiills its ( liariU'ti'iN l)i'r»>iiu' cntiri'ly chiinii* d : its 
widtli IN coiitrartt'd Iniin upwards of a inilc (<• siair(l\ rmii- liiiiulivd and 
fills yards, and at siiiiic points Uss ; its lud, instead 'il'lyinn lii't\((,>M|i 
low hanks sniiliii!;' with tlii' arts ttl" a;;rifnUin'i', sinks hwndri ds ol' Cci-j 
into a <Urp ihasiii. walled hy pi i pindifnlar ur inipi-pdinjj, i Tdl's ; and its 
dark siiiam prrsi iits hut one sucitssion of toiling odi'l.'s, initil it i'nii'r<;"i's 
I'roni tlic iliasiii at (^uccnston. I'roni u luiu< it llows in a _!:;cntlc' cnrrrnt 
to its .idliix with l.aki' Dnt.nio. 'i'lu- I'alls an- thirti'i ii niilfs Ironi tlii' 
nionlli I'l the Niagara; and the inclination ol' the sin Ian' of the river. 
iVi'in tlu ir liasi' to (^iiei-nsion. a distani'i- ol' six niili s. is one hnndri d and 
f'onr pcrpvndienlar leet ; and iheni-e to tlu' lake, a distanii' ol se\en 
mill's. oiil\ two I'll t. The l'\dls theniseU es liiinnone Innidnd andsi\i\- 
two leet liioli. wi' haxe the I'ollowini; reeapiudalion of the levels of the 
Niagara r,\i r : 

I);li'ilfi;ii' lili'li \ Ml i.iii IpiIui'im Ij:i];i' Mrli' niiii llic Iiimi! (irilic :■:l|lill^ iilicnc tin' lAlUs j.'i t'cct 
Ditl'iicin'c' licmciii ill.' liiMil iiiiil ('•■•■I iif till' r.i|'i(l> . . ."•! 

(iriMt I'lill nil llii' .\iii«'iii'iiii side ....... l(ij 

KriPln till' li.iM' cit ihf I'.ilN til (Jurfll--lciii ...... i(l| 

Kliiin (Jlli'1'li-.liiU 111 I,;lx, I >llt;i|-iii ■■■... '2 



liiirciciui' iif li'Vil liilwriu till' cllliix anil alllii\ ot llif NiaL:,ira. ur cli'v .ilimi nt' I.,ilii' 

I'rif aiiiivi' I,..|-;i 1 "iitariu ....... WM ' 

rii ;• I-'al!.n| Niagara are divided hy di-at Island into two nne(|ual 
seet;ons; that on the east heinn' tidied the .\iiieriean or I'oi't Sehlosher 
l'"all —the otiii r. on the wi'st. the 1 lorse-Shoe. or. siiiiph , the ( ireat l'\ill. 
hy \'. ayo!' pri -emiiMiiee. The I'ornier lies e\elusivel\ in the slate of Xew 
"\'ork. and also half of llu' latter: it l)ein<^' dixided through tiie point of 
the Iloi'se Slioc. Ii.t\'. een the I'nited States and Canada. The direet 
width of t!i>' r.itaraet. from -.hore to siiori'. is alxnit 1100 vards. fornnnn 
tile eliord of an irreu,i i' are, deserihed hy the I'aee of the island and the 
ledoe of hoth falls. 

The I lorse Shoe has eonsiderahly the advantage of the Ameriean 
l"\ill in the length of its segment, and the xolumeof water impelled over 

* ^Ir. IJariiy'^ Survi'v of the N'iiiiji.ira. 



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23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 




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FALLS OF NIAfiAllA. 



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it. It would 1)0 (liflk'nlt to ;isccrtaiii with certainty the exact nieasure- 
nieiit of the eiirvatiires of the Morse Shoe, hut it is computed, hy geo- 
metrical ])roccss, to be seven hundred yards; and its altitude taken, with 
a ])hnul)-line from the surface of the 'I'ahle-rock, was found to he rather 
more than one hundred and foi'ty-nine feet. Ti\e American Fall docs 
not ])rol)ahly much exceed three hundred and se\enty-(ive yards in cur\ e- 
linear len<^th ; hut its ])er])endicular height is one hundred and sixty-two 
feet, or tiiirtecn feet hioher than the to]) of the Great Fall. It is sub- 
divided by :i small island, cutting off a minor portion of the sheet of 
falling water, to which tiic name of iMontmorency has 1;cen aj)pro))riate(l. 
either on account of the rcsend)lMice traced between it and that celebrated 
fall near Quebec, or the more strikingly to contrast its com))arative in- 
significance with Niagara. The face of Goat Island, which intervenes 
between these awful cataracts. kee])s them three hundred and thirty 
yards asunder, and ])erhaps adds greatly to their romantic eilect and 
beauty, by destroying the sameness which one unbroken sheet of water 
would present, although the collecti\e waters of the \iagara, thus hurled 
down e/i wa.s.se, might, if ])ossible, be still more grand and astounding. 

iVbout half a mile above the cataract ihe river descends on a deeply 
inclined ])lane. Its surface begins to ri])ple a short distance below the 
entrance of XN'elland river: but soon accelerated in their career, the 
waters dash and foan> with terrific a iolence, until they approach the 
head of (ioat Island, when their convvdsive agitation })artia]ly subsides, 
and they sweep on in a broad, ceaseless, and swift current, and arc thus 
projected over the rock, forming a parabolic section in their appalling 
descent to the profound abyss into which they are inguli)hed. This 
abysm is 200 feet deej), and about lOOO yards wide; but it soon becomes 
contracted to less than half that width, forming a dark, dread basin, 
bounded by rugged limestone and slate rock, rising perpendicularly from 
the surface of the watei's below, or overhan<>;in<>' the foaming suroe. 

The shores of the Niagara immediately above the Falls are. perhaps, 
too tame in their aspect to bring forth the whole grandeur of so stu- 
pendous an object. Surnnuided by towering i\.l))ine cliffs, its overwhelm- 
ing terrors could even be augmented, and its sublimity much enhanced. 
The islands and the eastern bank of the river are low and thicklv covered 






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142 



lAI.I.S OF M.\(i.\I{.\. 



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with troos. avIkiso iiutuniiKil f()li;i_nt', drckcd " in ten thoiisiuul dies." alters 
the fiiee of nature, and. by its norovons tints, imparts new interest and 
n()\('ltv to the seenerv of ihe l-'alls The western shore is l)ohler : an ho- 
rizontal ridne is formed alonja; the margin of the rapids by the depression 
of the river, eonuneneinji' from the NN'elland. and gradually inercasing in 
elevation above the surface of the stream from eight to eighty feet, and 
even attains the altitude of one hundred. The 'I'ablc-roek, so famous as 
the s])ot Avhenee a very near view may be had of the cataract, lies at the 
foot of this ridge, nearly on a level with the sunnnit of the Horse Shoe 
Fall ; indeed it forms part of the ledge over which the torrent is preci- 
j)itate(l. Its surface is flat. and. jutting out hori/ontally about fifty feet, 
overhangs the awful chasm beneath. The access to it is down a winding 
path, cut through the copses and shrubbery that cover the slope of the 
ridge we have just described, 'i'he rock is defaced by innumerable in- 
scriptions carveil by travellers, and intersected by many crevices and 
fissures, some of which are nearly an inch broad. The ])rocess of disin- 
tegration is ])erce])tibly going on ; and there is little doubt that the Table- 
rock will eventually be hurled, section by section, into the de])ths of the 
cavern below. In the autumn of ISIS a large fragment suddenly gave 
wa}-, and is no\v partly to be seen by the explorers of the lower region 
of the Falls. 

The first object that meets the eye. after descending to the Table- 
rock, is the s])lendid gradation of sAvift ra])ids above the Falls : then white 
revolving clouds of mist, irregularly belched forth from the depths of 
the abyss, rush across the })latform, enveloping the beholder ; and as these 
are swept away by perpetually \arying currents of air, he ap])roachcs 
nearer the verge of the rock, and beholds the whole length of the tre- 
mendous cataract. The loud, shrill roar of the ni])ids is lost amidst the 
a))])alling thunders of the Falls, which give a real or imaginary trenni- 
lous motion to the earth, and seem to threaten a disru])tion of the ])ro- 
jecting rock upon which we are standing. ^V feat retpiiring considerable 
nerve is sometimes perfV)rmed here by visiters ; and we recollect fearlesslv 
})ractising it in the early perior f life, but would excuse ourselves from 
the re])etition of it now. It sts in lying prostrate, Avith your head 

projected over the fall beyond the margin of the Table-rock, so as to be 



^'H 



ii- ■; 



FALLS OF NLVGARA. 



143 



able with your exteiulcd arm to saw tlie licadlcMii;- torrent with your 
hand. The prodigious vohinii' and indrau<;lit of the lallini; waters, the 
gushini>- spray, tlie bewiUlerini>- noise of the eataraet, your prostrate and 
iinpendiny; attitude, and tlie tremor of tlie very roek on wliieh you He. 
reiuler the ex])erinient in tiie iiinlu'st (kgree shuddering-. 

The view from this spot is extremely <.'rand and uns])eakal)lv sub- 
lime ; but it is too near and overpowering to ])einiit the speetator fidly t<i 
a])preeiate the whole splendour of the seeiie. 'I'he summit of the baid-;. 
rising about one hundred feet above the Table-roek, ailbrds a more eom- 
prehcnsi\ e and advantageous view. Tliis ])osition is the most eonunand- 
ing, and perhaps the point from whenee the eolk'etive magniHecnee of 
the eataraet ean be seen with greatest effect. 

^\eeording to the altitiule of the sim and the situation of the spec- 
tator, a distinct and bright iris is seen amidst the revolving columns of 
mist that soar from the foaming chasm, and shroud the broad front ci' 
the gigantic flood. l?oth arches of the bow are seldom entirely elicited : 
but the interior segment is perfect, and its ])rismatic hues are extremely 
glowing and vivid. The fragments of a plurality of raiid)ows are sojue- 
times to be seen in various ))arts of the misty curt.iin of the Falls. 

The ex])loration of the infc rior regions of the cataract is attended 
with some hazard and much difliculty ; but the thirst for the ro;nanes(jue 
and the sublime has overcome all obstacles, and led the ardent youth, the 
dauntless traveller, and the philosopher, a perilous ])ilgrimagc along the 
slippery margin of storming eddies, beneath im])ending rocks, amidst 
jarring elements, to the foot of the deluging torrents, and even to pene- 
trate several yards behind the concave sheet of the headlong waters. It 
eminently requires fortitmle and self-possession to make this ])r(»gress. 
The rocks over which we advance are sharj), broken, and excessively 
slip])ery, owing to the ])erpetual mossy moisture they ac((uire from the 
oozing crevices of the superincumbent cliffs and the s])ray, so that one 
inadvertentyr/?/.r-^;r/,y might plunge a victim into the whirling and boiling- 
vortex of the Falls. The danger is considerably increased by the terror 
arising from the stentorian thunders of the tundjling floods, that ever 
and anon resound from side to side of the humid cavern, and seem to 
shake the firm rock on its foundation. The difliculty experienced in 



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144 



F.M.I.S OF XI.\(iAK.\. 



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1 s! -I 



'§' 



hrciitliin;;' fVoin the coinhiitcd iiidistin'c iind coinijrcssioii oC tlio air, the 
ini])()ssil)ility of licarir.g or bciii"; heard, thv diz/incss ])ri)diK'i'd hy the 
f'alliiii!; waters, tlu'dimly disrovered snakes and ro])tiU's around, — the whirl, 
the wind, the roar, all c'ond)ine most ])o\verf'ulIy to afleet the soul, to 
overwhelm at once the senses and the imagination, and baffle all powers 
of deseription. 

Innnediately at tlic base of the I'^ills the rayiiiLi,- waters are lashed 
into one thick mass of froth and foam of da/zlinj;' whiteness, but their 
surface furtlier down becomes comparatively still, thou<;h ever whirlin<^ 
and boiling-, and exhibits a totally did'erent a])pearanee from that of any 
other ])art of the river. The labourinii,' stream seems inwardly convulsed, 
heaving and throbbinn- in da.rk and bubbling whirl])ools, as if it threat- 
ened e\ ery moment to eject some of tlu- mystic terrors of the deep. This 
effect is ascribed by Professor Dwight, of the I'nited States, to the re- 
action of the ascending waters. l*reci})itated bodily to an extraordinary 
de})th, by their own ])rodi<>'ious gravity and the force of tlieir im])ulsion, 
and iuA olving with them a (piantity of fixed air, they reascend to the 
suri'ace in a struggling career, checked by the weight of the superin- 
cund)ent water. 

The noise of the Falls is truly grand, commanding, and majestic ; 
filling the vault of heaven when heard in its fulness, and seeming 
mystically to im])regnate ether Avith its absorbing sounds. It is very 
variable in its loudness, being essentially influenced by the state of the 
atmosphere, the direction of the wind, and the position of the listener. 
It is sometimes scarcely audible within three or four miles; and at otiiers 
it may be heard at York, on the ()])posite shores of I^ake Ontario, a di- 
stance of six-and-forty miles. The relative situation of York with tlie 
mouth of the Niagara river faAours the travelling of the sound thus far 
when the air is remarkably still, or acted upon by south-easterly winds. 

It were diflicult to convey a very distinct idea of the deep round 
roar of Niagara ; indeed there is a sonorous cadence in the noise of Avater- 
falls. — an alternation of nuiffled and o])en sounds, — that can find no per- 
fect similitude. It has been likened to the hoarse voice of oceanic surges 
heavily lashing the sea-shore ; to the plunging dash of huge spherical 
stones hurled in quick and ceaseless succession from a preci])ice of great 



;!! 



f'i: 



FALLS OF NIAGARA. 



14.5 



7 'It 



altitude into profound waters; to the effect produced in a vast mill by 
the " ceaseless, rumbling", dee]), monotonous sound," accom])anied with 
tremor, of inuuerous sets of luillstones moving simultaneously * ; but, 
however these assimilations, and especially the last, which is certaiidy the 
best and most familiar, may serve to illustrate description and aid the 
imagination, yet they arc not quite perfect, as the sounds compared are 
either inadequate resend)lances in themselves or d<'ticient in majesty. 
Perhaps nothing can come nearer the cadence, fulness, aiul dignity of 
the sphere-tilling thunders of Niagara than the spirited engagement at sea, 
in still weather, of two heavy squadrons, six or eight miles off | . To a 
spectator on the heights of Aboukir, the battle of the Nile nuist have 
conveyed a correct idea of the roaring, rolling, rumbling, thundering noise 
of this wonderful cataract. 

Not more than 900 yards below the Falls a ferry is established, 
by Avhich travellers can cross with ])erfect safety from the foot of the 
ladder leading beneath the Table-rock, to the ^Vmerican staircase on 
the op])osite bank, keeping along the edge of the tossing and eddying 
waters, and athwart a swift and heavy current. The resources of art 
would find little difficulty in tlu'owing a chain bridge over this 
part of the river (which is hardly •150 yards wide), overhanging the 
storming chasm, from the summits of per])endicular cliffs, whose alti- 
tude is })robably not far short of 250 feet. Such a structure would 
be of much public utility, whilst it would amazingly enhance the 
romantic interest and splendour of the scenery, and afford a most 
advantageous full-front view of the stupendous Fall. Suspended as 
it were in ether, the spectator would stand, between precipitous rock 
walls, on a level with the crest of the cataract, high over the wild, 
whirling, foaming, and maddening eddies of the profound abyss, having 

* Captain Basil Hall. 

f Those who never liavo been witliiii iR'ariiiji of a naval action may easily imagine tlir 
effect of its pealing artillery, if they hiive lieard fortresses saluted by ships of war, by fancying 
the discharge of cannon continued witliout intermission. The evening gnu rtred from C'ajx' 
Diamond, particularly in cloudy weather, is grandly re-echoed several times from the mountains 
around Quebec, jjroducing a full, nuiffled, vibrating sound, swelling in cadences between tlie 
discharge of the cannon, the burst of the echo, and the revorbjratiug echo, not unlike that of 
Niagara. 

U 




14(5 



THE ^VIIIRLPOOL— NIAfiARA lUTKR. 



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in sight Cioat Island bridgp. a])parcntlv borne magically aloft, upon the 
utmost verge of the falling waters, and being in a maimer insulated, he 
would combine in one vast collective vista all the astonishing beauties, 
sublimities, and romiuice of the tremendous and overwhelming scene. 

Five miles from the Falls is the whirlpool; a phenomenon scarcely 
less appalling in its terrors, and probably involving more inevitable de- 
struction to every thing coming within the pale of its attraction. It is 
occasioned by the stream, as it passes in heavy volumes from the cataract, 
and sweeps with in)petuous violence round an abrupt bend of the river, 
producing so forcible a reaction as to form a stupendous vortex between 
the high ])er))er.dicular cliffs by which it is walled. IJy thus diverging 
from its forward direction, and being as it were embayed for a time, the 
velocity of the current is checked and subdued to a more tranquil course 
towards Lake Ontario. Nine miles lower down the Niagara emerges 
from the dee]), rock-bound chasm of the Falls, and thence flows in a deep 
and gentle tide, between banks of more moderate elevation, to its dis- 
charge into the lake. Its mouth is in latitude 43" 1.5' 30", and longitude 
79" OO' 40', between Fort George or the town of Niagara on the west, 
and the old French fort Niagara on the east. 

That the Falls of Niagara, in ages now long past, and at the period, 
probably, of the formation of the great lakes, were situated much lower 
down, between the present villages of Queenston and Lewiston, appears 
almost indisputably true ; and it is believed that all the geologists who 
have critically examined the locality concur in the assertion of the fact. 
It is not in the province of the to])ographer to s])eculate u])on geological 
phenomena; but we would merely hazard a remark, which superior 
science may improve if correct, or reject if erroneous. The fact that the 
Falls have receded being admitted, might not the age of the lakes, at 
least of Eric and Ontario, as confined to their })resent basins, be ascer- 
tained with tolerable certainty ? The waters of Ontario are su])posed to 
have bathed the base of Queenston Heights— nay, the level of the lake is 
admitted generally to have once been co-e(pial with the summit of that 
range : if then, by a series of nice and long-continued observations, the 
ratio of disintegration in a given time were pro])erly ascertained, the 
calculation could be carried retrospectively, with all the modifications 



wm 



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WKI.IwWD CANAL. 



1-i 



-X 



that the brt'iulth, (l('j)th, (S:c. of tl.o watcr-\v(ini diasin wouhl dictate, until 
it wouhl arrive at the period of the original formation of the cataract, 
and the });radnal depression of the surface of Ontario to its jjresent level. 
The calculation nii{;ht, in the same way, be made pros|)ectively, and 
afl'ord a very curious result as aflecting the great physical changes that 
futiu'c ages may work in the bed of tiie Niagara. 

In taking leave of Niagara river, to ])roceed in our description of the 
other parts of the St. Lawrence, its lakes and canals, we feel how inade- 
(|uately we have ])ortrayed the grandeur and manifold sublimities of its 
unrivalled scenery ; but, in truth, there are in nature objects that beggar 
dcscri])tion, and the cataract of Niagara belongs ])re-eminently to that 
class. There are not wanting, however, faithful portraitures of its mag- 
nificence by far abler pens, and we might therefore iiave excused our- 
selves from the attempt here; but an account of the Niagara would have 
appeared to us very deficient, had it not contained such a sketch of the 
great Falls as accords with the toj)ograp Ideal character of the ])resent work. 

WELLAXD CANAL. 

The cascades and cataracts of Niagara river throwing insu])crable 
obstacles in the way of its navigation suggested some years ago the ex- 
pediency of cutting a ship canal connecting Lake Krie with Lake On- 
tario*, and an association was accoi'dingly formed and incorporated in 
1824, under the name of the Wklland Canal Company. In 1825 
the capital, which had been previously declared something less, was in- 
creased to 180,000/. sterling, divided into 16,000 shares oi' eleven pou fids 
Jive fihiUhigfi sterling each, all of which have been subscribed, except an 
amount of eleven thousand and thirteeu pounds six s/dlUngs sterling still 
(1830) remaining to be taken up. 

This momentous work is now nearly completed, and will when 
finished have cost about /to hundred and seventy thonsand pounds sterling 
— a comparatively sma'. -lan Avhen compared with the magnitude of the 
undertaking and the incal. ulable benefits that must inevitably flow from 
it, both as regards the interests of the stockholders and the commercial 

* Tliis bold projoct is ascribed to Mr. William Ilainilton IMcrritt, a rosidont at St. Catlic- 
rine's, a small village through which the canal now passes. 

U 2 






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|)r<is|)i'rity of rppcr Caniida*. TIk' t«)tal icii/^tli of the canal is forty- 
two inilivs, c'onsistiiij^- of llircc stations; the first cxtciuliiiff from the 
(iraiul river to the W'ellaiid. sixteen miles; tlu' seeoiid heiiij;' |)art of the 
river W'elland itself, ten miles; and the third lying between W'elland 
river and I iake Ontario, sixteen miles. 'I'lii' entrance of the canal from 
Lake Erie is situated about two nnles above the mouth of the (irand ( r 
Ouse river, where the euttin<;- is carried throuj^h >\'ainfleet Marsh to 
the level of \\'elland river. The excavation on the north side of the 
latter river is ;)() feet, and the distance to the top of the lockage 
about five miles. The excavation would have been considerably deeper 
had the waters of the W'elland been used in the northern section of the 
canal ; but the ingenious plan adopted of feeding that section by an 
a(|ueduct carried over the river from a higher levi'l to the south has ren- 
dered inexpedient any greater depth of cutting. The level of J«ike Krie 
is .'J.'iO feet above that of Ontario, and the step is ))erformed by the in- 
tervention of thirty-seven locks, thirty-two of which form a successive 
series, descending from the smnmit to the base of the range of high 
groinuls constituting the Queenston Heights. The locks are not, how- 
ever, in immediate contiguity, but suHicicntly remote from each other to 
admit the crossing in the intervening spaces of vessels bound in ()])posite 
directions, thus avoiding the tedious delays that would necessarily result 
from the situation of locks in proximate succession. 

The canal is 'A) feet wide at the surface of the water, 26 at bottom, 
and 8,\ feet dee]). The chambers of the locks are 100 feet in length by 
22 in breadth, and therefore amply large enough for vessels of 12.5 tons' 
burden, which is above the average tonnage of those employed in trade 
upon the lakes. The AN'elland Canal commands two distinct channels into 
Lake Erie ; one through the mouth of the (irand river, the other through 
the Niagara. This advantage will appear of great moment when it is eon- 

* It is providi'd by the cliarti-r, that if the tolls exacted be excessive the legislature may, 
after the expiration of five years from the opening of the canal, reduce them to a rate which will 
not produce less than twenty per cent, per ann. on tlie capital expended. After fifty years from 
the completion of the work, tlie King may assume the canal on l>aying the Company the sum it 
cost, together with a premium of twenty-five per cent, on the amount. Rut His Majesty can- 
not do so \inless the (Company shall have received during the fifty years an average of twelve 
and a half per cent, on the moneys involved in tlie concern. 






w i:i,i,A\i) cANAi.-i:mi: canai,. 



11!) 



sidcrcd tliat tlic (listancc hrtwocu tliosp rivers Is alxnit tliirty-four miles, 
and that schooners, i\:e. t'roni Hndalo and other plaees on the eastern shores 
of tlie lake are saved from the \\ holi> of so lonj^; and eireuitons a eonrse 
hy deseendinj;' the Nia^fara, and aseendint!,- the <;'entle stream of the \\'v\. 
land to the Ontario section of the canal. 'IMiis ronte also hcin;;' free 
from toll oH'ers a further inducement to its adoption, which, cond)ined 
with other eonenrrinj^' conveniences, cannot fail to diri'ct a lar;;e 
jjroportion of the eastern trade of Krie throuj^h that channel. To 
vessels from the southern and western ])arts of the lake, the route by the 
(irand river enjoys likewise its peculiar advantaj^es, by considerably cur- 
tailing- their distance into Lake Ontario. Hesides, it ])ossesses this supe- 
riority over the former, that in sprino- it is nmch earlier free from the 
incmnbrance of ice, which jfenerally accunndates heavily at the eastern 
extremity of the lake from the ))revalence of westerly Avinds, and 
obstructs for a lon^- time the aeeess to the Niagara river and tlic(irand 
Krie canal at liufl'alo. 

The two powerful rivals of the \\'elland Canal are, the (irand Krie 
and Ohio canals, the former o])ening' an avenue to the ^Vtlantic by the 
Hudson river, the latter to the (iulf of Mexico by the Mississippi ; but 
we a))])rehend that both these <ijrand works will yield the ])alm to the 
other in the contpetition. The supcior dimensions of the Welland Canal, 
that render inexpedient the delays aiul ex])ensc of re])eated trans-ship- 
ments, — its shortness when compared with its rivals, and the consc([uent 
facility and desi)ateh, besides the diminished expense with which it must 
be passed, — the link that it forms between the schooner navigation of 
two extensive lakes, and indeed between all the navigable waters above 
liake Krie and those of Ontario, — arc cireumstanees which of themselves 
would be suflicient to seeure the ])atrouage of a large proj)ortion of the 
trade of the lakes, especially if the conuuercial regulations of both coun- 
tries be framed upon such principles of liberal policy, as will leave it 
optional with the inhabitants of cither, to adopt that route which their 
res])ective interests may dictate. 

The Kkie Caxai, was certainly a gigantic undertaking, and one of 
those bold conce])tions that at once characterise a great mind ; whilst its 
realization is no less demonstrative of a liberal and enlightened policy. 




.f 



i;)() 



KRIK CANAI,. 



llll 



and nil oiniiiriit di'^^roo of niitional fhtorpHso. It is tlio imhlost inoim- 
iiu'iit that could lu' left to prrpctuatc tlic rccollcftioii of tin- distiiijj,iiislK'd 
service's rciidi'iTd hy tlic late Dc Witt Cliiitoii to the state of New York, 
of whieh hi' was p)vernor. This grand eaiial was opened undi'r tlu- pro- 
visions of two aets of the state iefrislatin-e. passed, the one in iVprii, IH1(! *, 
the other in April, 1H17; on the 4th of .ruly following- the operati(His 
were eoninieneetl, and eight years and a half afti-rwards completed. 'I'lu; 
original cost of this great work exceeded one million and a half sterling, 
and its repairs and ameliorations have since absorbed considerable further 
sums; but the improvements to wliich these were applied have essen- 
tially added to the solidity, utility, aiul convenience of the canal. 

The Krie Canal, called sometimes the (Jreat Northern, the Western, 
or the (irand Canal, is three hundred and fifty-three miles long, 40 feet 
wide at the surface, ii8 at bottom, and of a mininuim depth of 4 feet 
water. In the whole distance from Lake Krie to the tide-waters of the 
Hudson, the dillerence of elevation is .>()4 fei't, e(jual to an average j)ro- 
portion of fall not <piite amountimv to one toot and a half in the mile. 
This elevation is overcome by 77 stone locks, each 90 fc'ot long by liJ 
broad, and therefore shorter and narrower by ten feet than those of the 
WcUand. That eventually the locks of Krie Canal Avill be increased in 
dimensions is more than ])robable ; but the expense of such an im])rove- 
ment will be very great, owing to the masonic solidity of their con- 
struction. 

The inferior width and depth of this canal, when compared with 
the dimensions of the \\'elland and the Uideau, are perhaps the most 
important objections against it as a competitor with the latter two, and 
particularly the AVelland, for the trade of the lakes. JJut this objection 
is momentous, and nuist operate strongly, besides the other considerations 
that have been formerly mentioned, in favour of the preference that will 
no doubt be given to the Canadian Canal. An im])ortant superiority 
in a commercial point of view, that one canal may possess over another, 
is the expeditious access which it opens to a ship])ing-port for foreign 



m 



• The coniinissioners appointed by this act |wcre, Stephen Van Ilensseluer, De Witt 
t lintoiij Samuel Young, Joseph EUicote, and Rlyrom HoUey. 



i: i 



LAKi: ONTAUIO. 



l.)l 



markets. On tl'o i\nu>ricaii side New York i.s tlio nearest port wliorc 
prodncf, \;('. may be .shipped in lar^«' vt-ssols tor export, and the 
di.staiicc l)y tlic Mrio Canal and the Hudson river i.s about live hiin(b-e<l 
and forty miles. On the Canadian si(h>, Montreal is the first port 
arrived at where this ean be elleeted, and the distance by the St. Law- 
rence is not more than tour hundred miles: throu^^h the Hideau (.'anal 
and the Ottawa it will be about tour hundred and thirty. The W'elland 
Canal, therefore, has the advantage of opening an avenue to a port 
whence foreiy;n shipments can be made in vessels of heavy biu'deu, 
uj)wardsof one hundred and forty miles nearer tliun ean be done through 
the American Cunal. 



m' 



LAKK ONTAUIO. 

This lake is the last or lowest of those vast iidand seas of fresh 
water that are the wonder aiul admiration of the world. It is situated 
between the parallels of 4.'i' lO' and -li" 11' of north latitude, and the 
meridians of 7(>" ii;>' Jmd 70" ;>(>' of west lon<;itude. It lies nearly east 
and west, is ellijjtical in its shape, one hinulred and seventy-two miles 
lon<^, fifty-nine and a (juarter extreme breadth, and about four hundred 
and sixty-seven miles in circumference. The depth of water varies very 
much, but is seldom less than three or more than titty fathoms, except 
in the middle, Avherc attempts have been made with three hundred 
fathoms without striking sounding. The appearance of the shores ex- 
hibits great diversity : towards the north-east part they are low, with 
many marshy ))laccs; to the north and north-west they assume a lofty 
ciiaracter, but subside again to a very moderate height on the south, 
liordering the lake the country is every where covered with woods, 
through whose numerous openings fre<iuent settlements are seen that 
give it a pleasing effect, which is greatly heightened by the white cliffs 
of Toronto, and the remarkable high land over Prescpi'ilc, called the 
Devil's Nose, on the north. The view on the south is well relieved with 
a back ground produced by the ridge of hills that, after forming the 
precipice for the cataract, stretches away to the eastward. The finishing 
object of the prospect in this direction is a conical eminence towering 
above the chain of heights, called Fifty Mile Hill, as denoting its distance 



1*^ 



I"'' 



}-"■;■ 









i.-pr 



I Mil 



h' 




1.32 



ONTARIO— lllDEAU CANAL. 



from the town of Niagara. Of tlic many rivers flowing into Lake 
Ontario, if the Genesee and Oswego be excepted, there are none tliat hiy 
claim to particular notice, unless it be for the peculiarity of their all 
having a sand-bar across the entrance. There are some fine bavs and 
inlets, where vessels of every description may find j)rotection against bad 
weather. Burlington Hay is both spacious and .secure ; but tliese ad- 
vantages were rendered of little importance by its narrow entrance being 
so shallow as to admit only of boats. A canal, however, has been cut 
across the breach, which has oj)ened an access to the bay for lake vessels, 
and made it an imj)ortant and interesting harbour. Hungry IJay is con- 
spicuous as affording good anchorage and safe shelter among the islands 
to ships of the largest size, at all seasons. York and Kingston harbours, 
belonging to the English, and Sacket's harbour to the iVmericans, are 
uniiuestionably the best upon t!ie lake, as they possess every natural re- 
quisite : the two latter are strongly fortified, being the arsenals where 
ships of war, even of the first rate, have been constructed by both powers, 
and from whence have been fitted out those powerful hostile squadrons 
that have conferred so much consecjuence upon the naval operations in 
this quarter. Very heavy squalls of wind fre([uently occur, but they are 
unattended either with difKculty or danger if juet by the usual pre- 
cautions every seaman is ac([uainted witli. Of the many islands at the 
east end of Ontario, the Cirand Isle, lying abreast of Kingston, is the 
most extensive, and, by being placed at the conuuencement of the Ca- 
taraqui river, forms two channels leading into it, that bear the names of 
the North or Kingston Channel, ;'nd the South or Carleton Lslaiul 
Channel. 

THE RIDEAU C \NAL. 

From I^ake Ontario to St. Regis, a^i Indian village about eighty 
miles above Montreal, the river St. Lawrence is divided longitudinally 
between (ireat IJritain and tiie T'^nited States, and thus becomes the 
common highway of both. The hazards and inconvenience of such a 
comnumication, arising from its situation along an extended line of 
national frontier, in the event of future hostility, however remote such a 



RIDEAU CANAL. 



lo3 



contingency may be, and we devoutly hope it may never occur, have 
suggested to both ct»untrie.s the ])oliey of opening avenues in the interior, 
by wliich an imrestricted intercourse can be maintained between the 
distant parts of tlieir respective territories, secure from those interruptions 
of a neighbouring enemy, incident to a state of warfare. Tiie Cirand 
Erie Canal performs this oHice on the American side by opening a water 
connnunication from the heart of one of the most Nourishing states of 
the union, to the Avestern ])arts of the United States' dominion}, ; o)i the 
Ikitish side we have the llideau Canal, an undertaking of stupendous 
magnitude and incalculable utility. 

The Rideau Canal connnences at Kingston, and, traversing the tract 
of country lying between the St. Tiawrence and the Ottawa, strikes the 
hitter river at the foot of the Falls of Chaudiere, and a short distance 
above those of the Rideau, situated at the mouth of that river. It is one 
hundred and thirty-five miles long, and perfectly unique of its kind in 
America, and, probably, in the world, being made up in its whole length 
by a cii^'in of lakes, dams, and aqueducts, so connected by locks of large 
dimensions as to open a steam-boat navigation from Ontario to the Ottawa 
river, llideau Lake, which is about twenty-four miles long, and six broad 
on an average, is the grand sununit level of the canal: it is 28,'J feet above 
the waters of the Ottawa on one side, and 1.5-t above the surface of 
Lake Ontario on the other, recpiiring in the rise and fall a total number 
of forty-seven locks, seventeen of which are on the Kingston side, and 
thirty between Rideau Lake and the Ottawa. These locks Avere origin- 
ally planned upon a scale to correspond with those of the La Chine Canal, 
i.e. 100 feet by 20; but these dimensions were subsequently increased to 
142 feet in length by .'j.'i in Avidth, the depth of Avater being 5 feet. There 
are tAventy dams on the Avhole route, constructed Avith emarkablc solidity 
and skill, Avhich, by the retiux of the Avaters they produce, have strangely 
altered the natural a})pearances of the country. " In several instances, a 
dam not niore than tAventy-four feet high and one hundred and eighty 
feet Avide Avill throAV the rapids and rivers into a still sheet above it for a 
distance of more than tAventy miles. The dams also back the Avaters up 
creeks, ravines, and valleys ; and, instead of making one canal, they 
form numerous canals of various ramifications, Avhich Avill all tend greatly 

X 






s n 



■m 



t '1 



154 



TUDEAU CANAL. 



Ill 



to the iin])rovcnicnt of a very fertile country. The land drowned by 
the raisin(>; of the dams is not wortli mentioning, consisting chiet'y of 
swani])y wastes, the haunts of otters and beavers*." The principal Avorks 
on tiie wliole line arc situated at the following places : — Entrance IJay, 
Dow's Great Swam]), Hogs-back, IJlack Rapids, Fvong Island, Uurnett's 
Ra])ids, Xicholson's Rapids, Clowes' Quarry, Merrick's Rapids, Maitland's 
Rapids, Edmond's Ra])ids, Phillip's Ray, Old Sly's Rapids, Smith's Falls, 
First Rapids, the Narrows, the Two Isthmuses, Davis's Rapids, .Toncs's 
Falls, Cranberry JNIarsh and Romul Tail, Rrewer's Upper and l-iower 
Mills, Jack's and Rillydore's Rifts, and Kingston Mills. 

This great work, when finished, will have cost Great Rritain upwards 
of half a million sterling ; the calculated estimate of the expenses, 
as given in by engineers, before the plan of enlarging the locks was 
adopted, amounted to 18(),()60/. If the magnitude of the canal, its 
immense im])ortance in a military and commercial point of view, and its 
advantages to an extensive portion of the upper province, be properly 
considered, this sum Avill not appear exorbitant, but rather moderate 
compared Avith the cost of other canals of much inferior dimensions and 
utility. There can be little doubt that when the wliole line of canal 
from Kingston to ^Montreal will be completed, and it is noAv nearly so, 
the great thoroughfare of the Canadas Avill be transferred from, the fron- 
tier to the Rideau route, until a canal shall have been opened along 
the St. IvaAvrence. AVhen sloops and steam-boats of from one hun- 
dred to one hundred and twenty-five tons' burden can pass without 
interru])tion from the remotest settlements of Upper Canada to Grenville 
on the Ottawa river, whence their cargoes can be transported Avith ease 
and safety through inferior canals to the port of JMontreal, Ave believe 
that fcAv Avill hesitate to forAvard their produce through that channel, 
even in times of profound peace Avith our neighbours ; especially if the 



* 3I-T;i;xg;u-t, vol. i. This rtl)le oiigiiicer was activoly employed in making the surveys 
and taking the levels on the ^\h(de line of the canal. He had been preceded in the.se 
operations liy ^Ir. Clowes and other excellent civil engineers. Mr. IM'Taggart has published, 
in three 12nio. volumes, a work, entitled "Three Years in Canada," containing some shrewd 
remarks on the country, and especially reconimeudable when treating of the various branches 
of his nnportaut art. 



fi 



GRENVILLE CANAL. 



loo 



tolls that Avill be exacted by government on tlie llidcau and the Gren- 
villc canals be moderate, as in truth it is its interest and policy to make 
them. A\'hen a diversion of trade is to be effected, the indnceuients to 
the adoption of the new route should not be neutralized by the exaction 
of exorbitant tolls and charges; but tiiesc should at once be fixed at a 
reasonable premium, not calculated upon the princi])le of a large pro- 
spective reduction when the canal becomes more frequented. 

With such advantages, the Kideau Canal cannot fail in yielding an 
adeqxiate interest for the moneys expended in its construction, and pro- 
duce eventually lucrative returns to His Majesty's government. 

Considered with relation to the defences of the country, the Rideau 
Canal must appear of still greater moment, from the means it aff()rds of 
forwarding to distant stations, with readiness, despatch, and security, the 
muniments of war necessary to repel invasion, and protect the pro])erty 
and persons of His ^Majesty's subjects in the colonies from foreign aggres- 
sion. In a political point of view, its importance is equally cons])icuous ; 
since it must obviously tend to strengthen and consolidate the Canadas, 
by promoting their conmicrcial relations, and that interchange of mutual 
benefits that constitutes a permanent tie betwixt the various members 
of a state, and preserves for ages the integrity of empires. 

T/te Greur'ille Canal consists of three sections : — one at the Long 
Sault, on the Ottawa, another at the Chute ii JJloudeau, and a third at 
the Carillon Kapids, opening into the lake of the Two jNIountains, 
through which an uninterrupted navigati(m is practised by steam-boats 
to La Chine, nine miles above the city of ^Montreal. The dimensions of 
this canal are calculated to correspond Avith those of the canal of La 
Chine, which are 28 feet wide at bottom, 48 at the water-lijie, and 5 deep. 
It is imfortunate that its proportions should not have been originally 
planned upon a scale to admit of sloop and steam-boat navigation, and 
therefore corresponding with the Ilideau, by which means no trans-ship- 
ments would have become necessary in the transport of produce from 
the remotest settlements of Upper Canada to La Chine, and the return 
of goods from thence to the upper countries. The Cirenville Canal is 
nevertheless a work of vast importance under every aspect. It is opened 

X 2 



M. 






m 



If T 



15G 



THE ST. LAWPtEXCE BELOW KINGSTOX. 



under military supcrintentlence, and its expenses are defrayed by the 
imperial government. 

The route by the llideau Canal, the Ottawa, and the Grenville 
Canal is ealculated to avoid, not only the frontier, as we have previously 
stated, but also the rapids of the St. Lawrence; between Ivake Ontario 
and ^lontreal. From its discharge, out of Ontario, the St. Lawrence is 
also known imder the names of the Iroquoi.s and the Cataraqiii. It 
issues from the lake in so broad and beautiful a stream, that it assumes 
the ap])earance of a lake for a distance of thirty-nine miles, which is so 
singularly studded with a nudtitude of islands, that it has been denomi- 
nated the I^ake of the Thousand Islands, or Millc Isles : but their mnnbcr 
far exceeds this mere descriptive computation ; the operations of the 
surveyors employed in establishing the boundary, luider the Cth article 
of the Treaty of (ihent, having ascertained that there were one thousand 
six hundred and ninety-two, forming an inextricable labyrinth of islands 
varying in magnitude, shape, and asj)ect, a)id presenting the most extra- 
ordinary and pleasing vistas and perspectives, in which the rapid and 
magic combinations of the kaleidoscope seem naturally exhibited. 

The distance between Kingston and ^[ontreal is about oie hundred 
and ninety miles. The banks of the river display a scene that cannot fail 
to excite surprise, Avhcn the years which have elapsed since the first set- 
tlement of this ])art of the country (in 17H.'3) are considered. They em- 
brace all the embellishments of a lunnerous population, fertility, and 
good cultivation. A^\'ll-constructed high roads, leading close to each 
side, with others branching from them into the interior, render commu- 
nication both easy and expeditious; while the numerous loaded batteaux 
and rafts incessaiitly passing up and down from the beginning of spring 
until the latter end of autunm, and the steam-boats plying in the navi- 
gable interstices of the river, demo)istrate unecpiivocally a very extensive 
commercial intercoiu'se. The islands, the shoals, the rapids, with con- 
trivances for passing them, ft)rm altogether a (piick succession of novelties 
that gives pleasure while it creates astonishment. 

The twofold checks existing against the advantages that might be 
derived from this part of the St. Lawrence, arising from the partition of 



I M«f 



ST. LAWRENCE CANAL. 



157 






its stream between two distinct powers, and the physical embarrassments 
of its navigation, forcibly point out the necessity of opening a canal 
along its northern shore. The subject was taken up by the legislature 
of Ujipcr Canada in 1826, and surveys ordered to bo made of the locality, 
with estimates of the cx})ense that such an undertaking would involve. 
Two civil engineers, Messrs. Clowes and Kyskesh, were in consecpicnce 
appointed to the performance of the operations. After establishing the 
impracticability of rendering the North Channel at liandiart's Island 
effectually navigable, they proceeded to the examination of the comitry 
along the St. Lawrence between Johnston and Connvall, a distance of 
39 miles, within which are to be found the ])rincipal impediments to the 
navigation of the river. They ascertained that the de])rcssion of the 
river in the stated distance amounted to scarcely 73 feet, an inconsider- 
able difference of elevation, if we consider an inclined plane of 39 miles, 
yet sufficient to produce very violent rapids in the St. I^awrence from 
the heavy volume of its waters. 

In order to meet at once any plan that might be adopted either upon 
an eidargcd or more contracted scale, the engineers laid out two canals 
on the same route, differing materially in their dimensions ; one calcu- 
lated for steam-boats and sloops ; tlie other for canal boats only. The 
former to be 84 feet wide at the water's surface, 60 at bottom, and 8 
deep; the locks 132 feet long and 40 wide, with turning bridges 40 feet 
in the clear, and 10 feet wide. The estimated cost of such a canal w is 
stated at 176,378/. Ss. 5(1. Halifax currency. 

The latter canal was laid out upon a scale of much inferior mag- 
nitude ; its width at the water's surface being 38 feet, at bottom 26, and 
its dei)th 4 feet ; the locks 100 feet in length by 5 in breadth, with turn- 
ing bridges 15 feet in the clear, and 10 feet wide. Its cost was estimated 
at 92,834/. 

After weighing the advantages of both plans, no hesitation can be 
made in the preference that must be awarded to the project of a ship- 
canal, which the first of these offers. A sum of 200,000/. expended in 
connecting between Cornwall and Johnston the sloop and steam-boat 
navigation of the St. Lawrence would soon, we believe, refund itself. 
The produce that annually passes down the river, whether directly or 



'■%l 



Hi 



;i'1 



'Mw 



158 



ST. LAWRl-NCE CANA^.. 



•mliiim Boats. 


Uiittcaux. 


Hiifi 


40") 


134 





rA 


1 





HO 


r> 


n 






— 


"):v.) 


140 


14 



hi 



mediately from Upper Canada, is well known to he considerable ; and 
the imports entered at the Custom of Cotean dii Ijae, in liowcr Canada, 
direct from the United States, are no less momentous in tlieir amoimt. 
The following extract from tlie entries iit the port of Montreal in 1H27 
may convey some idea of the extent of im])orts from the Upper Pro- 
vince and the United States, via the St. Lawrence, into Lower Canada: 



From l'])])!'!' (':ili;i(l;i direct 
From ditto and the United .States 
From the United Statis direct 

Total 



INIost of these Durham boats and Battcaux return laden with British 
or West India goods ; thus we may nearly double the amount of both to 
have a view of tlie carrying trade of that section of the river, inde- 
])endently of wood, timber, and staves, tliat form of themselves an im- 
portant branch of the colonial trade. The average tonnage of the 
Durham boats is perhaps 15 tons, that of the IJattcaux about 6. Thus 
we find that the trade of the St. liawrence above ISIontreal gives em- 
ployment to vessels whose collective burden is nearly 10,000 tons. The 
facilities which a sloop-canal would offer would tend to augment this 
amount considerably, and hold out equal inducements to the American 
and the Upper Canadian to transport his produce through that channel. 
The revenue of the Kideau Canal woidd probably suffer from the open- 
ing of .so convenient and more direct an avenue to the lower ports of 
the St. LaAvrence ; but it appears to us equally clear that the rapid set- 
tlement of the lands on the Ottawa, the natural resources and richness of 
the beautiful valley through which it flows, will eventually of themselves 
attract a competent portion of the trade in that direction, and give 
adequate employment to the Kideau Canal. It is besides obvious that 
the immediate object designed to be attained by the construction of the 
Rideau Canal was the security of the colonies ; it is their strength, inte- 
grity, and preservation that are to be expected from tliis grand military 
work, and they certainly have all been amazingly enhanced and pro- 
moted by it. 



NAVIGATION OF THE ST. LAWRENXE. 



159 



At St. ]{e^i.s, where tlie ])ariillel of the -l.^th decree of north hititiule 
intersects the St. Lawrence, the pohtical, and in some measure the phy- 
sical characters of the river are at once chanj^ed. From this ])oint, west- 
ward, we find it divided between the dominion of two foreign states; 
eastward, it lies exclusively within IJritish territory, and iiow's thr()u<fh 
the heart of the Hourishin^- ])rovince of Lower Canada, assuming more 
and more majesty and grandeur a.s it rolls onward its ample and imposing 
stream to swell the bosom of the vast Atlantic. The undivided control 
of this interesting part of the St. Lawrence by His Majesty's govern- 
ment, and the exclusive enjoyment by British subjects of the benefits 
of its navigation, were not, however, viewed with perfect indiHereuce by 
our republican neighbours. Always studiously alive to any project that 
promises to improve the resources and promote the commerce and wel- 
fare of any and every department of the union, a claim was started in 
1824 by the general government of the United States, to a participation 
in those benefits, and a right to the free navigation of the St. Lawrence 
in its whole course to the ocean. 

This extraordinary claim first originated after the passing of the 
Canada Trade Act by the imperial parliament in 1H22, by which heavy 
duties were levied upon articles from the United States, chiefiy timber, 
pot and pearl ashes, flour, and salt ])rovisions, which had anteriorly en- 
tered into s ■ccessful competition with those of a similar description from 
Upper Canada, and for the protection of which, amongst other things, 
the British statute referred to was passed. This enactment, without in- 
vestigating its policy, proved necessarily obnoxious to the inhabitants of 
the northern frontier of the state of New York ; and a memorial was in 
consequence transmitted by them to Congress in 1823, complaining of 
this momentous interruption to the current of their trade as a grievance 
calling loudly for legislative redress. This memorial suggested the ex- 
pediency of retaliatory enactments, imposing countervailing duties on 
Canadian produce and British goods passing up or down such sections 
of the navigable channels of the St. I^awrence above St. Regis as were 
wholly included within the American boimdary. To effect this it Avas 
stated that the mere repeal of the act of Congress passed in 1799, con- 
firming the reciprocal rights of both powers to the free use of the waters 



M 



i 
I', 



1()0 



NAVICiATlON or TUi: ST. LAWRENCl'. 



of that i-ivcr, as created by Jay's treaty in 179 1* would be suilieieiit, 
since the eonlirniatory act of (ireat Hritain stood virtually repealed by 
the Canada Trade Act, and that the treaty of 179-1 had become a dead 
letter in conse([uence of the state of hostilities that sul)se(iuently accrued 
between the two countries t. 

No sucli measures of impost retaliation were nevertheless adopted; 
nor could they, su])posing' their practicability, have been commensurate 
in their efficacy with the ends ])ro))osed. It will be recollected that if 
the navi<^able channel at IJarnhart's Island fall exclusively within the 
American line, there are other parts of the river in which the inain chan- 
nel lies wholly, or in a orcat measure, Avithin the British frontier — a cir- 
cumstance which would of itself render inconvenient, at least, to all 
parties, the enforcement of any commercial regulations atfecting the free 
use, by the ])eo])le of both countries, of the waters of the St. LaAvrencc 
above St. Regis. It is true that, having no markets to Avhich they might 
freely resort below St. Kegis, the American trade \ipon the river would 
be very limited ; but would not the Canadian trade be equally if not 
more so, since the St. Lawrence could on all occasions be forsaken for the 
Rideau ? It is when questions of this nature are agitated in relation to 
a frontier navigation, that the Avhole importance of such a stupendous 
work as the Rideau Canal is felt in its full force, since it places our in- 

* The iirticle of this treaty relating to tlie subject is not, wc believe, verj' generally known : 
the exception it contains is ambiguously \\or(le{l, but it seems to be made dependent \i\n)i\J'ulitrr 
rcgidalhms to he cstuhlislivd. — " Art. III. It is agreed that it shall at all times be free to His 
Rlajesty's subjects, and to the .'itizens of the United States, and also to the Indians dwelling 
on either side of the said bouu lary line, freely to pass and repass by laud or inland navigation 
into the respective territories and countries of the two parties on the continent of America (the 
country M'ithin the limits of the Ilidlson's Bai/ Company only excepted), and to navigate all 
the lakes, rivers, and waters thereof, and freely to carry on trade and commerce with each other. 
But it is understood that this article does not extend to the admission of vessels of the United 
Stales into the sea-ports, harbours, bays, or creeks of His Majesty's said territories ; nor into 
such parts of the rivers in His iMajesty's said territories as are between the mouth thereof and 
the highest port of entry from the sea, except in small eessels trading bona fide helween Mont- 
real and Quebec, under such regulations as shall be established to prevent the possibility of 
any frauds in this respect ; nor to the admission of British vessels from the sea into the rivers 
of the United States beyond the highest ports of entry for vessels from the sea." 

t Mr. Vaudenheuvel's speech on this subject in the Assembly of the State of New York 
in 1825. 



TIIK ST. LAWRKXCT' Bni/)\V ST. Hl'CilS. 



Uil 



internal conuncrcc Ix'vond t\\v rciicli of forolj^n intcrrnption. and secures 
the in(le[)en(leiu'y and safety of our eolonial intercourse. 

Unsupported by any treaty, tlic ri<;lit of the Vnited States to the 
free navi<j;atiou of tlie St. liawreuce is made to rest upon tlie l)road ])riu- 
ciples of the hnvs of nature, which, say tlie asscrtors of the rij^ht, |)oint 
out that splendid stream as the natiu'al hif;lnvay — the ostensihU' exit for 
l)roduce of the fertile and wide-s])readinn; territory which it drains in its 
))ro<;ress from its source to the sea. Hut this arpfument, as regards inter- 
national policy, is more plausihle than sound, and the claim of rl_i>/if has 
been unhesitatin<»ly denied, and steadfastly resisted by (ireat Hritain, in 
all the negotiations that were attempted on the subject, between the 
United States' plenipotentiaries and His Hritatmie .Majesty's ministers. 
However, the discussion of a treaty that should have for its i)rinciple the 
nuitual convenience and conunercial interests of both parties was never' 
we believe, declined by the Hritish foreiij;!! minister: but, too jealous of 
every apparent concession, the American <.>overfmient abstained from 
negotiating upon grounds that amounted to a dereliction of an assumed 
right, as novel as it is extraordinary. The question is one of deej) in- 
terest and considerable moment to both powers; ami we believe that 
under certain restrictions, such as exporting i\nierican ])ro(luce in Ih-itish 
bottoms, the St. liawrencc might advantageously to all parties be thrown 
open to the passage of American lumber, staves, flour, ])ot and ])earl 
ashes, and salted provisions, midcr the most moderate protecting duties. 
Such a policy Avould not only remove in a great measure the grievance 
complained of by the inhabitants of the New York frontier, but create 
an additional stinudus in the markets of Montreal and Quebec, give in- 
creased occupation to British shipping and afford still more amjjly and 
effectually the means of supplying the West India markets with produce. 

lieforc reaching Montreal, the Lakes St. Francis and St. Louis 
present themselves. They do not admit of comparison with those al- 
ready noticed, and can, indeed, oily be considered as so many expan- 
sions of the river. They are of no great de])th, but form an agreeable 
variety, much heightened by the many pretty islands scattered about 
them. St. Francis is twenty-five miles long by five and a half broad, 

Y 



' in 



;ir 



M 

4 

^ 






IG'J 



i.\ (iiiNK ( a\ak-montui:ai.. 



l> 



The sliDiTs ill sonu' plut'cs iirc niarsliy, iis tlicy do not ri.sc' imuli iilxive 
tlif Ic'Vi'l of the* water. St. Louis is fonncd at thi'jiiiu'tioii of the Ottawa 
A\ *'th the St. Lawivntr: it is twelve miles ioii^- by six broad. Hi'tweeii 
both these lakes a sudden deelivitv in the bed of the livi", obstruetetl by 
rocks in some jilaees, and scooped into cavities at others, j.roduci's the 
most siiit^ular conmiotion, called the Cascades; it is an extraordinary 
agitation of the waters pi'ecipitati'd with ^reat velocity between the 
islands, which bi'in<;- re])elled by the rocks and hollows underneath, the 
waves are thrown un in s|)herieal figures nnu'h above the surface, and 
driven with the utmost violence back a^ain ujjon the current, exhibiting 
nearly the same eft'ect asAVould be j)roduced by the most furious tempest. 
To avoid the dauf^er of ])assin<;' this j)lace, a canal, usually called the 
militarv canal, has been constructed across the point of land, and through 
which all boats now make their way to the locks at Le Huisson ; it is 
.lOO yards in length, and furnished with the necessary locks. The liake 
of the Two JNIountains, an expansion of the Ottawa, is at the mouth of 
that river, and merges in a manner into Lake St. Louis: it is very irregu- 
lar, and in its whole length is twenty-four miles, varying in breadth from 
one mile to six miles. iVt the confluence of the two rivers are the Islands of 
Montreal, Lsle Jesus, IVizarre, and I'crrot : the first is probably the most 
beautiful spot of all TiOwer Canada, and is described with ])articular attention, 
under its proper head, in the Topographical Dictionary of that province. 
lJ(>low I^akc St. Louis is the beautiful rapid called the Satt/f Sf. 
Louis, between the ])ictures(|ue Indian village of Caiighnawaga, on the 
south, and La Chine on the north. The cascade is violent, very dan- 
gerous, and almost insuperable ; and the design of the Canal of lia 
Chine is to avoid its difliculties and ])erils. This canal is rather more 
than eight miles long, extending from the village of Upper I^a Chine to 
the city of Montreal, and equal in its dimensions to that of Grenvillc, of 
Avhich it was the pr()toty])e. It was opened inider legislative aid, and 
cost nearly 130,000/. ; an enormous sum, when we consider its length, 
its capacity, and the fewness of the locks it required ; but, on the other 
hand, the work is finished in the first-rate style of art, and cannot be 
excelled in the excellence of its materials or the elegance of its work- 



TiiK ST. i,A\vi{i:\( i: ui'i.ow M()\Tin:\i.. 



l(j,'J 



niiiiislii|) '. Tlu' I,;i C'liiiH' C'aiial i is the last on tin- St. l/iurciKv: tlu" 
iiavi<;ati<iM bt-low Montreal iK'iii^ alto^^ct her free from those ol)sti'nctior.s 
that need the resoiures of art to overcome. 

On the sonth side of the ishmd. is the eily of Montreal, and its 
convenient port, li\e h;mdre<l and ei<;hty mihs from tiie (iidf of St. 
liUwrenee, to whieh shi|)s of six hundred tons can ascend with very little 
didicnlty. On the north-west lies Isle .lesiis, that, by its position, forms 
two other channels of a moderate breadth — one called La lliviere des 
I'rairies, and the other \ai Uiviire dc St. Jean on .resiis : they are both 
navigable for boats and rafts, and unite a^ain with the main river at 
llout de lisle, or the east end of Montreal Island, l-'nuu this city the 
navigation assumes a character of more conse(pience than what it dt)es 
above, beinj;' carried on in ships and decked vessels of all classes. Hence 
to (Quebec, a distance of one hundred and eighty miles, the im))ediments 
to vessels of large tonnage sailing either up or down are not many, and 
may l)e overcome Avith much ease, if it be judged expedient that their 
cargoes should be so conveyed in preference to transporting them in small 
craft and steam-boats. However, the use of tow-boats, propelled by 
engines of great power, has combined both means of transport ; and it is 
not now unusual to meet on the St. Lawrence a splendid steamer with 
two large vessels moored to lier Hanks, and a third ship in tow, carrying- 
together upward of 1000 tons burden, plying the waters at the rate of 
seven or eight miles an hour, and Rometimes more. 

On either side the prospect is indeed worthy of admiration. The 
different seigniories, all in the highest state of improvement, denote both 
affluence and industry ; the views are always pleasing and often beau- 
til'ul, although the component ])arts of them do not possess that degree 
of grandeur which is perceivable below Quebec; numerous villages, for 
the most part built round a handsome stone church, seem to invite the 
traveller's attention ; while single houses and farms at agreeable distances 

* The eiigineL-r, Air. Burnett, liiid not tlie siitisfiiction of seeing tlie canal completed : a dis- 
order brought on by an overwrought zeal and anxiety prematurely put an end to his life, during 
the progress of the work. 

t For a more particular account, sec Topographical Didioiian/ (if Lower Canada, under 
" La Chine Canal." 

y2 



\il' 



to 



I'fu 



I(U 



Tiir, ST. I .\\\iii:\( i: ui.i.ow tiiuki; iiivi-.us. 



appi'iir til ki'('|) ii|) a rcgulai' oliiiiii of coininui.ication. In fact, wliorvrr 
passi's fV(»iii one eitv to tlir otlitr. w lictlii'i- I)V land, or hv tlii' l)r<>a(l and 
niaji'stii' stivain of tlu' St. liawrcncf, will not fail to Im- hi^ldx j^ratilicd 
and dclij;litc'd,and tonict't with many sidyirts worthy both of ohsi'i'vation 
and ri'tliction. 

i\l)oiit forty-five mill's hrlow Montreal, on the south side, is the 
town of NN'illiain I lenry, or Sorel. hnilt at the eonlluenee «)f the river 
Hichcliru with the St. l/iwrenee. not far from whieh the latter spreads 
into anoilier lake, the last in its pro<;ress towards the sea; it is ealled St. 
I'eter's, is twenty-five miles Ion;;' and nine hroad. Like most of the»»thers, 
this has a ;;ronp of islands eo\erin«;- about nine miles oi its western sur- 
face. lU'tween them two distinct channels are formed. 'I'he one to the 
south l)ein<;' the dee])est and clearest is conse(|uently the hest for ships. 
The hanks o\\ each side are very low, with shoals stretching- from thi-m to 
a considerable distance, so that only u narrow ])assa«;e, whose jj,eneral 
di'pth is from twelve to ei<;hteen feet, is left unobstructed. About forty- 
fix e miles from William Ilem-y. on the nortb side, at the mouth of the 
river St. Maurice, stands the town of Three Rivers, the third in rank 
within the province. At this place the tide ceases entirely, und, indeed, 
is not nuich felt at several miles below it. 

Leavin<;' Three Uivers, there is scarce any variation in the jiencral 
aspect of the St. Lawrence until arrivin<^' at the Kiehelieu ra])id (about 
fifty-two miles), where its bed is so much contracted or obstructed by 
Im^e mas.ses of rock, as to leave but a very narrow channel, wherein at 
ebb tide there is so oreat a descent, that nuich caution and a proper time 
■ if the ebb is necessary to pass through it ; at the end of the rapid is a 
good ancliora<;e, where vessels can wait their convenient o])portunity. 
j'rom Montreal, thus far, the banks are of a very moderate elevation, and 
uniformly level, but hereabout they arc nmch higher, and gradually in- 
crease in their a])])roach to Quebec, imtil they attain the altitude of Cape 
Diamond, upon which the city is built. At this capital of the province 
and scat of government there is a most excellent port and a capacious 
basin, in which the greatest depth of water is twenty-eight fathoms, 
with a tide rising from seventeen to eighteen, and at the springs from 
twenty -three to twenty-four feet. 



iir.i.ow QiKiuu -Tiir, Tn Avi.usi:. 



if):i 



From ("ii|)c Diamond, aiul tV«»iii Point \,c\\ on tlu' south slioro, one 
«»t' the most striking' pjinoramii- vii'ws |)crlia|)H in tin* wlioh- world oH'its 
itself to notice; tlir asscMd)lai;i' of ohji-cts is so grand, and tlit)ugli na- 
turally, yet apju'ar so artifiiially contrasti'd with each other, that the\ 
mingle sinprisc with the gratilieation of every heliolder. The capital 
rising amphitheatrically to the summit of the cape, tlie river St. (.'harles 
flowing, in a serpentine course, for a great distance, through a fine 
valloy, ahonnding in natural heauties, the falls of Montmorency, the 
ishmd of Orleans, and tlu- well cultivated settlements on all sides, form 
together a coup d'(eil that might enter into e<»mpetitii»n with the most 
romantic. \t (juehec the St. Lawrence is \'.i\V yards wide, hut the 
l)asin i-^ two mik's across, aiul three miU's and thri'e-(|uarters long: from 
the hasin, the river contii\ms increasing in hreadth until it enters the 
gulf of the same name, where, from Cape Hosier to the Mingan settle- 
ment on the Lahrador shore, it is very near one hundred and five miles 
wide. 

A little helow the city is the Isle of Orleans, placed in the midway, 
eonseipiently forming two channels; the one to the south is always used 
by ships; the shore on that side is high, and on the o])posite, in some 
])laces, it is even mountainous, hut in both extremely well settled, and 
the lands in such a high state of improvement, that a largo tract in tlie 
vicinity of Hiviere du Sud has long been familiarly called the granary 
of the ))rovince. 'I'he waters of the St. Tiiiwrence begin to be brackish 
about twenty-one miles below Quebec, increasing in their saline acrity. 
until they become perfectly tv-a-salt at Kamouraska, ^•'i miles lower 
down. IJeyond the island of Orleans are several others, as (loose Islaiul, 
Crane Island, and many smaller ones; these two are tolerably well cul- 
tivated, and are remarkable for the extent and excellence of their na- 
tural pastures, but the rest are neglected. At Hiviere du Sud the stream 
of the St. Lawrence is increased to eleven miles in width, and the country 
that adjoins it cannot be easily rivaled in its general a])pcarance ; the gay 
succession of churches, telegraph stations, and villages, whose houses are 
almost always whit(?ned, so as frecpu'utly to ])roduce a da//ling eftect, 
are so well exhibited by the dark contrast of the thick woods covering 
the rising grounds behind them u]) to their very sununits, that few land- 



lifl 



i; 



'. '■ 



\6G 



CHANNELS OF THE ST. LAWRENCE. 



!i 'i 



i'l 



scajics will be found actually superior in point of interesting variety and 
beauty. 

licyond Kiviere du Sud is a channel named the Traverse, which de- 
serves mention from its importance as the main ship-channel, and the 
circumstance of its being remarkably narrow, althouj^h the river is here 
thirteen miles across; the Isle aux Coudrcs, the shoal of St. Roch, and 
another called the English Bank, contract the fair way to not more than 
l.'J!2() yards* between the two buoys that mark the edge of the shoals; 
it is the most intricate part of the river below Quebec; the currents are 
numerous, irregular, and very strong, on which account large ships must 
consult the proper time of the tide to pass it witliout accident. Amongst 
the various improvements to the navigation of the St. liaAvrcnce, in agi- 
tation, it is contemplated to substitute, to one of the buoys, a floating 
light, which will enable vessels to pass the Traverse at night; and we 
hope that so important an object will be prom])tly carried into effect. 
On the north shore, between the Isle aux Coudresand the main, there is 
another channel, in which the currci.i; was considered so rapid, the depth 
of water so great, and the holding ground so bad, that it was for many 
years forsaken, until the erroneous prejudices existing against it were re- 
moved by the spirited ])arliamentary exertions of Dr. jNI. Paschal de 
Sales Ijaterriere, whose opinion, relative to the advantages and security 
of the north channel, stands strongly corroborated by the hydrographical 
surveys of Ca|)tain Bayfield, 11. X. Future pilots are, therefore, required, 
by the regulations of the Trinity House of Quebec, to become equally 
accjuainted and familiar with both channels ; a measm'c of the greatest 
necessity and importance, since it is well known that their ignorance of 
the northern chamiels of the river has, on several occasions, threatened 
shipwreck to vessels, driven by heavy winds out of the south channel. 

A third channel, formerly known by French mariners, when Canada 
was under the dominion of France, and then called the "Chenal dTberville," 
Avas re-discovered and siu'veyed lately by Captain Bayfield. It runs up 
the middle of the river, and although more contracted and intricate than 
the others, is yet sufliciently dee]) for ships of any burden. It is now 

* Ciiiitiiiu Bayfield, H. X. 



Till-: ST. LAWRENCE 15EL0W GREEN ISLAND. 



U)7 



generally known by the name of Bayfield's Channel, after its recent clis- 
eoverer; and a knowledge of it is, we believe, equally with others en- 
joined to the St. Lawrence pilots. 

Passing the Traverse, a very agreeable view of the settlements of 
the bay of St. Paul, enclosed within an amphitheatre of very higii hills, 
and the well cidtivated Isle aux Coudres at its entrance, presents itself. 
Continuing down the river, the next in succession are tiie islands of Ka- 
niourasca, the Pilgrims, Hare Island, and the cluster of small ones near 
it, named the IJrandy Pots ; these are reckoned one hundred and three 
miles from Quebec, and well known as the general rendezvous where tiie 
merchant ships collect to sail Avith convoy. At no great distance below 
is Green Island, on which is a light-house, where a light is shown from 
sun-set until sun-rise, between the 15th jV])ril and the lOth December. 
Near Green Island is lied Island, upon which it is believed the light- 
house would have been preferably situated, and abreast of it, on the 
northern shore, is the mouth of the river Saguenay, remarkable even 
in iVmerica for the innnense volume of water it poiu's into the St. 
I^awrence. 

Proceeding onward is Yi'w. Island, one hundred and fifty-three miles 
from Quebec, a point that shi]is always endeavoin- to make on account of 
its good anchorage, and as being the place where ships of war usually 
wait the coming down of the merchantmen ; next to IJic is the Isle St. 
liarnabc, and a little further on the Pointe aux Peres. From this point 
the river is perfectly clear to the gulf, and the pilots, being unnecessary 
any longer, here give up their charge of such as are bound outward, and 
receive those destined upward. Below Pointe aux Peres are two \ery 
extraordinary numntains close to each other, called the Paps of JNIatane. 
and nearly opposite them is the bold and lofty promontory of Mont 
Pelee, where the river is little more than twenty-five miles wide, but tlie 
coast suildenly stretches almost northerly, so much, that at the Seven 
Islands it is increased to seventy-three miles. Alight-house on Mount 
Pelee had long been a desideratum, as an important ])oint of departure, 
whence vessels may sha])e their coiu'sc with safety, whether in ascendii'.g 
the river, or in leaving; it to traverse the uulf. Provision was. th.erefore. 
made by the legislature of Lower Canada for its erection, and its com- 






rfi 



! ■(; 



I 



m 



1C8 



ISLAND OF AXTICOSTI. 



pletion has been recently announced by the Trinity House, with directions 
to mariners. 

The settlements on the soutli side reach down thus far, but liere- 
about they may be considered to terminate, as, to the eastward of Cape 
Chat, the progress of industry is no longer visible ; on the north side 
the cultivated lands extend only to ^Nfalbay. In the river itself nothing 
claims our attention except the separation of its shores to the distance 
already mentioned, from Cape Hosier to the Mingan settlement*. In 
the mouth of the St. Lawrence is the island of ^Vnticosti, one hundred 
and twenty-five miles long, ami in its widest part thirty, dividing it into 
two channels. Its geographical ])osition has been ascertained Avith ex- 
actness, and is thus laid down : the east point latitude 49" 8' 30", longi- 
tude 61" 4.4.' 59", variation 24" 38' west : the west ])oint latitude 49" 52' 
29^, longitude 64" 36' .54" t, variation 22' 55'; and the south-west point 
latitude 49" 23', longitiule 63' 44'. Through its whole extent it has 
neither bay nor harbour sufHcicntly safe to afford shelter to shi])s ; it is 
lUicultivated, being generally of an unpropitious soil, u])on Avhich any 
attempted improvements have met with very unpromising results ; yet, 
rude and inhospitable as its aspect may be, it is not absolutely unpro- 
vided with the means of succouring the distress of such as suffer ship- 
wreck on its coasts, there being two persons who reside upon it, at two 
different stations, all the year, as government agents, furnished with pro- 
visions for the use of those who have the misfortune to need them. IJoards 
are placed in different parts, describing tlie distance and direction to 
these friendly spots; but instances of flagrant inattention in the persons 
employed have, however, occurred, which Avere attended with the most 
distressing and fatal consequences to the unfortunate sufferers of ship- 



* In (li'scriliiiig tlie cnurso of tlie river, and wlicnn-or distances are given in miles, they 
always iiui)ly the statute mile iif ()!)', to a dejfree, unless otherwise specified. 

+ Observations of. I. .Tones, Es([, master on board II. ;\I. S. Hussar. By the previous oli- 
servatioiis of the late ^lajor Holland, surveyor-iieneral of Canada, these points were placed 
thus: east jioint, latitude 4!)' .V, longitude ()12' 0' ; west jioint, latitude 4!)' 48', longitude 
(i4'3r)'. The south-west point is jilaced in the latitude and longitude ijiven to it by the- ob- 
servations of the latter, whose astronomical positions, as taken in tlie course of his cNtensive and 
intere>tinj; surveys on tlie c(»ntinent and along the vast coast of .Anu-rica, are in general remarkably 
correct, and do him great hiUKuir as a nice ()bserver and soientillc a-tronomer. 



THE ST. LAWREXCE IN \VINTER. 



m 



wreck; the succoiivs intended for their relief not having been provided, 
and the habitations being found deserted*. Tliese establishments were 
made in the year 1809, the humane intention of whicli will be lionoured 
wherever it is made known, because the crews of vessels driven on shore 
liere have, sometimes, at the utmost peril of their lives, forsaken them 
to make their escape to Gaspe. In addition to these precautions, the 
erection of two lighthouses is in contemplation ; one of which will be 
situated at the east point of the island ; the other at the west, though 
some mariners believe that the second would be most useful on the south- 
west point. The importance of this measure needs no comment. 

AVith the powerful conviction upon our mind of the great estima- 
tion the river St. Lawrence ought to be held in, from presenting itself 
as the outlet designed as it were by nature to be the most convenient 
one for exporting the produce of these two extensive and improving 
provinces, the country stretching to the north-west nearly to the Pacific 
ocean, and even the adjacent parts of the United States, which, in de- 
fiance of prohibitory decrees, will find an exit by this cliaimel, we have, 
it is feared, incurred the charge of prolixity in wishing to convey to 
others a clear conception of its importance ; yet we must still trespass 
upon the patience of our readers long enough to mention that the ob- 
servations hitherto made apply only to one part of the year ; and also to 
notice that, from the beginning of December until the middle of April, 
the water communication is totally suspended by the frost. During this 
period, the river from Quebec to Kingston, and between the great lakes, 
except the Niagara and the Ra])ids, is wholly frozen over. The lakes 
themselves are never entirely covered with ice, but it usually shuts up all 
the bays and inlets, and extends many miles towards their centres : below 

* Among the numerous wrecks tliat have taken pLice on tlie dangerous coasts of Anticosti, 
that of tlie Grdiiktis, in 182J?, is the most awful and attecting on record. Numbers of the crew 
and passengers, who escaped from the waves, became tlie \vretched victims to the worst horrors 
of cannibalism, having found the habitations to which they directed their steps, totally de- 
serted, and unprovided with the niean^ "f relieving any of their wants. The cadaverous horrors 
of the scene this spot exhibited, after the last spark of human life had ceased to animate the 
hideously numgled corses, are almost too shuddering for description, and mingle our tenderest 
sympathies with feelings of the most painful disgust. 



S 






it. 



170 



THE GULF. 



Quebec it is not frozen over, but the force of the tides incessantly de- 
taches the ice from tlie sliores, and such immense masses are kept in 
continual agitation by the flux and reflux, that navigation is totally im- 
practicable in theoe months. 

IJut though the land and water are so nearly identified, during so 
long a winter, the utility of the river, if it be diminished, is far from 
being Avholly destroyed, for its surface still ofters the best route for land 
carriage (if the meta])hor can be excused) ; and tracks are soon marked 
out by which a more expeditious intercourse is maintained by vehicles 
of transport of all descriptions, than it Avould be possible to do on the 
established roads, at this season so deeply covered with snow, and which 
are available until the ap])roach of spring makes the ice porous, and warm 
springs, occasioning large flaws, render it unsafe. When this alteration 
takes place it soon breaks up, and, by the beginning of May, is either 
dissolved or carried off by the ciu'rent. 

The Gulf of St. Lawrence, that receives the waters of this gigantic 
river, is formed between the western part of Newfoundland, the eastern 
shores of Labrador, the eastern extremity of the province of Xew 
Brunswick, ])art of the province of Nova Scotia, and the island of Cape 
Breton. It communicates with the Atlantic ocean by three different 
passages, viz. on the north by the straits of Belleisle between Labrador 
and Xewfoundland ; on the south-east by the passage between Cape 
Hay, at the south-west extremity of the latter island, and the north cape 
of Breton Island ; and, lastly, by the narrow channel, named the Gut of 
Canso, that divides Ca])e Breton from Nova Scotia. 

The distance from Cape Rosier, in latitude 48° 50' 41", longitude 
64" 15' 24", to Cape Kay, in latitude 47" 36' 49", longitude 59" 21' 0' *, is 
79 leagues ; and from Nova Scotia to I^abrador 106. On its south side 
is the island of St. John, otherwise called Prince Edward's Island, some- 
thing in shape of a crescent, about 123 miles long, in its widest part 32. 
and in its narrowest, at the extremities of two deej) baj's, less than four. 
To the northward of St. John's are the Magdalen Islands, seven in 

* Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Osle. 



p' H ; 



ST. PAUL'S ISLAND. 



171 



.„,, 



miniber, tliinly inhabited by a few hundred persons, cliicfly cniphiycd in 
the fislieries*. Nortli, a<fain, of the Magdalens is IJrion's Island, and be- 
yond this arc the Bird Ishnuls ; the northernmost of Avliieh is situated in 
47" .'50' 2H" north hititude, and ()1" 12 ;W" west kMigitudef. The liirds 
are ])oints of importance in the navigation of the gulf, and the most 
northern of the two islands has been judiciously pointed out as a very 
fit and advantageous position for a lighthouse. This island is a mere 
rock, conical in shape, abrupt, and dangerous, and rising to no inconsi- 
derable altitude ; it is frequented by innumerable coveys of birds, and 
appears in the distance ])erfectly white, from the long accumidation of 
ordure deposited by them upon it. 

In the principal entrance to the gulf, between Cape Xortli and Cape 
Ray, is the island of St. Paul, in latitude 47" 12' 38", longitude 60" 11' 21-", 
the variation of the compass being 23" 45' west. The position of this 
island and the boldness of its shores render it the most dangerous enemy 
to the safety of vessels going in or out of the gvdf, and the more so from 
the frequency of heavy fogs ui)on that coast. The numerous instances 
recorded of total shipwreck upon this inhospitable island are lamentable 
evidence of the perils it threatens, antl it is a matter of surprise that 
the repetition of accidents so disastrous should not have long since been 
prevented by those expedients adopted upon all dangerous coasts. The 
exertions, however, of the harbour-master of Quebec j: upon this sid)jcct 
have not been unattended with success ; and the erection of a lighthouse 
upon the highest summit of the island will soon, we believe, be com- 
menced. It is also pro})oscd, that in foggy w(;ather a gong should be 
sounded, or guns fired, to warn ships of their a])proach. With such 
precautionary measures, added to the beacons placed in various other 
parts of the Gulf and the lliver St. Lawrence, ships may at all times 
proceed with safety on their voyage, whether inward or outward, the 

* For a particular description of these islands, and of all those above thcni iiicludod in the 
province of Lower Canada, see tlie TujMgrap/iical Diclioiniri/, under their respective heads. 

i' Hear-Adniiral Sir Charles Ogle. In the Appendix (Xo. 3) will lie found ,in important 
table of latitudes and longitudes of headlands and islands on the coasts of North America, 
and in the Gulf and River St. Lawrence, deduced from thescientitic observations of Jlr. Jones, 
of II. IM. S. Hussar, as taken under the command of Admiral Ogle. 

X jMr. Lamblj . 

z 2 



:f: 



■ih 



I ■■ 
■ m 



V I 



172 



THE GULF. 



shipping interest and trade of the country will be essentially benefited, 
and the lives and property of thousands saved from destruction. 

Islands of ice are sometimes met with in crossing the gulf during 
the summer months : the ice that drifts out of the St. Lawrence all dis- 
appears by the latter end of May, but these masses make no part of it. 
The conjecture is that they are not formed on any of the neighbouring 
coasts, but descend from the more northerly regions of Hudson's liay 
and Davis's Straits, where it is presumed they are severed by the vio- 
lence of storms from the vast accumulations of arctic winter, and passing 
near the coast of Labrador, are drawn by the indraught of the current 
into the straits of Helleisle. They often exceed an hundred feet in 
height, with a circumference of many thousands ; the temperature of the 
atmosphere is very sensibly affected by them, which, even in foggy 
weather, when they are not visible, sufficiently indicates their neighbour- 
hood. By day, from the dazzling reflection of the sun's rays, their ap- 
pearance is brilliant and agreeable, and it is no less so by moonlight. 



w 



M 



^^'^sai ^^^-4.^^ 







Q) r -h B ,k; l' , 

')ov&lUt<hel.i'ir'l„H.f hliii. l/i'atr S* Lint liiiil'" 



■(! ^'r 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LowF.ii Canada — Situation— IJouiKlarios — Extent — Divisions and Siilxlivisions. 

TiiF. i)r()viiu'c of Lower Canadii lies between the jjiiriillels of the 
43th and ')'2d (le<>rec.s north hititiule, and the meridians of 37' 30' and 
80" 6' west lon<i;itude from (Greenwich. It is boniuled on the north by 
the territory of tlie Iluds •- Bay Com])any, or East Maine; on the east 
by the (lidf of St. Lawrence and a line drawn from Anee an Sablon, on 
the Labrador coast, due north to tlie .02" of hititude*; on the south by 
New Hriniswiek and part of tlie territories of the United States, vi/. the 
states of Maine, Ilanii)shire, \'ermont, andNew York t ; and on the Avest 
by a line whieh separates it from I'pper Canada, as fixed by His Majesty's 
order in coimcil of August, 1791, and promulgated in the province on 
the 18th Xovcniber of the same year, with the following description : 
viz. " To connnence at a stone boundary on the north bank of the Lake 
St. Francis, at the cove west of Pointe au IJaudct, in the limit between 
the township of Lancaster and the seigniory of New Longucuil, nnuiing 
along the said limit in the direction of north, .'34" west, to the western- 
most angle of the said seigniory of New Ijongucuil ; then along the north- 
western boundary of the seigniory of Vaudreuil, running north, 25' east, 
until it strikes the Ottawa river ; to ascend the said river into the lake 
Temiscaming, and from the head of the said lake by a line drawn due 
north, until it strikes the boundary line of Hudson's IJay, including all 
the territory to the westward and southward of the said line to the 
utmost extent of the country commonly called or known by the name 
of Canada." 

The western boundary, as just recited, evidently appears to have 
been founded upon an erx'oneous map of that part of the covmtry, whereon 

* Tlie eastern boundary diil not extend beyond the River St. Jolui until tlie passing of tlie 
British statute, 6 George IV., chap. 50, by which the limits were extended eastward along the 
Labrador coast to Ance au Sablon. The island of Anticosti was also re-annexed by it to Lower 
Canada. 

t The boundaries of the British possessions in America are particularly treated of in 
Chapter I. 



V 

w 






'"■'ir 



M]\ 



174 



LOWF'H CANADA. 



the westerly an<;lo of the seigniory of \e\v Lon<;iieuil and the soutli- 
westerly allele of tlie seigniory of N'aiulreuil are represented as eo-'mei- 
deiit, when, in reality, they are about nine miles distant from each other. 
The true intent and ineanin<>; of the order in council ajjjjcars to be as 
follows: viz. That the boundary between L^pper and Lower Canada 
.shall commence at the stone boundary above I'ointe au IJaudet, and nui 
alon^' the line which divides the township of lianc ister from the seigniory 
of New I^on^ueuil (and this line, it is necessary to observe, us well as most 
of the sei^norial lines of the province, ou<;ht to run north-west and south- 
east, reckoning; from the astronomical meridian, in conformity to an 
ancient ordinance of the province, or " Arret et reglement du conseii 
supcrieur de Quebec, datr 11 de Mai, 1()7()") to the westerly angle of the 
said seigniory ; thence along a line drawn to the south-westerly angle of 
the seigniory of Itigaud, and continued along the westerly line of Hi- 
gaud until it strikes the Ottawa river, as represented on thetopogra])iiical 
maj) by the letters AIJ, IIC, CD. 

This is the light in which the terms of the order of council have 
been viewed by the res])ective government of both j)rovinces, and in- 
deed the only interpretation of which they were susceptible. The (jues- 
tion, though several times agitated in the councils of either province, 
was never so definitively decided as to set dilHculties at rest, and the 
anomaly was represented to His INIajesty's imperial government in order 
to obtain its rectification from that quarter. The government of Lower 
Canada, however, acting iipon the interpretation that the spirit of the 
king's order in council pointed out, and which the nature of things could 
alone admit, granted letters ])atent for the erection of the township of 
Newton (March, 180.5), and subsequentlv for the augmentation of that 
township, as being vacant crown land in Lower Canada, adjoining the 
sister province of Upper Canada *. 



* It must 1)0 iil)scrve(l that the westerly lino of the seigniory of Rigaud, as well rs the other 
linos on the Otta\\a, ought to run, by the ancient ordinance, /lord (jiuni-noril-cul, etjual to 11" 
15' cast from the astronomical meridian. There is also a variation between the bearing of the 
Lancaster township line and the seignorial line of New Longeuil, when, in fact, they ought to 
be precisely the sanu; ; and some grants that have been made by government arc supposed to 
infringe upon the seigniory, from which lawsuits between the grantee of the crown and the seig- 



DIVISIONS AND [;DIVI>i 



173 



Lower Cim lu. tlni- bomuled, is (iivitled int»i tlnxc cliiof disftviotsi, 
Quebec, Muiureal^ Three liiwr/i, imd two inferior o iitmpc and 

St. Fraui'iN. It i*. f)i»erdWidcd into forty conn tie*, 1>, an art of the 
))rovinc'ial legislature. » Ctc >. i\' ., hap. 73; its minor Mihdiv ions eon- 
sistin<»' of sc'ioniories, ti«.f<n, and ti iiships : there beinpf of tlic wo fornici 
'iOS, besides minor oi " , eliietl^ 'onsisti ■• of smal ishuids in the St. 
liiiwrenee, and of the hittt-r, !()(»; ot thr I inhips, 1 ^7 were I'^cyed in 
^vhole or in ])art. and forty-three projc ed only the ])articulars of 
whieh will be better explained by the f"' winj; t;il> iar exhibit: 

Diii.sioiis and Sahdicis'ionn of the Proniice of Lower Canada info J)l.sfrie/.s; 
CoKn/ie.s; AVv^'w/o/vV.v, I'Vefs, 2oifn.s/tlj).s; >S)C. 



N. IJ. Tlic toMHsIiij)s niarki'il witli an asterisk arc incluiled in and compose the inferior 

di>;triit of St. Francis. 



MONTREAL DISTRICT 

CONTAINS li) COUNTUJS, 7*' SKIfiNlOUIES, (! KIKI'S, AND 59 TOWNSHIPS. 



Cot NTIDS, 1!). 


In null Cduiity, 


COUNIIES. 


Ill iiu'li Coimiy- 


i 




f2 


i 

a 

I 


4 
u. 


1 

"7 

5 


Acadie 

Reauliarnois 

]5ertliier 

Cliaiiihly 

Lacliriiaye . 

La Prairie . 

L'Ass()iii])tii)n 

]\Iissis(jni . 

IMontreal 

Ottawa 


2 
1 
i! 

r> 

2 
4 

1 
1 
1 

1 


I 


1 

1 
2 
2 
2 

!! 


Richelieu . 

Rouvilh; . 

St. Ilvacinthe . 

SlietloVd . 

Stanstead . 

Terrehonne 

Two ^Mountains . 

\'^aiidreuil . 

\'ereheres . 

Projected Townships . 


li 

7 

4 

4 

H 


2 


i! 
(i 

(•) 

1 

14 



'111 



norial tenant have originated. Disputes about boundaries, of a nature still more .seriouis, arose 
only recently between tlie grantees of the crown settled in Upper Canada and tho.se adjoining 
in the LoMer Province, in which the legal process of the respective courts came in collision, to 
the incalculable inconvenience and injury of the landholders. Others may frequently recur, as 
this part of the province is already in a nourishing state of cultivation, luiless the governments of 
both provinces bestow some consideration upon the subject, now that the claims of individuals 
settled on each side of the line may be more easily adjusted than after long and undisturbed 
possession has produced still greater improvement upon the estates. 



17(i 



LUWLIl CANADA. 



Si'i^nior'n:s, I'tefs, Toirti.i/tlp.s, ^r. in each Onififi/. 



ACADIK. 

tivigiiiuricx. 
I)c I.i-ry 

Lii C'ollu 

Townships. 
81icrriiij{ti)ii 

Isles. 
Aiix Xdix 

Aiix Tttc 

JJKAIHARNOI.S. 

Svi^niimes, 
J]oauIinrii()iH 

Ti»viish'ips. 
(ioiliiuinc'lit'stfr 
Hcniiniiijiftirtl 
IIiiicliiiil)r()ol<)< 

Iiididii lands. 
It/(in(l.s. 
(iraiidi' Isle 
Ihlos do la I'aix, part of 

BKHTIIIER. 

.Sfiisniorie.i. 

BiTtliier nnd Aiigincntatiuu 

U Ailli'lioiit 

D'Aiitrayc and Aiigmentutioii 

Do Kanizay 

I.sIp Dupas 

Lanaudiiro, part of 

Laiiaiiraie and Augmentation 

Lavaltric 

Fiefs, 
Antaya 

Cliicot 

Du Sabli', or York 

Petit Bruno 

Bandin 

Townships. 

Brandon 

Kildaro 

Raiidin 
St. Ignace 



Isles. 



u. 



CHAMBLY. 

Seij^niorics. 
Boucherville 



t'lmnildy, West 
fiongueuil 
F<iiiigui'uil, Barony 
3IontarvilU' 

Fiefn, 
Trenilday 

Isles. 
InK's ConiniuneM 
Percres 

LACIIEXAYE. 
•Seiiiniiirie.>'. 
Lacliennye 
L'AsMoniption 

Townships. 
Kilkenny 

Wexford 

Isles. 

Bourdon 

LA PRAIRIE. 

Seigniories. 
Cliateauguuy 
La Prairie 
La Salle 
Sauit St. Louis 

hies. 
A la Paix, part of 
Aux Ilurons 
St. Bernard 

LASSO.^IPTION. 

Seigniories. 
St. Sulpice 

Townships. 
Chert scy 

Rawdon 

Isles. 

Bouchard, Lower Isle 
MISSISQUI. 

Seigniories. 
St. Arniand 

Townships. 
Durham 
Stanbridge 
Sutton 



MONTREAL 

County, Ihland, nnd Seigniory . 

Xuns Ixland 
St. Helen 
St. TIktChc 

OTTAWA. 

Seigniorie.i. 
Lc' Petite Nation 

Townships. 
Bristol 
Buekinglinm 
Clarendon 
Derry 
Kardley 
Hull 
Lichfield 

Loehaber and Augmentation 
Onslow 
I'ortland 
Teniplcton 
Wakefield 

RICHELIEU. 

Seigniories. 

Bonsecours 

Bourchemin 

Bourgmarie 

St. Charles 

St. Denis 

St. Ours and Augmentation 

Sorel 

Isles: 

De Grace 

St. Ignacc 

Ronde 

ROUVILLE. 

Seigniories. 
Blcury 

Chanibly, East 
Foucault 

]\Ionnoir and Augmentation 
Noyan 



DIVISIONS AM) SLIJDIVISIONS. 



177 



UouviUf 
Snbn'voii 

ST. IIVACINTHE. 
Svigniories. 
Hiiurclu-niiii 
l)i' Hiiiiixny 
St. Ilyiiciiithf 

SIIEFFOHl). 

Totrnnhiju. 
Uroiiic 
Ely 

Fiirnlium .nnd Aiijiincntation 
(jiraiiliy 
Milton 
Hdxton 
Sli.'tlord 
Stukely 

STANSTEAI). 

Toii'iishlps. 
•Harford 
"Bariiston 
•Bolton, part of 
•Hatley 
Potton 
•StniistPnd 



TKIIUKIJOXNE. 


Hi^aud 


Siiiiiiluiir». 


Soulanf(i' 


Ulainvillc and Atignicntation 


\'andrriiil 


to IJivicn- du Ciiiiu', S. 


7'<>«'«.»/l»/J4. 




I)('N|ilaini'!i and An^niuntatiiin 


NcMlon 


l-<ll' .ll'MH 


/*/m. 


Tirrchnnnt' and An^nni-ntation 






Aux I'in-t 


Tiiini/ifiijis. 




Aux Tonrlt's 


AlttTcrondiy 




I'l rroi Idi' 


CliatliaiM (jorc 




Howard 


St. (ii'iii'viivo Ink 






St. Giifs 


TWO iMorXTAINS. 




.Vi;'ir///()/('l'.V. 


VKIUHEHES 


Ar^cntinii 


Scifiuiories. 


Iiac di's dt'ux lAlonta^ncs 


\k\U'vm: 


HivirH! du ClK-ni- 


Itrldil and Aii^nirntatioti 


'J'(iirit.\/iii>\. 


(^ap St. iAIiclici 


Arnndi'i 


(.'(intri'fanr 


Chatliain 


Cijurnoyi-r 


(in'iivillc 


St. HIain 


Ilarnnjjlon 


\'iiri'nnc.s 


Howard 


Vi rciifros 


Wcntwortli 


/ .. 


/>/«,v. 






C' '!■'!, 1' 


I.slu nizanl 






La '1 


VAi'DHErn. 




.V('/r///'(//'(t'A. 


B'"uu^ . 


Nouvfllc Limj^ncnil 


Bondiird, Upjior I>li' 



D I ST HUT OV QIKUKC 

CONTAINH 13 C0UNTIK8, 7S' SKIOMOKI K8. 12 KIKl'S, AND ',W lOWSSinPH. 





In eiu-li Coiiniy. 




In eadi County. 




(i ; 


i t' 


fi 


1 i 1 


t'oiN-riFs. 


:i 1 


i 


■£ 1 ( Ol N IIKm. 

a ' 
» 1 


In 


.a 


/I 

a 
> 




r. 




-! 


1 




H 


Boancf . 


7 




9 ' Montniorenci . 


1 






Bolk'clmsse 


7 


2 


4 i' Orleans 


1 






Dorchester 


1 




... ' Portneuf 


13 


3 




Kaniouraska . 


7 


1 


l\ ll Qnebcc 


4 


2 


2 


, L'Islet 


() 


.'1 11 Rimonski 
. . 1 ... 1 Sairuenav 


15 


1 


2 


Lotbiniere 


If 


6 




1 


Jlegantic 




... ' 1(5 











»SH 



4 



it 



11 






A A 



178 



LOWER CANADA. 









Seigniories, 


Fiefs, Townships, 


S<fi. in 


each County. 


BEAUCE. 


ISLET. 




LOTBINIERE. 


Seigniories. 


Seigniories. 




Seigniories. 


Aiiliert (le I'lsle 


Bonsecours 




Bonsecours 


Aiihort GuUion 


Cap St. Ignacc 




Desdiaillons, or Riv. du Chine 


JoUiut 


Isle Verte 




and Augmentation 


St. Eticnno 


L(.'pinay 




Desplaines 


St. JclSt'pIl 


Lcssard 




Gaspc 


St. ilaric Xouvelle Beauce 


L'Islet 




Lotbiniirc and Augmentation 


V'amlrouil 


St. Claire 




St. Croix 


Toii'imhipfi. 


St. Jean Port Joli 




St. Giles 


Cranbournu 


St. I^icli des Annais 




Tilly, or St. Antoine 


Ditditifld 


\'inceli)t and Augmentation 




Fninipton 


Fir/s. 




MEGANTIC. 


Jersey 


Fdurnier 




Toirns/iipt. 


Jlnrlow 


Gagnc 




Adstoek 


Risborouiili 


Reaiime 




Broughton 


Spiilding 


Ttiwnships. 




Colraine 








Wat turd 


Asliford and Augmentation 


Dorset 


Wiihurn 


c 




Gayhurst 




Island.i. 




Halifax 


BELLECHASSE. 


Isles aux (irucs et aux 


Oies 


Inverness 
Ireland 


Scigniurics. 


KA.MOURASKA. 


Leeds 


Beaumont and Auirmcntation 


. 






Seigniories. 




Nelson 


Berthier 
Livauditre 


Granville 

Granville and Lachenaye 


Oulney 
Shenley 


St. Jervais 

St. ^lichel 1 


Islet du Portage 




Somerset 


Kamoiiraska 






„ ,. ,. 1 f Li> Durant- 
St. \ alior and }- 

i a\ t. 




Thetford 


River Onellc and Ai 


igmenta- 


Trinir 


Augmentation J 






* ****o 


Vincennes 

Ficfu. 


tion 




Winslow 


St. Anne de la Pocadiere 




Terrebois 




MO.\"OIORENXI. 


La IVIartiniere 








-Montapeine 

Tijicnships. 


Ficjs. 




Seigniories. 


St. Denis 




Cote de Beaupre 


Armagh 


Townships. 




ORLEANS Co., Island, and 


Buekland 


Bungay 




Seigniory. 


Standun 


I X worth 






Ware 


Woodbridge 




PORTNEUF. 




Isles. 




Seigniories. 


DORCHESTER. 


Hare Island, part of 




Belair and Augmentation 


Seiiinwriex. 


Isle Verte 




Bourglouis 


La':- on 


Kuniouraska Islands 




Cap Sante 



DIVISIONS AN^ SUBDIVISIONS. 



179 



D'Autcuil 

Dcschainbault 

Desniaure, or St, Aiigustin 

Faussembault 

Grondines 

Giiillauini' Bonlionimc 

Jacques Carticr 

Ncu ville,or Pointe aux Trembles 

Porthuis 

Portnuuf 

Fiefs. 

Gaudarvillc 

La ChevroticTC 

Lu Tcsserie 

QUEBEC. 

Seigniories. 

Beauport 

Notre Dame des Angcs 

St. Gabriel 

Sillery 

Fiefs. 

Hubert 

St. Ignace 



Townships. 
Stoneliam 
Tewkesbury 

RIMOUSKI. 

Seigniories, 
Bic 

Dartigny 

Dc Peiras, or IVIitis 
Isle ^^«rte 
Lac Matapediach 
Luc INIitis 

Le Pai^e and Tivierge 
Lcssard 

RIadawaska and Temisconata 
Matane 
Riclinrd Rioux 
Rimouski 
River du Loup 
St. Barnabc 
Trois Pistoles 

Fiefs. 
Pachot 



Townships. 
JMatane 
St. Denis 

Islands. 
Bic 

Biquetto 
Green Island 
St. Barnabt' 

SA(JUENAV. 

Seigniories. 
Eboulemens 
Isle aux Coudres 
IMillc Vaclies 
IVIount Murray 
iMurray Bay 
Terra Firma de Miiigun 

Towns/lips. 
Scttrington 

Isles. 

Isles et Islets de Min^;iii 
Isle of Anticosti 



THREE RIVERS DISTRICT 

CONTAINS 6 COUNTIES, 25 SEIGNIORIES, 9 FIBF8, AND 53 TOWNSHIPS. 



Counties. 


In each County. 


In each County. | 


.Seigniories. 
Fiefs. 


Townships. 


r. 

Counties. g 

1 


i 


H ! 


Champlain 
Drummond 
Nicolet . 


5 i ... 
"4 , "4 


1 1 

19 
2 


St. RIaurice • , ^ 
Shcrbrooke . i ... 
Yamaska H 


5 


.3 

28 



Seigniories, Fiefs, Townships, &,c. in each Counfi/ 

Townships. 
Radnor 



CHAMPLAIN. 

Seigniories. 
Batiscan 

Cap de la Magdeleine l.<!ies. 

Champlain and Augmentation Dn Large 
Ste. Anne and Augmentation St. ^Marguerite 
Ste. Marie St. I<;nacc 



DRUMMOND. 

Townships. 
Acton 
Artliabaska 

Aston and Augmentation 
Bulstrode 
* Chester 

A A 2 



! \.\ 



ill 






4M 






180 



LOWER CANADA. 



■*])iirluim 

*IIain 

Horton 

Griiiitli;im 

*Kiiigscy 

.Simpson 

Staiifold 

^Tiiijiuick 

U])ton 

Warwick 

Wunddvcr 

Wickliani 

'■ Wiilf'stown 

'WdttOIl 

NICOLET. 

Ijccaiicoiir 
(iciitilly 
Liviiir(l(ir.St.Pit'n-i'lcsI}ccf|iU'ts 
Xicitk't and Aufimcntatinii 

Fiefs. 
IM.iir 
CouriKivor 
Gn(k'fi'i)i 
HdijiietailliHlr 

Toiriix/iii).\. 
Blandford 
i\Ia(klingtoii 

h/fS. 

]Mc»raii 



8T. .MAURICE. 

Si'igiiiorics. 
Grandprr 

Groslidis or Macliichc 
Lanaiidiure, part of 
iMaskinon<;(' 
Pointo (111 Lac 
Rivit'rc du Loup 
St. MariiiU'ritc 
St. iMaurico 

F,V'/.V. 
Car'ifcl 
Dumoiitier 

Gatineau and Augmentation 
St. Eticnno and Lands of the 

Forgo 
St, Jean and Angnientation 

'J'li/nis/iip,',. 
Caxton 
Iluiiter.-town 
Nc^v• Gl•.^sgo^v 

SIIEnnROOKE. 

TuwHsliip^. 
^ A scot 
'Auckland 
■'Ilroni])ton 
*Hury 
*CliesIiani 
H'iifton 
*C'linton 
"Conipton 



Croy(k)n 

*Ditton 

"Drayton 

*Dud's«ell 

*Eaton 

*Eml)erton 

*GartIiljy 

*Hanijiden 

^Hereford 

*Lingwick 

*i\Iarston 

*3Iell)ournc 

*Nou'p(irt 

*Orford 

'Shipton 

*Stoke 

^.Stratford 

■ Wi'('(kin 

^Wcstlinry 

Wliitton 

*^\'indsor 

VA.ALVSKA. 

Si'i(ji/iorift--. 
Baie St. Antoine or du t'clivn- 
Bourgmarie, East 
Courval 
Dcguir 
Lussaudiire 
Pierrevillc 
St. Francois 
Vaniaska 



GASPE DLSTRICT 



CnXTAfNS 2 COI'NTIF.S, 1 PEIOXIORY. (i FIKFS, AND 10 TOWNfiHIP^. 



CoUNTIEP. 


In each County. 


1 


Fiifs. 
Townships. 


Bonaventurc .... 
Gaspe ..... 


1 


6 !i 



DIVISIONS AND SUBDIVISIONS. 



181 



t'^'h 



BONAVENTURE. 

Sci(j)iiiirics. 
Slioolbred 

Townships. 
Carleton 
Cox 
Hamilton 

Hop(! 



i\Iaria 
Xunilicr, 7 
Uichniond 

GASPE. 

Fiefs. 
Alice a Beatitils 
Alice do rEtaug 
BouavL'iiture Isle 



Grande Valke des 3Ioiit- 

iMa<f(leK'ino 

Ste. Anne 

Tmrnshijis. 

iMagdaleii Isles 
Number, 
Xumlier, 9. 



vi'^ 



In assigning boundaries to the counties north of tlie St. I^awrentv 
and to those along the Ottawa river some inaccvu-acy occurred in the de- 
scription, that will become apparent u])on looking at the map. By tlie 
late act remodelling the political divisions of the colony, the lateral lines 
of those counties are described as prolongations of certain seignorial side- 
lines, stretching northward to the boiuidaries of the province ; but the 
bearings of these lines being widely different on the Ottawa and on the 
St. I^awrencc, the former running north 11 15' east, the latter due north- 
west, we find that the eastern side-line of Ottawa county, if ])rolonged in 
conformity with the huv, would traverse diagonally the whole range ol 
counties to the eastward. In order, therefore, to avoid as much as ])()s- 
sible the confusion that would necessarilv result from this oversiuht, we 
have thought it better to allow the boundaries of the counties to the east 
of Ottawa to remain unaltered, confining the change of limits to the 
Ottawa county, which ,shouhl he bounded to the eastward hif the east out- 
line of the fiei}>niory of La Petite Xat'iou, and a prolongation of that line 
till it intersects the eastern boundary of the county of Two Mountains 
and Avestern boundary of the county of Terrebonne, thence along the said 
boundary to the north-west limits of the province. 

An oversiiiht of a similar nature occurred in describing the boundaries 
of the county of Cham])lain, which is bounded in the act by the county 
of Portneuf on tlie north-east and hy the rker St. Maurice on the south- 
west. The south-west line of Portneuf intersects the St. Maurice at about 
sixty-six miles from the St. Lawrence, at ^^ on the map ; therefore, the 
county of Chaniplain is circumscribed and forms a triangular tract, having 



^1 



m 



182 



LOWER CANADA. 



mm 



rl!*! U 



for its limits the St. !Mauricc and St. Lawrence to the south-west and 
south-east, reducing its contents to 783 square miles. The south-west line 
of the county of Portneuf is carried on due north-west, dividing tliat 
county from t\\Q county of St. Maurice, and throwing the upper section of 
tile river St. Maurice in the body of the former ; the natural division that 
presents itself in the St. Maurice will ])robably point out hereafter the 
expediency of declaring it the boundary between both counties. 

The counties of La Chenaye and Terrebonne are limited by tlio 
north-west boundary of the townships Wexford and Cliertsey respect- 
ively ; hence a vacant space in the rear of those townships is found not 
included in the body of any co\uity. This tract is distinguished on the 
map by the letters a, h, c, d; it is 20 miles in breadth by 240 in depth, 
extending from the rear of the two last mentioned counties to the north- 
west boundary of the province, and containing a superficies of about 
4,800 square miles. 

These anomalies, as thej^ do not immediately affect the settled parts 
of the country, are not likely to be attended with those mischievous 
consequences that might otherwise be expected to result from them. 
They point out, however, the necessity of a revision of the new divisions 
of the province, and the expediency of a short subsidiary act, corrective 
of the boundaries of tiiose counties which we have particularized. 

In superficial extent, as near as the knowledge of its boundaries will 
admit of an estimation, Lower Canada contains upwards of 205,863 
square statute miles, of which superficies about 3200 miles may be said 
to be covered by the numerous lakes, rivers, and streams of the province, 
exclusive of the surface of the St. Lawrence and part of the Gulf, 
which togethci occupy an area of nearly .52,-500 miles, making the total 
extent of the province equal to 258,363 square miles. 

The lands are held by two distinct tenures, the feudal and the soc- 
cage ; of the former are almost all the lands on the borders of the St. 
Lawrence, those upon the Richelieu, the Yamaska, and the Chaudiere. 
The lands possessed under this species of tenure were all granted anterior 
to the conquest in 1759, excepting Murray Bay, Mount Murray, and 
the seigniory of Shoolbred, in the Bay of Chaleurs. They consist of 
seigniories and fiefs, several of wdiicli are of considerable extent, exceed- 



rt 



m 



FEUDAL AND SOCCAGE LAxXDS. 



nv3 



ing in various instances 36 square leagues in superficies. The total 
amount of grants made in the Avliole province inider the feudal system 
amounts to about 12,0()(),000 French arpents, or 9,849,600 acres, equal to 
15,390 square miles. Of this immense quantum almost one-half, or 
5,192,04'6 arpents, consist of vast tracts that lie waste, or nearly so, in 
the unsettled parts of the province, such as Anticosti, Niagara, Mille 
Vaches, INIetapediach, &c. ; and of the rear sections of seigniories of con- 
siderable depth, such as are found in the Cote de Ueaupre, IJatiscan, St. 
Gabriel, and others, thus reducing the amount of the lands actually 
farmed, or properly within the pale of settlement, to 6,873,954 arpents ; 
equal in the aggregate to the sum, in acres, of the snnci/ed soccage lands 
of the colony. 

The lands in free and common soccage are those that were laid out, 
sin-veyed, and granted subsequently to the conquest of Canada by Great 
Britain, and which now comjjose that class of the local subdivisions of 
the country called townships. These generally lie more in the interior. 
in the rear of the seigniorial grants, being situated along rivers for their 
front, where a stream of sufficient magnitude presents itself for that 
])ur])ose, or laid out conveniently and contiguously in the interior. The 
dimensions of a regular river-township are 9 miles front by 12 deep, and 
its subdivisions consist of 12 ranges, containing each 28 lots. Those ot 
an inland-township are 10 miles square, its subdivisions consisting of 11 
ranges of 28 lots each *. The total number of townships erected imder 



*i'l 

'm 






* To avoid repeating the (limensions of townships and their subdivisions, the sanio is here 
given precisely. The most exact content of ten miles square, the usual dimensions of un inland 
township, as prescribed by the warrants of survey, is (iI,0(X) acres, exclusive of the usual 
allowance of rive acres on every hundred for highways. This quantity is contained in a tract 
of 10 miles and ") chains in length, by 10 miles 3 chains and .")0 links in perpendicular 
breadth, or such other length and breadth as may be ecpiivalent thereto. A rectangular town- 
ship of this admeasurement contains eleven concessions or ranges of lots, each lot l)eing 73 chains 
and 5 links long, and 2B chains 'JH links broad. Each rang', is divided into 20 lots, so that each 
township contains 30!$ lots of 2(10 acres, with the allowar for highways. Of these lots 220 
are granted to settlers, and the remaining 03 reserved foi i:.>> crown and protostant clergy. In 
like manner, it may be observed, that the quantity nearest to the content of nine miles broad by 
twelve miles deep, the usual dimensions of a river-to\\ n.ship, is 67,200 acres, exclusive of the 
allowance for highways. These are contained in a tract of 723 chains broad, by !)()'.) chains and (J(J 
links long, or other equivalent length and breadth. A rectangular townsliip of tliese dimensions 



184 



LOWER CANADA. 



letters patent in the province is 105, wliieh together eontain in round 
numbers (),.'j()(),()()0 aeres, of whieh quantity 2,7}).'i,39S aeres were granted 
to various ])atentees, and upon Avhieh projmrtionate reservations of one- 
seven tli were made for tlie erown and the elergy respeetively, according 
to law, and about .'J90,000 acres are held by divers persons, under certi- 
ficates of location. 

Of the tt)tal (piantuni of the lands held by both species of tenure, 
about ;J,()()(),00() of acres arc under actual cultivation; to which amount 
may be superadded about 1200,000 acres which are in that progressive state 
provincially termed en ahatin, having merely luidcrgone the preliminaries 
of agricultural im])rovement. Of the lands in culture it may be said that 
one-third on an average yields the grain crops for the consumption and 
exports of the ])rovince ; the other two-thirds being partly left fallow, 
and kept as de])asturing and meadow land. 

Those ])arts of this beautiful province that are yet in a primitive 
state of natiu'c appear, on the whole, agreeably diversified by hill, plain, 
and valley, though, in some sections, mountainous and bold, and the 
soil is in general richly covered with a sturdy growth of valuable forest 
trees. Forming an estimate of the adaptation of those ])arts of the 
country to the ])urposes of agriculture from surveys and ex])lorations 
performed at different times, and especially of late years, it may be fairly 
stated that two-thirds, at least, of the wilds of Lower Canada are likely 
in process of time to bow to the arts of agricultiu'e and be brought under 
cultivation ; the remaining third may be considered as unsusceptible of 
tillage, being, in a great measure, composed of rugged steeps, barren 
hills, and sterile morasses and swamps. 



contains twelve concessions or ranges of lots, each lot being flO chains and 80 links long and 26 
chains broad, and in each range 28 lots, making in all ?iM] lots of 200 acres, with the highways. 
Of this number 240 are grantable to settlers, and the remaining t)G are reserved as before men- 
tioned. 



CIIArTEll IX. 

rate of the Country — Hi crs — Roads — Soil — Settlements. 

The divisions of the province emuncrated and described in the ]n\- 
ceding chapter are those that owe their existence to artificial creation, 
and are such as were dictated with a view to the judicial, })olit.cal, and 
social interests and convenience of the inhabitants. The natural divisions 
of the coiuitry are those bold and distinct lineaments traced on the face 
of Nature, forming and dividing- extensive valleys by ])roniinent highland 
ridges, and sej)arating vast tracts of territory by large ri\ers and streams. 
In viewing the divisions of Lower Canada inider the latter asj)cct, the 
St. I-iawrence conspicuously presents itself as a leading featinv in its 
physical geography, bisecting the province into two grand sections, the 
one lying to the north, the other to the south, of that great river. 
Emerging from Upper Canada at IVmt-au-IJaiulet, it Hows exclusively 
through the Lower Province, traversing in a north-easterly coiu-se the 
grand valley which it drains in its broad career to the ocean, 'i'his 
valley is confined to the northward by a range of moimtains conuiiencing 
at Cirenville on the Ottawa river, and stretching north-eastward acnjss 
the country as it passes at ^ arious distances from the banks of the St. 
Lawrence, from which it recedes at some points about 40 miles, ap- 
proaching at others to within 15 or iiO, until it strikes the river at Ca])e 
Torment, 30 miles below Quebec. From this cape the mountainous 
character of the shores of the St. I.,awrence may be properly said to com- 
mence, and especially to the northward, where they consist of bold and 
abrupt hills, rising to a general elevation of .'J and 400 feet, and in some 
instances attaining an altitude of nearly 2000. To the southward the 
Great A'alley is bounded by a range of hills situated about the soiu'ces 
of the Comiecticut river, and connecting to S. ^V. with the (ireen 
Mountains in the state of ^'ermont, and by them with the bold range 
of the Alleganies, which forms the grand geological division between 
the waters of tlie Atlantic and those of the St. Lawrence. The moim- 
tains at the heads of Connecticut in their progress north-eastward 

B B 



.1] 



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r 






ff 



1 8() 



LOW I'll CANADA. 



(livcrsie into two (lifl<.'i\nt vaiiiHicatiotis or spurs about the source of 
the St. John river: one direc-tiii<;- its course centrally throu<;li the country, 
nearly parallel with the course of the St. Lawrence and the shores of the 
sea; the other diveri'ino' more to the north, and extendin<j; alon<;- the St. 
Lawrence to its mouth. Its distance from the borders of the river varies 
frouj thirty to thirteen miles, until it actually subsides on its banks and 
confines the bed of the waters. Seen from the northward it has a distinct 
outline, but it does not exhibit tlie appearance of a mountainous ran<>;e 
wlien viewed from the southward, in consequence of tlie table elevation 
of the country on that side. I'cyond the mountains that bound the 
valley of the St. Lawrence on the north, the common level of the lund is 
marked by a considerable tai)le elevation above the surface of the river, 
and is traversed by several rid^-csof no very conspicuous altitude till the 
bolder mountains rise to viev,-, that bound the province to the north-west, 
and divide the waters of Hudson's I'ay from those that descend in 
o])posite courses to the St. L:iwrence. 

IIavin«;' thus endeavoured to convey to the reader a f^cncral idea of 
the face of the country, or ratlier an outline of its most prominent natural 
divisions, it behoves us in the next i)lace to afford him the means of 
forming as correct a conception of the roads, rivers, soil, and settlements 
of the province as the information we command may allow ; and the more 
easily and efticiently to accomplisli the task, it may appear pro])er to 
adopt separate sections of country, in order to avoid too vague, unsatis- 
factory, and general a description. 

That grand division of the province lying north of the St. Lawrence 
may, for this purpose, be subdivided into ///rcc sections : 

The Jli'st cnd)racing the countrj' between the Ottawa and the St. 
Maitrivi", the second, the country between the St. Mannce and the 
Sii,<i'tie>ia//; and the f///nl, the residue of the territory east of the Sagxenaij 
to the extreme boundary of the province. 

The grand division south of the St. Lawrence will also constitute 
////•{'(' sKhdlv'isioiis : i\\c Jirsf comprising all that part of Lower Canada 
west of the river Cltaiidiere, the second \.\\q territories east of the Chaudicre 
to the Avest bounds of Craspe, and the third consisting of the district of 
(iaspc itself. 



^ 



tl 



Till' OTTAWA IUVi:il. 



187 



NORTH OF THE ST. LAWRENCE. 

§ 1. — {'oiNTiiY HKTWKnN Till-: ()tt.\«'a iti\Kii AM) Tin: Sr. .AIai'Iiick. — Coiiiillix — Ottam'a, 
Tuo MouNTAi.Ns, \'AiJ»iir,iii-, Ti:niii;ii(»N.\i;, Li: Ciiknavk, L'asso.mption, I5i;uTmKn, 
St. IMAunicK, (tiid Montueai,. 



The front this section of the ])rovinee presents on the Ottawu river 
and on the St. liawrcnec exceeds {'A) miles; the whole of which distance, 
savinijj ])drta<i;es or carryin_<^-])laces in remote ])arls of the Ottawa, is 
navi<>;al)lc for canoes and boats ; upwards of 200 miles of it are navi«'al)le. 
at l(»ng interstices, for steam-vessels drawin^>' from t to 1;> feet water, and 
a section of })() miles, or the distance between Montreal and Three liivers. 
is actually navigated by scpiare-rigj^ed vessels of various burdens, from 
100 tons to (500. 

Issuing- from Lake Temiscaming, u])wards of ',]'>{) miles north-west 
of its junction with the St. Lawrence, and having its remotest sources 
nearly 100 miles beyond that lake, the Ottawa river Hows majestically 
through a fine and fair country, as yet in a state of nature, although, 
generally s])eaking, remarkably well ada])ted to the ))urposes of agri- 
cidture and settlement, l-'rom the Vails and Porfai>r des .llliimcUcs, 
distant about 110 miles above Hull, the river becomes better known, 
as it is usually frequented thus far by timber contractors, who derive 
their valuable supplies of timber from those remote districts of the 
Ottawa. The fur traders extend their ex])lorations considerably beyond 
this point, and a trading-post for that object is established on the shores 
of Lake Temiscaming. 

At the Allumettes the Ottawa is divided into two channels ; the one 
to the north-east, the other to the south-west of a large island, in length 
about 1.5 miles, by an average breadth of 4. The southerly channel 
expands below the falls and rapids of the Grand ^Vllumettes to the width 
of .3 or 4 miles, and forms the Lake des Allumettes, at the head of which 
an arm of the river opens an entrance to the Mud and Musk Rat Lakes : 
the latter, by far the largest of the two, has a solitary settlement on 
its southern shoi-es, the proprietor of which is an individual by the name 
of John Persons, whose thriving farm offers a fair exem})lification of the 

15 B 2 



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m 



188 



LOWKR CANADA. 



fertility of the soil in that part of the Ottawa. Ei^'ht miles helow the 
Junetion of these ehaniiels is situate the H. H. Post of Fort Coulange, 
where one of the agents of the C'()iii))aiiy resides. On the opposite shore 
(south) an in(li\i(lual is settled with his family upon an excellent farm, 
which a])j)ears to he in a Hourishin<jf state of cultivation. 

Four or five miles helow Fort Coulan^e the river a^ain forms two 
channels; the extensive island by which they are separated extends in 
extreme leny;th about !i() miles, and its averaj^e breadth is about 7. 
Neither channel is free from imjjcdiment to its navigation ; but though 
ra])ids and falls are fre(]uent in both, that lyinjf to the north of the island 
is the l)roadcst and most practicable, and the route invariably pursued 
by roi/ai>'('tt /•.'<■. The first and lon<;est carryin<>;-])lace, descending from the 
Fort, is at the Grand Calioncf, L'l miles below it; here the river ])ene- 
trates a rid<^e of hiiih aiul broken moimtains, and forms a succession of 
cascades, varying- from (i to 10 feet in height, at the foot of which the 
current resumes its gentleness to the Portage (l\tr<i''i.s, owq mile above the 
P(trfai>'(' (Ic la Monfa,i>-/n'. l-'rom the latter to the Portage dii Sahle, on 
the north l)auk of the river, at the eastern extremity of the island, is 
four miles, and thence to the Portage du Fort about five miles. This 
portage is nearly 20 chains in length, and passes over a rising ground, 
2.5 or .'JO feet above the water's level. The cascades which it avoids 
do not exceed eight feet pcrpendicuhu' height, but they are much broken 
and divided by rocky islands, and are extremely wild and romantic. 

From these cascades to the foot of the Cheiniit.v, a distance of 10 
miles, the river is singularly diversified by numerous beautiful islands, 
richly clad with trees of luxuriant foliage Clustered in various parts of 
the river these islands divide it into as many channels, through which 
the waters are impelled with different degrees of violence, according to 
the narrowness to which their bed is contracted, ajid the obstructions 
they meet with in their rapid course. 

The banks of this part of the river are comj)osed of white marble, 
which can be traced for two or three miles along the margin of the 
stream, and which appears to extend considerably in depth on either 
shore. The specimens taken from different parts of the quarry on the 
banks of the river were of a soft jmd coarse texture ; but there is reason 



^i! 



111 1: OTTAWA uivi:u. 



189 



to believe that, u|)ou further penetration, a superior ileseriptiuii ofniarhle 
would be found, inlinitely more durable, and susceptible of a higher 
polish. 400 or .'500 yards above the line of Clarendon, and in the township 
of liitebfield, is Hisset's (7/r/////<r,eonsistin^'of a U)<;-hoiise, a small elearinf;. 
and an area of one or two aeres in culture. This romantic and interesting" 
little spot is situated at the i\)ot of the liaj)i</c.s du Fort, and aj;reeably 
relieves the eye from the monotony of sava<;e nature, whose characters, 
however beautiful or j'nmd, are often jflooniy. In traversin<;' a wilder- 
ness, whether by land or water, the first a))])earances of domiciliation, 
however rude, have somethinj^' extremely oniteful in their associations; 
and it would not be an easy matter to describe the sensations producetl 
by the curlin*;' colunm of smoke, when it is first discovered Moating 
above the dense forests, from the bosom of which it is seen to emerue. 

This small settlement is already very much frecpiented in winter by 
traders and voya<;ers, as a welcome asylum from the inclemency of the 
weather; it bein<2; chictly durin<i; that rigorous season that speculators in 
furs and tind)er resort to the wilderness, the coimnunications bein<j; then 
facilitated by the winter roads traced for hundreds of miles tou;ether on 
the ice. 

At the foot of the Chenaux, opens to view the mau;nificent liike 
which derives its name from the 7»V/j/VA'.v rA-.v C'liat.s, situated at its eastern 
extremity. In extreme lenoth it is fifteen miles, and in mean breadth 
about one; but its northern shore is deeply indented by several sweepin|j; 
bays, by which extensive points are formed, sometimes contractinji' the 
lake to a width of scarcely one mile, whilst at others it is nearly three. 
The surface of the waters is ))rettily studded with occasional islands, 
richly wooded, and so situated as to diversify most aii>reeably the natural 
beauties of the soft and sweet scenery of the lake. The calms of the 
Ottawa are pecidiarly glassy and beautiful, and its waters are nuich 
esteemed for their softness. 

In descending the Ottawa, it is interesting to bear in mind that upon 
our right we have Upper, and on our left, Lower Canada: hence com- 
parisons maybe instituted between the settlements of one ])rovinee upon 
the banks of that magnificent river, with those of the other. The shores 
of I^akc 7>A' Cliuts are Avoody, and generally flat to the northward, with 



If 



m 



H 



#-i 



i'ti 



1!)0 



LOW I'll CANADA. 






1 


H' 


w 



a pcbMy or rocky boacli ; to tljc soutlnvard tlioy nro higher, and in some 
|)artH I'vi'ii l)ohl,attainin<( an clovation of HO to 100 fi't-t. Tht* (irst scttlc- 
mi'Mt ])rt'st'ntiiifj; itself in passinj,' down this hike is a eonifortal)h' frame 
dwellin^-honse and rural a|)|)enda<^es on the south shore; and four miles 
lower down, on the same sidr, is the house and farm of one Andrews, 
settled in the townslii|) of II(»rton, at the mouth of the ; iver Itniiiic 
Chiiirc The lake is here one mile in width, and opposite is the Claren- 
don landiu*^. No settlement on the ClariMidon shore ean l)e diseovered 
from the lake, as the colony of emigrants located there in IS'J!)-;jO are in 
the third, fourth, fifth, and remoter coneessiotis ; hut in the front of Hristol 
one or two wretched hovels arc discernihli- on the marj^in of the lake. 
Kinnell Lod<^e, the residence of tlu- Highland chieftain Macnah, is 
heautifully situated on the southern hank of the lake, about four or five 
miles above the head of the Chat Ilapids*. A short distance east of 
Kiimell Lod^e is the mouth of the Madawaska river ; and nearly opposite, 
aj)parently a speck on the margin of the lake, is the miserable habitation of 
a hois-hndc, onv of that class of people known under the denomination of 
S(/iiaffcf\s. 'I'his is the broadest ])art of the lake; but about a mile lower 
tlown it contracts abrr.ptly from the southward, by the intervention of 
(iovernmcnt Island, l)etween which and the north shore, dash in swift 
and violent eddies, the liap'uli's dvn Cluits. These rapids are three miles 
long, and pass amidst a labyrinth of varied ishmds, until the waters are 
suddenly ])reeipitati'd over the falls of the Chats, which are from sixteen 
to twenty feet in height 'IMiere are fifteen or sixteen falls on a curved line 
across the river, regularly divided by woody isUuids, over one of which 
is effected the ])ortage. in passing from the top to the bottom of the falls. 
Thence to Mondion's I'oint in Onslow is but a short distance ; and here 
is seen one of the original North-AVest posts, established on the OttaAva at 
the most flourishing ]>eri()d of that com])any's existence. The dwelling- 
house and store bear evidence of their anti(piity from the dilapidated 
state they are in. and the soil is too poor about the point to invite the 
resident agent to the culture of the farm. Mr. Thomas resides here as 

* ^\'l' Imvo iilrcady tiikun an ()j)pi)rtiiiiity in a previous part of this wurk, to notiiv the 
exertions of Cliief IMacnab in jironiotiny the settlement of tliat portion of tlie Upper Province, 
l)v Sfots cniij'rants of his own clan. 



TIIK OTTAWA Ul\ l,n. 



I<)1 



ii^t'Ht tor till' Ihi(ls(»ir.s Hay C'oinpaiiy, I'or wb' iii \\v keeps a stori' sii|i- 
plii'd with the articles most in (leiiiatid liy tlie Indians antl other tradi'i's, 
such as hi'oad c-hiths, l>laMkets, heads, amniunition, spirits. \:c'. Nearly 
opposite Mondion's I'oint, at the other extrennty of the line of thi' lalls, 
is Mr. Sheriir's settlement and residence, in the township of Iluntly. I'.C. 

From the foot of the Chats to the head of Lake Chaudiire is eom- 
putcd to be six niili's. Here a yv<'.s////'/,v/c, from the northward of an 
Island called the Six-Mile-Island, contracts the channel, which is very 
shoal; and half a mili' hehtw the island are the settli'ments ol' Hohis 
and N'i^nola, in the township of Onslow. 

Lake CMiaudiere, that now opens before ns, has tlie advanta<;'( of 
the Lac dcs C'/xttN in nia^^nitude; bnt its views are less diversified by 
jutting points and picturesipie islands. Uoth contain a sullicient dipth 
of chamiel to lloat boats drawing- from four to ei/4;ht feet water; and it 
i.s to be hoped that ere lonj;- the benefits o;' steam navigation will be 
extended to this interestin<f portion of the |)rovince as successfully as it 
has been below Hull. Lake CMiaudiere is cij^hteen miles long-, by an 
extreme l)readth of five miles. The shores to the north increase in bold- 
ness and elevation in approaching Hull ; — to the southward they are, 
generally speaking, more bold ami elevated, a:- I uuieh better settled. 
At the south-east end of the lake rapids again impede tlu' navigation, 
and contimio successively from the head of UtipKlva (Ic.s C/tnics, to tlu' 
C'haudiere Falls, which are situateil inuuediately in front of Wright's 
\'illage, in the township of Hull. 

Above the falls the river is about .500 yards wide, and its scenery 
is agreeably embellished by small grove-elad islets, rising here and there 
amidst the waters as they gently ripple by or rush on with more or less 
violence, to the vortex of the Cireat and Little Chaudierc. The bed of 
the river is composed of horizontal strata of limestone, and the <7//i/t' is 
j)roduccd by its deep and sudden subsidence, forming broken, irregular, 
and extraordinary chasms, one of which is called the Circat, aiul the 
other, the Little Kettle or Cliaudihr. The former derives its name 
from its semicircular form and the volume of water it involves; but 
the latter bears no similitude to justify its aj)i)ellation, the waters being 
precipitated into a broad, elongated, and straight fissure, extending in an 






%'■ 



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I 



1! 



if. 



_, »* 
I! U 

I !•' 



if)a 



LOWER CAXADA. 



oblique position north-west of the Great Kettle, and being thus strikingly 
contrasted with it. 

The principal falls are 60 feet high, and their width is measured by 
a chord of 212 feet. They are situated near the centre of the river, and 
attract by their forcible indraught a considerable proportion of the Avaters, 
which, strongly compressed by the circular shape of the rock that forms 
the boiling recipient, descend in heavy torrents, struggling violently to 
escape, and rising in spray-clouds which constantly conceal the hnver 
half of the falls, and ascend at irregular intervals in revolving cohunns 
much above the smmnit of the cataract. 

The Little Chaudiere may without nuich difliculty be ap])roached 
from the T^ower Canada shore, and the s])cctator, standing on a level 
with the top of the fall and on the brink of the yawning gap into which 
the floods are headlong plunged, surveys the whole length of c/uffe and 
the depths of the cavern. A considerable portion of the waters of the 
falls necessarily escapes subterraneously after their preci})itation, as a 
much greater volume is impelled over the rock than finds a visible issue. 
Indeed this fact is not })eculiar to th.e liittle Chaudiere, but is one of 
those curious characters of this part of the Ottawa of which other sin- 
gular instances are observed; the waters in various places being swallowed 
by deej) J.'Jt narrow rents and fissures, leaving their natural bed almost 
dry, to dash on tluough some subterranean passage that defies the search 
of the exi)lorer. There arc in the Falls of the Chaudiere materials for 
nmcit geological speculation, and the mere admirer of Nature's scenic 
wonders and magnificence will derive great gratification and delight by 
the survey and contem])lation of their manifold beauties. 

The diversified chain of the Union Hridges has given much addi- 
tional interest to the scenery of this section of the Ottawa, by combining 
with the greatest possible effect, ingenious works of art with objects of 
native grandeur and sublimity. This chain consists of four principal 
parts, two of which are truss-bridges, overarching the chaimels, imsnp- 
ported by ])iers ; a third is a striiight wooden bridge across the lost 
channel ; and a fourth is partly built in dry-stone, with two cut-limestone 
arches, and partly in wood. The truss-bridge over the broadest chaimcl 
is 212 feet long, .'30 feet wide, and 35 or 40 feet above the surface of the 



THE OTTAWA RIM'U. 



193 



t .i. 



stream. Its construction was attciuled witli coiisidcniMc difliciiltx . it 
being ini))ossihle to moor rafts in the channel, owin<f to the depth ol'the 
water and the extraordinary swiftness of tlie current, as it passes in 
Avhirlinn* eddies from tlie foot of the (Jreat Kettle. i\nother expedient 
was therefore resorted to, aiul a liempen bridge, consisting- of four three- 
inch hawsers or cables, was swung across the river, forming an inverted 
segment, the lowest point of which stood about 7 feet above the dark 
and swift stream, whilst its extremities were elevated upwards of 'i2 
feet, abutting upon the perpendicular limestone walls of the channel. It 
admitted with safety of tlie passage of ])edestrians, although the attempt, 
with the unpractised es))ecially, was not made without some conscious- 
ness of danger. We cannot forbear associating with our ricolleetions of 
this ])ictures(iue bridge the heroism of a distinguished peeress, who, we 
believe, was the Hrst lady who ventured across it*. 

l>elow the Falls of CMiaudiere the Ottawa river is unintcrru])tedlv 
navigable for steam-boats to Grenville, a distance of (iO miles. The cur- 
rent of the stream is gentle, and the banks of the river generally so low 
as to be Hooded in s])ring to a considerable distance in tiie interior. 
(.\specially on its northern bank, the opposite side of the river being 
almost uniformly higher and sometimes bold, and therefore not so liable 
to immdation. The scenery of this ])art of the Ottawa is indeed tame, 
yet always pleasing: the frecpiently varying widths of the river, its 
numerous islands, the luxuriant foliage of its banks — objects ever 
changing their pers])ective combinations as the steamer moves along — 
and an infant settleujcnt appearing here and there on the skirts of the 
forest and the margin of the stream, are all in themselves possessed of 
surticient interest to destroy the monotony of a trip ui)on this ])art of 
" Ottawa's tide." 

The impetuous I>ong Sault, which connnences at Grenville, is 
stemmed or descended but by royagcnr.s and raftsmen of experienced 



Ht 



* Tlio CoUNTKss OK DAF.iiorsiK, to wlioiii we luTo ;illuil(', must over liolil an I'xaltoil plai'c 
ill till' rt'incnibraiice of tlio siicicty in (.'aiiada, as well for tlio many aniiablf and pliilantliroiiic 
virtues for which siic was distin^uislieil, as for the {{racious uri)anity of nuuiuers that so eminently 
characterized her ladyship, during the long and dillicult administration of tlie government of 
L(twer Canada liv her noble consort, the Higlit Honourable tlie 10.mil ok Damioi'sik. 



' ^i- 



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m:^- 



lO-t 



LOWER CANADA. 



W V' 



II ; 



H :.< 



energy and skill. The river below it still continues, at intervals, rapid 
and unnavigablc as far as I'oint Fortune, where it expands into the lake 
of the Two ^lountains, and finally forms a junction with the St. Law- 
rence, below the cascades ; but the waters of both streams do not im- 
mediately conmiingle, the line of contact being distinctly observable, by 
which the black hue of the waters of the Ottawa is strongly contrasted 
with the bluish-jjreen colour of those of the St. Lawrence. 

The remotest surveyed township on the Ottawa is Clarendon, which 
terminates the range of townships laid out along the northern shores 
t)f that fine river, that bounds to the south and south-west the vast 
and valuable tract of territory lying between its banks, the western 
boimdary of the county of Terrebonne and the northern limits of the 
])rovince. No part of I^ower Canada will probably be found to excel 
this tract in physical advantages, and it has a decided superiority over 
the country along the St. LaAvrence, below jSIontreal, in geogra])hical 
situation ; its front being considerably south of the latitude of Quebec, 
i. e. in the average latitude of 45" 30' north. It is abundantly watered 
by numerous large rivers, whose sources are in general at remote di- 
stances to the northward of their junctions with the Ottawa, and whose 
streams are all in a greater or less degree navigable, at frequent interstices, 
for canoes. The chief of these discharging themselves into the OttaAva 
from the north are the Calumet, the Petite Nation, the tAvo rivers 
IJlanche, the river Aux Lievres, and the Gatineau *, all of Avhich have 
nuiuerous tributaries, and, besides fertilizing the lands through which 
they floAV, afford great conveniences for the erection of mills and other 
|)urposes of rural economy, from the rapids and falls Avith Avhicli their 
course is invariably checkered. 

The face of the coimtry is not generally marked by that boldness of 
feature that characterizes the eastern section of the province, but it is, 
nevertheless, in receding from the borders of the OttaAA'a, divided by 
hilly ridges, and formed into valleys, Avhich, if avc could alloAV fancy to 
represent as divested of their heavy forests, might exhibit the agreeable 

* These rivers, anil those hereafter to be mentioned in the course of the description of 
Lower Canada, are particuhirly described under their respective names in tlie " Topographical 
Dlillunun/ of Lower Canada." 



FRESHETS OX THE OTTAWA. 



195 



aspect of an undulating or rolling country, the ])ictui 'jue diversity 
of ])lain, hill, and vale, and, if similarly cultivated, picture to the eye 
some of the most admired counties of England. Traversing the centre 
of the townships, in a direction nearly parallel with the Ottawa, the 
first ridge of any continuity ])resents itself, and at its base lies an al- 
luvial fiat, extending to the margin of the river. Tliis fiat is generally 
so low that tlie Ottawa, swollen by spring freshets and autunnial rains, 
imuid.ites it to a distance exceeding, in some places, one mile in tlie 
interior, and it is thus frequently laid under water for several days 
together. 

This ))eriodical rise of the waters of the Ottawa is much greater in 
spring than in autumn, and by no means regular at either season, wliether 
reference be had to tlie time of its occiu-rence, or the height to which it 
attains, the event being essentially influenced by tlie mildness or rigour 
of the winter. During some years the waters have kept within their 
embanlcments, but their surface was almost flush or even with them ; 
and it has been observed, that, as the country becomes more open, the 
freshets are less formidable than heretofore : hence we may infer that 
they will go on diminishing, and that, eventually, the banks of that 
beautiful river will be free from so great a drawback upon their set- 
tlement. 

It is not unwortliy of remark, that the largest rivers, flowing into 
tlie Ottawa, have tlieir mouths below the Falls of the Chaudiere, and 
hence may, in some measure, be explained the conspicuous difference 
observed lietween the swelling of the river under the falls, and tlie rise 
of its waters above ; the stream, in the former case, rising several feet 
higher than in the latter. The surface of the lakes Des Chats and 
Chaudiere must also tend to diminish the elevation of the floods by di- 
verting and spreading in extended superficies the accession of waters 
poured into the Ottawa during the vernal tlunvs and freshets. 

Beyond the first ridge that skirts the flats of the Ottawa, to the 
north, the country has not been surveyed, excepting to the depth of the 
townships, which, in general, may be said to be twelve miles from the 
borders of the river. Explorers, however, have gone much farther than 
this in the interior, ascending rivers sometimes to their sources, in the 

c c 2 



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f 



(I 



10() 



LOWER CANADA. 



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prosecution of divers speculations, avI 'ch liad chiefly for their objects 
furs and timber. 

Tlie lands on the Ottawa are in the aggregate remarkably fertile, 
consisting in fiont of rich alluvions, and more inland of gentle ridges 
and acclivities, a(la])ted to the growth of plants requiring the drier soils. 
Natural meadows, aflbrding rich and wholesome pasturage, are very 
conmion along the river, the islands and prcsqu''Uefi of which are also 
highly valuable as depasturing and grazing grounds. 

l^leven t()wnshii)s have been erected under letters-patent on the Ot- 
tawa, vi/. Chatham, Grenville and augmentation, Locliaber and Gore, 
liuckingham, Templeton, Hull, Kardley, Onslow, and Clarendon, front- 
ing the river; Portland, and \Ventwortli, abutting respectively upon the 
rear of Tem])leton and Chatham, liesidcs these, several other townships 
are ])roiected, surveys of wliich will of course take place as the demand 
for lands in that part of the province increases. Of the surveyed lands 
the greatest part is granted to individuals who may be divided into two 
distinct classes ; tlic one consisting of grantees luuler old patents for ex- 
tensive tracts ; the otlier, of actual settlers wlio have been heated by his 
majesty's government to lots of 100 or 200 acres, under the su])erin- 
tendency of resident agents, appointed by the crown for the convenience 
of the settler. 

The principal settlements eifected in tliese townsiii])s by the first 
class of grantees are those in Hull and Cliatliam. In 180G patents Avere 
issued granting to Philemon ^Vright, — an American loyalist, invited thither 
by tlie proclamation of Cieneral Clarke, — and to his associates, a quarter of 
the township of Hull, which he as leader had previously caused to be 
surveyed under an order in council of 22d March, 1800. As was usual 
in such cases, the associates, who were each ])atented for a quantum of 
land etjual to that of the leader, subsecpiently conveyed to the latter five- 
sixths of their respective grants as an etpiivalent for the expenses in- 
curred by him in the survey, the paymejit of patent fees, and travelling. 
Thus Mr. U'right became in fact the actual proprietor of the quarter of 
Hull : but the m()no])oly Avas not attended in this instance Avith tliose 
consc(iuences, as regards the settlement of the country, that resulted from 
siujilar proceedings in numerous other cases, and the establishment of 



I! 1^^ 



HULL AND CHATHAM. 



197 



ii ; 



Mr. Wright, iit Hull, became the nucleus of the now flourishing settle- 
ments of that township, and the first impulse given to the colonization 
of the extensive tracts of valuable crown lands lying along the banks of 
the Ottawa river. 

Next to those of Hull the settlements of the township of Chatham 
are most worthy of note. They owe their origin to the exertions of 
Colonel Robertson, originally one of the largest proprietors in that town- 
ship, and one of its leaders under the patents issued to Dr. Fraser and 
himself, and their associates, in December, 1806. In the front ranges of 
the township, on either side the public road, excellent farms are to be 
seen ; the dwelling-houses are generally built of brick, upon rather an 
enlarged scale, and some of them are remarkably neat and handsome. 
The enclosures are frc((uently confined by dry stone walls, which, com- 
bined with the novel ap])earance in this part of the country of brick 
buildings, serve strongly to contrast the settlements of Chatham with 
those of Argenteuil, some distance lower down the river, where the 
French system of building and farming is most prevalent. In tiie Htli, 
9th, and 10th ranges of the township settlements have been conunenced 
that connect with those of Chatham Ciore, and we may soon look for- 
ward to the gratification of seeing a thriving little colony in tliat (juarter ■■. 

Point Fortune lies innnediately opposite the eastern outline of 
Chatham, on the southern bank of the Ottawa : the village is popuhnis 
and well built, and several of its houses are conspicuous for their dimen- 
sions, as well as for their elegance. The woody high grounds that rise 
behind Point Fortune, and the beautiful ra])ids in front, give consider- 
able effect to the landscape, as seen in ascending the north side of the 
Ottawa from the village of St. ^Vndrew's. 

The front ranges of the townsiiijjs lying between Chatham and Hull 
were originally grajited to leaders and associates, in the same manner as the 
lands in the two latter townships ; but no measures had ever been eilectu- 
ally taken by the pro))rietors of the soil to bring the lands under culti- 
vation. These tracts miuht i)rol)al)lv have remained to this dav whollv 

•JNIucli of the prosiicrity of this sottlenioiit is due to the exertions of ]Mnjor liarron, tin- 
superiiiteiulinji agent ; and also to faptuiu Perkins, li. j).,U. X., a gcntleiiian of indnstr\- and 
talent, whose example and exertions have considerably proumted the advancement of this in- 
fant colony. 



•i "'J 

1 ■ 



i 



198 



LOWER CANADA. 



111 






II ff 



I' * 



unsettled, but for tlie judicious ])lan adopted by the executive govern- 
ment, of removing tlie reservations for the crown, and also, in some in- 
stances, the reservations for the clergy, checkered through the patented 
ranges of the townships, and forming them into blocks in other parts of 
the respective townships, so as to leave, on the one hand, a niunber of 
grantable lots in the midst of the older grants, and, on the other, to ])re- 
vent hereafter the so much deprecated inconvenience arising from the 
interloping of reserves, that destroy the continuity of settlements and 
paralyse the efforts of industry. To the lots thus become vacant none 
but actual settlers Avere located, and all these townships have, in conse- 
quence, fairly started in the career of their settlements, notwithstanding 
the drawback still existing from the non-improvement of the patented 
lands *, by which the new settlers are surrounded. 

The township of Grenvillc enjoys peculiar advantages from its situ- 
ation at the foot of the steam-boat navigation of a section of the Ottawa, 
below the Falls of Chaudierc ; but its surface is very hilly, and its soil not, 
in general, above mediocrity, though some farms may be found very 
fertile and productive. Its western half is traversed in front by an elegant 
canal, of which some account is given in another part of this volume, 
and its settlements are in a great measiue confined to the vicinity of 
that important military work. The village contains several remarkably 
neat cottages, belonging to officers of the royal staff corps and to the 
resident commissary. There is also one or two good taverns, several 
shops, and numerous artisans, who find constant employment on the 
works which are going on under the superintendence of the commanding 
officer on that station. The first settlement of Cirenville commenced 
only a few years ago, yet in 1829 the population of the township and its 
augmentation already amounted to 1,8.58 souls ; an increase attributable 
to the advantages held out to the settler by the labour recpiired on the 
canal, and the readiness with which farms could be obtai)ied on the spot 
from the commanding officer, acting as resident land-agent for the 
township. 

* The escheat of these lands has been for some time contenijihited, and it is probalilo ^^■iIl 
not now be long delayed. There is, however, no dotibt that every just degree of indulgenee will 
be exerci.-cd towards the jiroprietors, and a fair and eciuitable delay allo\\cd them to reclaim their 
lands from their evident liability to the penalty of forfeiture. 



4 



LA PETITE NATION— LOCilAnER, c^c. HILL. 



m) 



Ketwccn tlie augmentation of Grenvillc and the jr(irc of I.ocliaber 
is situated the seigniory of I^a Petite Nation, 5 leajvues in front, by a 
depth also of 5 leagues. Its settlements are as yet ])artial, and oeeupy 
merely the borders of the main road and part of a second eoneessiou or 
range; but the Hon. J. L. J. Papineau, the seignior of this exten- 
sive estate, appears anxious to encourage them, and the seigniory is in 
consequence rapidly acquiring an accession of new settlers, of which many 
are Irish emigrants. There is no village ; but the church of the parish, 
which is called Honsecours, is centrally situated, aiul considered the focus 
of the settlement. Near the divisi<m between La Petite Nation and the 
gore of TiOchaber are the saw-mills belonging to Mr. Papineau, under 
the management of jNIr. Stephens. They are admirably situated on the 
river that gives its name to the seigniory, and arc of considerable import- 
ance to the inhabitants of that ])art of the country, inde])emlcntly of the 
supplies ■* lute and red pine deals and boards tiiey furnish for the 
markets ot Montreal and Quebec. 

In the three townships of Lochaber, Buckingham, and Tem])leton, 
scattered settlements Avere formed within the last five ^)r six years, and 
mills built in each of the townshi])s. Of the latter Hownian's and IJi- 
galow's mills, on the river Aux liicvres, in the 4th range of Buckingham, 
are entitled to particular notice. These mills are so centrally situated as 
to afford important advantages to settlers avIio will hereafter be located 
to the circumjacent lands, as the means of building comfortable liabita- 
tions constitutes one of the primary considerations in the formation of a 
new settlement, and these means are readily furnished by the sup- 
plies of deals and boards derived from those valuable saw-mills. 

The township of Hull lies between Tem])leton on the west and 
Eardley on the east : it is bounded in front by the Ottawa river, and 
traversed diagonally by the Gatineau, which is navigable for small steam- 
boats and crafts as far up as six miles above its mouth. The position of 
AVright village nnist eventually render it a place of much conunercial 
importance ; it is at the head of the ])resent steam-boat navigation of the 
Ottawa, on one of the direct lines of land and water conmumication a '.th 
the eastern districts of Upper Canada, and will necessarily participate a\ ith 
By Town, which stands on the opposite bank of the river, in the great 



m 



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I jMr 



t 
^11 



200 



LOWER CANADA. 



benefits that may naturally be expected to flow from the Rideau Canal. 
lk\si(U's these considerations, it Avill hereafter derive incalculable advan- 
tajfes from the fertility of the back country, and of the lands on the 
lakes Chaudiereand l)es (.'hats, Mhich, as they become settled, Avill pour 
their produce into the stores of this g-nnving town, which would thus 
become the place of transit, if not the em])orium, of the trade of the ex- 
tensive fertile tracts of territory above it. ^Vc a])i)rehend, nevertheless, 
that a branch canal, such as is contemplated, connecting lake Chau- 
diere with the IJideau Canal, would prejiuiicially influence the prosperity 
of AN'right village, by diverting the produce of the u])])er districts of 
the Ottawa through that channel. Such an effect could only be coun- 
teracted by a canal on the Lower Canada side, or a rail-road, which would 
probably be less expensive from the locality, and (piite as effectual. 

Hull is sixty miles distant from Grenville, but the conununication 
between both ])laces is rendered easy ami expeditious by means of 
steamers. The " Union of the Ottawa," the first steam-boat that plied 
upon this i)art of the river, was built in 181}). and formed an era in the 
history of the Ottawa settlements, from its contributing materially to their 
acceleration : a new vessel has since been launched, which is considerably 
larger, and affords very superior accommodations. A road, sixteen feet 
wide and sixty-four miles long, was originally opened, under the direction 
of commissioners, along the northern banks of the river, to the head of the 
Long SauU. and seventy-one small bridges were built across gidlies and 
brooks; but owing to the depth of several ravines that recjuired filling, 
and two or three broad rivers, over which bridges should necessarily have 
been constructed, or ferries established, it was deemed im])racticable, and 
continued long neglected. Among the liberal votes made in 1H2S by the 
legislature of the province for the opening, 6cc. of new roads, provision was, 
however, made for the amelioration of this interesting communication, and 
the improvements contem])lated by the assembly have already been, in a 
great measure, carried into effect*. The vital importance of good roads, 
as an inducement to settlement, lias been sensibly felt, and the beneficial 
results of so judicious a policy will soon be demonstrated by the nu- 

* Ruport of Htli Fobriiiiry, 1830, by .Alessrs. Papiiioiiu and Kiiiin, as conimissioiuTs under 
till' late act. — \'ide Journals of the House of Asseniblv, L. C. 



SEITLEM :NTS ON THE OTTAWA. 



?0I 



mcrons settlers it cantmt fail to attract in that quarter, and every other 
to which it has heen extended. 

In the townships above Hull, the settlements are few, and in Kardly 
and Onslow, confined to the shores of Lake C'haudiere. Tin- lands in 
both these townships are of an excellent <iuality, and, like the ai^gre^fatc 
of the lands on the Ottawa, peculiarly adapted to stock-farm ing-. The 
colony settled in the 4th, 5th, and (Uh raiiJ^es of Clarendon, under the 
superintendence of Mr. Prenj^erdast as gov .nnent a^fent, is the remotest 
settlement up the river. It is situated on the northern shore of I^ac des 
Chats, about 3.5 miles above Hull, and upwards of KiO miles from Mont- 
real ; yet, notwithstandin<? its distance from the more flourishing;- set- 
tlements of the Ottawa, its eventual success and rajjid prosperity appear 
indubitable, encouraged as are the settlers by the richness and fertility 
of their farms, and the example of a laborious agent, who resides amongst 
them, and whose industry thc)^ emulate. 

The settlements upon the borders of Tiake des Chats suffer .seriously 
from the intricate and dangerous navigation of the liapidcs <h:s (7/(/f.s. 
by which the navigable a' iters of the Lakes des Chats and Cliaudiere 
connmmicate. This drawback is the more sensibly felt from the total 
absence of any land route through which stores could be co'.v'eyed 
to the settlers, or the produce of their farms brought to market, liut. 
momentous as this im])cdiment undoubtedly is, it could be surmounted 
with comparative ease and inconsiderable ex])ense, either by opening a 
good road from the foot to the head of the rapids, n distance scarcely 
exceeding three miles, — or cutting a short canal, connecting a deep inlet 
called IJlack Kay, in the township of Onslow, with the lower extrennty 
of the Ijuke des Chats. 

The Ottawa country offers one of the most promising fields for 
colonization to be found in the province ; but its settlement is materially 
retarded and embarrassed by old and unimproved grants. It is much to 
be lamented that such large tracts on the innnediate banks of the river 
should be kept so long in a state of almost absolute wilderness by the 
proprietors of the soil. South of the 4()th degree of north latitude, and 
lying between that parallel and the Ottawa river, as low down as 
Chatham, an extensive tract of land presents itself, containing about 

1) » 



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'JO'2 



LOW I'll CANADA. 



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;i,.'JOO gco^rapliical s(iuaiv iniU-s. eciuiil to nithor nioiv tliaii tliirty town- 
sliips, iiu'hulin^ those already laid (tut. This vast tract, thus lavoiiral)ly 
^situated in a cnmparatively mihl iatitiuU', when contrasted uith tiie situ- 
ation of the most tlourisiiin^- settlements of the district of Quebec, is 
lentrally traversed by the river Aux Lievres, and c«)nunands an extended 
front u])on navi<;al)le waters, if u few imnediments be excepted, exceedinj:; 
lOO miles. Deducting- two-sevenths of the whole tract as reservations 
for the crown and clergy, a sutHcient quantity of land would still remain 
lor the location of u|)wards of 13,000 families, or about 7^<,000 souls, if 
in the estimate c(»ul(l be included the patented lands in the four or 
live first ran<^es of the Ottawa river-townships, Avhich ouj;ht neverthe- 
less to be similarly ])arcc'lled out to actual settlers, or otherwise improved 
by the landholders, or be liable to forfeiture. 

Lookiiiu; at the iiiaj) of this interesting- section of the jirovince with 
an eye to its future settlement, the imjtortance of a ^rand interior road, 
extending" across the country from the north-east an^le of the township 
ol' AN'eiitworth to the Falls of the (iraiid Calumet, naturally su<i<;ests 
itself as the basis of a chain of settlements. This plan of openin<{ in the 
outset great avenues throu<4;b the wilderness was succcssfidly jjractised 
in I'pjjcr Canada; and a strikin<;- illustration of the encoura<;ement it 
operates in the scttlin^jf of new lands is found in the rapid j>;rowth and 
prosperity of the Talbot settlement in that ])rovincc. Of the practica- 
bility, on a general princi))le, of such a route, little doubt can be enter- 
tained ; and at a period when, from the large influx of emigration, com- 
prehensive views of the settlement of the colony should be taken, the 
expediency of the measure appears to us a matter of paramount con- 
sitleration. 

The total pojjulation on the northern shore of the Ottawa river 
westward from the west bounds of Argenteuil does not now much 
exceed .'5,.'i(J9 inhabitants, and this population is very unequally spread, al- 
though the mass is confined to the townships of Hull, Chatham, and 
drenville, and the seigniory of I^a Petite Nation. It is very heterogeneous 
in its origin, consisting of about an ecjual ])roportion of Irish and Ameri- 
cans, some English, more Scots, and a few families of French Canadians. 

The coimtry north of the St. Lawrence, beloAv the township of 



COl'NTRY DKLOW CHATHAM. 



20] 



Chiitham, oxtcijditi*^ eastward to the river St. Maurice, and enibraeijJi,' 
the eountirs i)l' St. Maiiriee, Herthier, li'Assomptiidi, La ("heiiave, Ter- 
rebomie, Montreal, N'aiuh'euil, and part of Two Mountains, makes u|> 
the resiihie of the north-western section of the ])rovince whicii we luive 
inidertaken to describe. The whole of tlie lands of this lari-e tra( t Iviny 
ulonj^ the navi<ruhle waters in front are taken iip by seigniorial j>rants: 
in the rear of which, and contij^iious to their rear lines, are situated the 
townslii])s or soeca<;e lands. 'I'lic only townships as yet actually laid 
out therein are Newton, in the rear of Uioaud; AbercroinI)y, Kilkenny, 
Hawdon. and Kildare, in the rear of the si'i<i;niories of Hivei du Chine. 
Terrebonne, Im Chenaye, St. Sulpice, and Lavaltrie; Ibandon, behind 
llerthier; Hunter's Town and New (ilasgow, in the rear of the s"i<fniory 
of Hiver du Loup : andC'axton, on the St. Maurice. adjoinin«jf the lands 
of the Forjfes of St. Maurice. 

Ivxcluding, for the present, from the description the islands of >ront- 
real and .Icsus, and the county of N'audreuil, which lies south of the I iakeof 
thcTwoMoinitains, all ofwhicli will be more particularly notici'd lu'reafter. 
a very im])ortant portion of the j)rovince will stdl remain under consi- 
deration, the surface of which, to a various depth of from live t(» fifteen 
miles from the banks of the Ottawa and the St. Lawrence, is generally 
level or sli<;htly elc\ated into table ridj^es, with occasional short accli- 
vities and descents. The interior of the comitry was ])artially exploretl 
in ISU!) by a party consistinjif of* a land-sunieyor. a •••entleman actin<^ as 
geologist, and an assistant, with six mrix and three canoes. 'IMie expe- 
dition ascended the St. Maurice as far as AN'imontichingue, whence 
they travelled south-westward, ascending tirst the Matawin river to its 
source : thence, after traversing a chain of lakes to come to the head- 
waters of the river Aux Ijicvres, they came down that river to its mouth 
in tbe Ottawa, a direct distance of nearly I.jO miles, but considerably 
more by the bends of the river. The lakes composing the chain are 
Matawin, Kempt, of the (iraves. Great (ioldHnch, Nemicachingue. La 
Culottc, and Lakes Pothier, IJocheblave, La Jlotpie, Aux I'ins, and Aux 
Liivrcs, at the sources of the river Aux Li^vre^. 

• John Adams, Ks{|. L S , jiikI druftMiian, I\Ir. Iiiiriill, l."»tli rcL'iim'iit, riid Mr. N'ixon, (ilitli 
rt'ginicnt. 

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•an 



LOWKR CANADA. 



I* 






Tliiis w'v havi' a fircunmavipitcd tract of about I \,.'HH) ^('<»j^ra))liical 
s(|iiaro iniU's, \\\u^ iK'twctii Ihc river Aux I-iivrcs on the wist, the St. 
Maiiriiv on tin* cast and north-cast, tlic St. Lawrence and tlie Ottawa in 
front, and a chain of lakes in the rear. Ninnerons instances of siniihir 
facilities alloriU-d by natural water-ct»nnnunieations are met with in the 
t'anadas, the face of the coinitry beinj,' almost every-where checkered 
with lakes and intersected by rivers that spread into a nuiltitude ;)f' 
ramitications. 

The inf«>rniation that has resulted from this expedition is, we believe, 
confined to the objects that came under observation upon the innuediatf 
route, no ollsets to any considerable distance in the interior havinjj;, it 
appears, been made collaterally, to ascertain the nature of the soil on the 
rioht and left of the track. W'e are thi-reforc without any ade(|uate 
means of knowinj;' how far the interior (tf this tract of 11, .')()() sipiare 
miles may be susceptible of culture ; but jud^in^' from the reported cha- 
racter of the lands alon«;' the remote lakes and rivers that were explored, 
we are led to infer imfavourably of that section of country as a field for 
settlement. 

The seiifiiiories and townshi|)s situated between Arj;enteuil and the 
St. Maurice are abundantly watered by immcrous rivers and streams, 
whose tortuous nieandcrinufs spread nu)re broadly and beneficially their 
irrinating- influence. Tlu^ lar<fest of these rivers are the l)u Lou)). Maski- 
uonge, liWssomption, jNIascouche, J)u C'hcne, and l)u Xord or North 
Hiver; but there are besides a considerable munber of secondary rivers, 
streandets, and brooks that either fall into the St. Lawrence or the Ot- 
tawa, or which are tributary to the lar^jjer streams. The navigation of 
the rivers emuuerated is interrui)tcd at intervals by rapids and falls, but 
the intermediate distances are generally navigable for boats and canoes; 
and on the North River this descri})tion of navigation is practised above 
the chiites for a distance of twenty-five or thirty miles ■without any 
serious im))ediment. The borders of rivers in Canada, and indeed in 
most new countries, are invariably preferred and chosen for the formation 
of early settlements ; and we therefore find these rivers assumed as the 
front of extensive ranges of connected flourishing settlenients that ex- 
tend to remote parts of seigniories, when in some instances lands of 






M 



SOIL, SI-TTLK.MKNTS. U<).\t)S. 



^05 



iniu'li lUMrcr proximity to tlto villiigcs and towns liavr Iniii left uurul- 
tivut''(l. 

Hy laitlu' ffR'atcr portitiii of tlir, several sci^niiorii's coniprisi-d witliiii 
the tract iiiuler (tinsidcration is actually sett ii'd, and tlu- lands in most of 
tliem are almost wholly eoiieeded under the usual moderate feudal rents 
and dues. The most prevaK'Ut soil of this part of the province n 'cins to 
consist in front of a light sandy earth, generally cond>ined with clu/ and 
yellow loam; but the remoter lands are chiefly composed of a strong- 
loam, not unfre«juenlly mixed with a hlaek friahle earth, .'steemed to be 
very generous and productive. In the vicinity of Three Ilivers the soil 
is peculiarly light, and consists of an almost pure saml ; yet it has, when 
richly manured, yielded good crops, and the gardens in the town and 
uponitsskirts produeemeh)nsof most delicious Havour. The principal roads 
by which this section of the country is traversed are the nniin post route 
along the St. liawrence, the roads along the hanks of the rivers I)u Louj), 
Maskinoiige, Hayonne, L'Assomption, Mascoiu'he, Achigan, l)u C'heiie, 
and l)u Xord, besides numerous leading concession-roads, and cross-roads 
termed routes, that lie usuall) at right angles to the main front roads, 
and open a eonnmmicati«)n with the more inland settlements. Several 
roads hav • also been oj)cued into the townships in the rear of the seig- 
niories: but the meai.s of comnumicating collaterally between the town- 
shij)s is yet very imjtrfect, an{l indeed wholly deficient in some ])art.s, 
from the absence (I any dit 't roa ! coimecting the new settlements. In 
passing, for instance, from ic centre of Abercrond)y to the settlements 
in Hawdon or Kildare, tiic (Unrt fllstonci' would not exceed in the one 
case twenty-livv^ mis, and in tlii other thirty; but the circuitous di- 
.stance that must now l)i> lurcssarilij travelled is about forty-five ttr fifty 
miles. 

'i'his serious drawback has been .sensibly felt, and its immediate re- 
nu.val is contemplated by the opening of an extensive ])ublie route, as 
direct as the locality may permit, from the basin of (Jrenville on the 
Ottawa river, to the Forges of St. Maurice on the St. Maurice river. 
The country lying between both these points has only recently been ex- 
plored, under instructions from the executive governmcJit. by Mr. Adams, 
an able land-surveyor and draftsman, and Lieuten mt Ingall, of the 15th 



ri 



?? 



•I 
1 1. 



'i: 



206 



LOWER CANADA. 






■f* 



regiment, two of the gentlemen mentioned in a previous note. Their 
operations connneneed at(Jrenville, wlienee tlicy struek a line nearly direct 
to tlie point of division between the seventh and eighth ranges of the 
township of Kilkenny : tlienee following up that range-line and its con- 
tinuation through the seventh and eighth ranges of llawdon. and along 
the rear of Kihlare, the line passed between the third and fourth ranges 
of Brandon, eontiiuied along the front of Hunter's Town, through Fief 
Ciatineau, to the front of Caxton, and thence along that line aiul the 
ridge in the augmentation of the latter township, following Mr. liell's 
road, to the Forges of St. Maurice. The report made by these gentle- 
men is in every respect favourable; and not only has the practicability 
of the intended connnunication been satisfactorily established, but the 
lands through which it will be carried ascertained to be almost unexcep- 
tionably adapted to agriculture, and therefore fit for settlement, and 
especially so in the townshijis of Abercromby and Kilkenny*. 

The town of Three Rivers is situated on the north-west side of the 
river St. Maurice, at its contluence with the St. Lawrence. It derives its 
name from the entrance into the former river being separated by two 
islands lying at the mouth, into three chamiels. The town plot covers 
nearly 400 acres, forming a front of rather more than 1,.'}00 yards on the 
bank of the St. Lawrence. It stands on an exceeding light and sandy 
soil, which extends also over the environs. To the bank of the St. 
Mam-ice the ground rises very considerably, but in the oj)])Osite 
direction it sinks almost to the level of the river. Three Hivers ranks 
as the third town in the ])rovince, but bears no comjiarison with either 
Quebec or Montreal in jiopidation and ini])ortance. It contains about 
400 houses and .'iOOO inhabitants, allowing for the increase since ISi'.'), 
when its ])opidation by census was given at 2A5'.i souls. It sends two 
members to the provincial parliament. 

In the vear 1()18 some (jf the Frencli colonists be<jan buildiuir tliis 

» til* 



* I'jmii :iii iiis])ccti(m (if tlic topojrriiiiliifiil district liiii]) of ."Montreal, it will he scon that, 
•.mtcriorly to the jiorforniaiicc of this cN])loriiiji; survey, the fieiicral line of a " [)rojecte(l road" was 
laid down uhnost precisely in the direction of that now proposed, out conviction of tiie import- 
:inec of such a cunununicatiun having, long before, led to its stigfrestion to tlie legislature. 



t\ I 



.1 



M- 



TIIHEI'- RIVI-RS. 



'207 



place, with a view of inakiiio- it a depot whence the fiii-tiade nii^ht he 
carried on witli tlie Indians to tlie northward. Tlieir plan in the outset 
exhihited many flatterinu; indications of success; hut after Montreal was 
foiuided, and had so increased as to he ahle to defend itself aj^ainst tlie 
attacks of the natives, it was su))])osed to he a situation hetter suited to 
the iniprovini;' trailic, and was consecjuently preferred. From tliat 
period Three Uivers, l)ein<>; j^reatly ne{>lected, made hut languid 
advances in prosperity or population. Ahout the heginnin<>- of last 
century, a new era seemed to dawn for it, and hopes he^an to he enter- 
tained of its rising into some consecjuence hy the o|)ening of the iron 
mines at St. Maurice; but these hopes proved nearly as delusive as the 
former, and up to the ])resent time its ini))rovcmcnt lias heen upon a 
very moderate scale. 

Tiic trade carried on here is chiefly in Ih'itish manufactured goods, 
that from hente are ])lentifully distributed through the middle district 
of the ])rovince. The exjiorts consist of wheat, timber, though now not 
so much as formerly, and the jiroducc of its iron foundery, added to that 
of the mines of St. Maiu'icc. Peltry in small (piantities still contiiuies to 
be brought hither by the Indians from the northward, and which is 
received by the agents of the Hudson's Hay Com])any. Several pot and 
])carl ash manufactories, two or three breweries, and an extensive brick 
factory, considerably increase the general trade of the place. Many of 
the bark canoes used in the north-west voyages are built here, and of 
the same material a variety of ingenious ami ornamental works and toys 
are made. j\s a shij)ping-))ort it is conveniently situated, there I)eing a 
suflicient depth of water for ships of large toimage to lie cIo.m" to the 
wharfs, and receive or discharge their cargoes by a temporary stage from 
their gangwavs. 

The town itself possesses but little to attract a stranger's notice : the 
streets are narrow and unpaved — the ])rinci])al one is line Notre Danu". 
running the whole length of it, almost parallel with the river: next to 
this are the Hues des Forges, du Fleuve, du Uem))art, St. Maurice, du 
Platon, des Casernes, St. Louis, St. .lean, and St. Pierre, which may be 
said to constitute nearly all the inhabited part of the i)lace. The shops 
and storehouses are luuuerous, wherein mav be had Hritish goods of ail 



Mm 

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208 



LOWER CANADA. 



1 
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V !*f 



denominations. Several inns afford to travellers very respectable accom- 
niodations. On tlie south-west side of the town are the remains of some 
military works thrown u]) for its defence by tlie English army during 
tlie war of the revolution, which are now honoured by tlie inhabitants 
with the high-sounding title of " Aticietincs Fortijtcationtiy On the out- 
side of these Avorks is an extensive tract of common land. The principal 
))ub]ic buildings in tlie town are the Ursuline convent, the protestant 
and catholic churclies, the court-house, gaol, and barracks. Most of the 
private dwelling-houses, dscc. are built of wood, the oldest of them one 
story high only, having small gardens about them : but those of more 
recent date are in a much l)etter style, many of them higher than the 
old ones, and rather of handsome appearance. 

The Ursuline convent was founded in 1()77 by Mons. de St. Vallier, 
Bishop of Quebec, for the education of youth, ciiietiy females, and as an 
asyhun for the sick and infirm ])oor. The establishment consists of a 
su})erior aiul twenty-four nuns. In ISOG the old building was destroyed 
by fire, when its inhabitants, dispersed by tliat calamity, were received 
into the diil'erent religious houses of Quebec and Montreal, until the 
jM'esent edifice was erected. It is a regular stone building, two stories 
high, of considerable extent, surroimded by fine gardens : it includes a 
parociiial churcii and hospital, witii all the apartments and offices re- 
(juisite both for the dwellings and carrying on the different functions of 
the establisliment. As the I'rsulines were held in great estimation for 
the general utility aiul the charitable nature of their institution, public 
subscriptions were opened immediately after the accident that deprived 
them of their residence, from the ])roceeds of which, with a little pe- 
cuniary aid from the legislature, they were enabled to rebuild their 
convent in the present improved and substantial manner, and which, 
though not (juite finished, they took possession of in ISOM. 

Tile old monastery of the Hecollects, a stone building, is now dilapi- 
dated. Near it is a j)()wder-maga/ine. The protestant and catholic 
churches are good plain buildings, but neither of them sufficiently re- 
markaiile to attract particular attention. The court-house and gaol are 
liandsome modern stone edifices, both in good situations, and well de- 
signed for their respective purposes. The building formerly occupied 



\ 



PARISHES AnOVE THREE RIV1;RS. 



o 



Of) 



ns barracks is solidly constructed of stone, situated on tlie north side of 
Notre Danie-strcet, and on tlie lii<;liest <;round about tlie town. It was 
originally erected as a residence for the French <;()vevnor. From Hue 
dcs Forces there is a road leadintj to the Forucs of St. Maurice. On the 
eastern side of the town are several small fiefs and sejjarate lots of ground, 
belonging to diiferent ])ro])rietors, most of them in a good state of cul- 
tivation. The |)ros])erity of Thne IJivers nuist materially de])end upon 
the settlement of the extensive tracts of waste lands in its vicinity ; until 
the back country is l)rought under cultivation, its growth can be but 
tardy, notwithstanding the advantages of its situation in the central 
district of the ])rovince. 

From Three Hivers, westward, tiie north bank of the St. Lawrence 
and the river St. Jean or Jesus, exhibits one uninterru])ted succession 
of flourishing settlements and <.'ay villages, situated along the main 
road, at intervals of eight or nine miles. Several of tiiese villages are 
of considerable importance, and vie with Three Rivers itself in the 
extent of their trade and connnercial consequence. In tiavelling from 
Three IJixers towards Montreal by the main road, the tirst parish ])re- 
senting itself is the I'ointe du Lac; then, in succession, Machiche, 
Hivieredu Loup. Maskinongr, IJerthier, Lanoraye, LaX'altric, St, Sulpice, 
and IJepentigny. ^\t the latter i)lace a ferry is established across the 
combined streams of the rivers des Prairies and .Icsus, which are in fact 
a ])art of the Ottawa, and whose entrance may therefore be considered as 
one of the mouths of the latter river. Continuing alon<>; the main shore 
from liepentigiiy, the successive ])arishes are La Chenaye, Terreboime, 
and St. Fustache upon the river .h'sus. and then St. Henoit and St. An- 
drews. On the borders of the Lake of Two Mountains are seated the 
Indian villages of the Algoucpiins and Irocpiois, which together contain 
about 200 dwelling-houses. There is a church and tAvo schools, one for 
the native boys and another for the girls, Avhere lioth are instructed in 
their religious duties and the vernacular language of the province. Two 
missionary priests reside there. Xumerous other ])arishes are situated 
more in the interior ; the chief of which are St. Scholastitpie, St. Therese, 
St. Ilemy, St. Koch, L'Assomption, St. Jaccjues, St. Paul, St. Elizabeth, 
St. C'uthbert, and St. Leon. 

E E 




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'J 10 



LOWER CANADA. 



IB" 

4 



1 

4 



IJortliicr and St. Eustaclic are undoubtedly the most considerable of 
these villages, and as such may he briefly noticed in the general descrip- 
tion , an exact account of the others being given in the Topographical 
Dictionary of I^owcr Canada. 

The village oflk'rthier. containing about 8.50 inhabitants, is pleasantly 
situated on the north side of the Chenail du Nord and forms one principal 
street, consisting of at least one hundred houses, ])laced generally at sliort 
intervals from each other, on either side of the main road from Montreal 
and Quebec. There are, exchisive of dwellings, many granaries and store- 
houses for general merchandise, it being a place of some trade, from 
whence IJritish manufactured goods are dispersed over the neighbouring 
populous seigniories, and from whence also large quantities of grain are 
annually exported. The clunx'h, that claims notice not only as being a 
handsome structure but for tlie elegance of its exterior decoration, is 
situated at a short distance north of tiie main street. This village being 
midway between Montreal and Three l{i\ers, in tlie direct route of the 
public stage-coaches, that have been established between the former place 
and Quebec upon the plan of those in England, and also the principal 
intermediate post-ofHce station, make it a place of great resort and con- 
siderable traffic; and these have been >nuch increased since the period at 
which the Berthier or North Channel became fre(|uented by the St. 
Lawrence steam-boats, the smallerclassof which pass with perfect safety by 
that route, landing and receiving goods and passengers in their weekly 
trips u}) and down the river. On passing through the Chenail du Xord, 
the village with its gardens, orchards, meadows, and surrounding culti- 
vated fields, form together an agreeable and ))leasing assemblage of ob- 
jects, although from the flatness of the country it is not marked by any 
of those traits of grandeur so freciuently observable on the north side of 
the St. Lawrence, descending towards (Quebec. Indeed it is so little 
above the level of the river that in the s])ring, when the melted snow and 
ice occasion a rise of the waters, it is sometimes overflowed to a consi- 
derable distance inland, causing nuich damage to the lower parts of the 
houses in the village and goods de])osited in the stores: so great has been 
the rise as to make it necessary to remove large quantities of wheat from 
llu- upper stories of the granaries to save it from injury. 



i 



ISI^E .iF.srs. 



o 



?n 



The villa^o of St. Kustachc is a(lvaiitai''cously situated at tlic con- 
HuciH'c of the river l)u Cheiie with the river Jesus or St. .lean, in the 
midst of a ])0])ul()iis eouutry. and on the stajije route to the Ottmva 
townships. It contains about IKO houses, many of whieh are kept by 
shoi)kee))ers, tradesmen, and liostlers. Several of the d\vellin<^s are 
s))aeious in their dimensions, and built with soine re<i;ard to tlfe rules of 
elegance and taste. The village contains nearly 1 ()()() inha])itauts. 

Isle .Tesus forms a seigniory in the county of Terrebonne. It is in 
length 21 miles, and (i at its greatest breadth, lying north-west of the 
island of Montreal, from which it is separated by the Riviere des I'rairies, 
and from the main land by the Riviere St. .lean or .Icsiis. It was 
granted Avith the Isle aux \'aches adjacent thereto the 2.'{d October, Hi})!), 
to the bishop and ecclesiastics of the seminary of (Quebec, by whom it is 
still ])ossesscd. 'IMie original name was L'islc de Montmagny ; but soon 
after its grant the ])roprielors tlunight ])ro])er to bestow on it the ap- 
pellative it now bears. The land is every where level, rich, and well 
cultivated ; on the south-east side, bordering the river, there are some 
excellent ])asturages and very line meadows; the other p.irts produce 
grain, vegetables, and fruits in great ])erfection and abundance. Fn)m 
its being almost wholly turned t(^ agricultural pur])oses there is very little 
wood remaining, beyond what is left for ornament on the difVerent farms 
or ])reserved for fuel. One road goes entirely round the island, and an- 
other runs through the middle lengthways: these are connected by 
others, that open an easy eonmumication between every ];.:rt of it. 
There arc three ])arishes, St. ^'incent de Raul, St. l{ose, and St. Martin ; 
the houses, mostly built of stone, are dis])ersed by the side of the roads ; 
now and then a few of them are j)laced close together, but nowhere in suiH- 
cient number to be called a village. Annnid the island are several corn 
and saw-mills on the two large rivers; in *;he interior there is no stream 
of suflicient force to work either. ^Xbout midway of the llivi6re des 
Rrairies is the strong rapid called the Sault an Kecollet. The rafts of 
timber, brought down the Ottawa from the up])er townships, descend 
this river into the St. Lawrence at the Rout de TTsle. The eonnnuni- 
cation between Isle .lesus and the islands of Montreal and Rizard and 
the main land is kept up by several ferries in convenient situations for 






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12 



LOWl'R CANADA. 



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mainta'miiif^ a coiitimiul ami sure intercourse. Tlie Isle IVizard is sepa- 
rated from tlie south-west end of Isle Jesus by the lliviere des I'rairies; 
it is nearly of an oval form, rather more than 4 miles lon<^' hy '2 broad. 
No records relative to this property have l)een j)reserved in the secretariat 
of tile province; but wiien the present owner. l*ierre Foritier, es(|., did 
fealty and homage on the .'id February, 17^1, he exhibited proof of its 
ha\ ing- been granted i)n the 2lt\\ and !i.>th October, l(i7«'>, lo Sieur IJi/ard. 
Ft is a sjjot of great fertility, wholly cleared and cultivated. A good 
road passes round it near to tiie river, and another crosses it about the 
midcUe; by the sides of tliese the iiouses are pretty numerous, but there 
is neither village, church, nor mill upon it. 

Isle I'errot lies oil' the south-west end of the islaiul of Montreal, 
It was gi-anted to Sieur I'errot October '2\), 17})!2, and is now the pro- 
perty of Aniable l)e/( ry, escj. The length of the island is 7 miles, or a 
little more, and nearly ;J in breadth at its widest part; of nearly ll.'i 
concessions, more than one half are settled u|)on, and tolerably well 
cultivated ; the soil is of a liuht sandv nature generallv ; but v.diere this 
is not the case it is an uneven surface of rock. The wood is not entirely 
cleared from it, ami of w hat remains beech and ma])le constitute the chief 
part. The houses are scattered over the islaiul near the diHerent roads, 
aiul the ))arish church is situated on the south-east side of the island ; not 
far from it is a windmill. Of two liefs within the seigniory one is called 
Fief Urucy, 10 acres in front by 30 in depth, the property of the repre- 
sentatives of Ignace Chenier; the other, named Fa Framboise, is of an 
irregular ligure, containing ]<S() acres, superficial measure, aiul belongs to 
I''ran(;ois Friench. There are four ferries from Isle Perrot ; the first to St. 
Anne, on the islaiul of Montreal, for which the charge is two shillings; 
one to the main land above the ra])id of Vaudreuil, and another to the foot 
of the same, one shilling and eight])ence each ; and the fourth to the canal 
at Point des Cascades, for which the demand is three shillings and four- 
pence each person. The Isles de la Paix. which are annexed to this 
grant, serve for pasturage only. 

The beautiful island of Montreal forms the .scli^'iiion/ of that name, 
aiul also the county of Montreal ; it is of a triangular shape, .'i!2 miles 
long by 10 I broad, and lies at the continence of the Ciraiid or Ottawa 



■IP' 



ISLAND or MONTHKAI,. 



;? 1 ;] 



rivLT and tlic St. Tiawronco: tlio llivitrt' dt's Vrairics, (tii tlir iiorlli-wcst, 
sc'))aratc'S it IVoin Isli' .Irsiis. Tlit' greatest ]Kirt was j;i:mtt'(l in 1(!K) 
to Mt'ssrs. C'lioiTior and I a* lloycr; but wlutlicr disposed df by tluni. 
or f'ortVitc'd to the crown, does not a|)])car from any oHifial rcrord tliat 
lias hcen ptTserved : it is at present wholly the ])roperty ol' the seniinarv 
of St. Sulpiee. at Montreal, the superiors of whieh, in renderitijf fialt\ 
and honiaj;e on the .'Jd February. I7H1, produced as their titles, 1st, a died 
passed before the councillor to the kinj; at I'aris, bearin";' date iiOtli April. 
KiCit, by which the scminaiy of St. Sulpicius in that city, and other persons 
concerned, {j;ranted to the seminary in Canada the lands and seigniory of 
Montreal; 'id. an arret of the council of state madi* at \'ersailles in tlu 
month of March. 1 ()});{, by which the king agrees to and accepts the sur- 
render made to him by ihe ecclesiastics of the seminary of .St. Sulpicius. 
at I'aris, of all the pro])erty possessed by them in tin- island of .Montreal : 
and .'Jd, letters-patent, in form of an edii't, issued by the King of France 
in Jidy, 1711, being a confirmation of all titU-s to the lands granted to 
the ecclesiastics of the said seminary at I'aris by letters-j)atent, dated 
JSTarch, 1()77. with the right of alienation. As early as the year l(i.^7 a large- 
part of this, even at that ])eriod. \alu;d)le ])roperty was cleared and settled, 
untli'r the direction ol" the Abbe (^uetus, who had arrived from I'ranci' 
with authority from the seminary for that and t)ther purposes. 

The island is divided into the following nine parishes : St. Ann. St. 
(icnevieve, I'oint Claire, La Chine, Sault an HecoUet. St. Laurent, Ki- 
viere des Prairies, I'ointe-au-Tremble, and Longue I'ointe. There are 
altogether l;i7(> concessions, formed into 'J.5 ranges, or as they are termed 
<.v)/t'.v, making so many irregular sididivisions or interior districts. There 
is also a ilomain of great extent between the C«')tes St Laurent and St 
Michel, which is retained for the use of the seminary. 

With the exception of the mountain, the ridge of the Coteau St. 
Pierre, and one or two smaller ones of no great elevation, the island 
exhibits a level surface, watered by several littU' rivers aiul rivulets, as La 
Petite Uivicre St. Pierre, Uiviere Dorval, Kuis.seau de rOrme. l{uisseaii 
de Notre Dame des Xeiges, La Coulee des I{oches, Kuisseau de la Prairie, 
Uuisseau .Migeon, and a few others of inferior note. These streams turn 
numerous grist and saw-niills in the interior, while many more around tlu 



11 






214 



LOWER CANADA. 



isliuid are worked by tl'.e great rivers. From the city of Montreal to the 
eastward the shores are from 15 to 20 feet above the level of the St. 
Lawrence : but in the opposite direction, towards La Chine, they are low : 
between the Coteaii St Pierre and the river the land is so flat, and par- 
ticularly near the little lake St. I'ierre so marshy as to induce a conjecture 
that it was once covered by water. Over this ])lace a canal has been 
opened, by Avhich a direct communication between the city and JjH 
thine is formed, and the dillicult passaj^e of the rapid of St. Louis 
avoided *. 

The soil of the whole island, if a few insignificant tracts be over- 
looked, can scarcely be excelled in any country, and is highly productive 
in grain of every species, vegetables, and fruits of various kinds : there 
is hardly any part of it but what is in the most flourishing state of 
cultivation, and may justly claim the pre-eminence over any other of 
Lower Canada. Several roads nnming froi i north-east to south-west, 
nearly parallel to each other, are crossed hy others at convenient distances, 
so as to form a complete and easy comnuuiication in every directicm. 
Tiiere is a good turn})ike-road from Montreal, almost in a .straight line, 
to the village of I..a Chine, a distance of eight miles, by which the con- 
stant intercourse between these ])laccs is rendered easy : by this route all 
the conunodities intended for I^p])er Canada were formerly conveyed to 
the place of embarkation : but the canal has superseded the turnpike, as 
regards, at least, the transport of heavy articles of trade. Between the 
city and the \i11age there is a great variety of prospects, some of which 
aie very romantic. A mile or two from the town, near the tanneries, 
the road ascends a stec])ish hill, and continues along a high ridge for 
more than three miles, commanding a beautiful view over the cultivated 
fields below, the rapid of St. I-.ouis, the islands in the St. Lawrence, and 
the varied woiulland scenery on the opposite shore ; descending from the 
height, it passes over a flat country imtil it reaches I^a Chine. 

The city of ?-[<»ifrea! stands on the south side of the island, in 
latitude 4.5" 31' north and longitude 7.'i 34' west. The second city 
of the province in point of importance, it is undoubtedly the first 

* \'idt' Topographical Dictiunanj, " La Chine Canal." 



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with ri>s)urt to Nituation, local advanta^i's, and superiority of cllinati': 
\U form is a piolonjrcd N(|iiarr, that, with the sidiiirhs, covers ahoiit 
1()'2(> acres of ground, although within the walls of the old forti- 
fications the contents «)f the area diti not exceed 100 acres. A few 
houses, huilt close together, in the yiar KIK), on the site of the Indian 
village of llochelaga, was the counnencenient of the city of >|ontreal. 
or. UH it was first named, N'illeniarie; the situation heing well chosen. 
mul possessing many indncenients for the colonists to associate theni- 
selvos for the comforts and convenii'nce «tf socii-ty, it very soon assmned 
the appi'arance of luing huilt with some attention to regularity and 
solidity of the dwellings; containing a ])opulation of iOOO iidiahitants. 
its improvement and e\tension were ra|>id. In KiH- the Motel Diiii 
was founded hy the ])ious charity of Madame de Houillon, and six years 
afterwards the zeal of MademoiselU' Marguerite de bourgeois estahlishcd 
the convent of Notre Dame. 

'I'he infant town was exposed to, and almost from its very hcginning 
experienced, the animosity of the lro(|Uois, who madi' many attacks upon 
it. As a protection against these repeated hostilities a sort of harrier was 
drawn rt)und it, consisting merely of a stockade; hut so slight and vuliu r- 
ahle a defence not inspiring the inhabitants with nnuh eonlidence in tluir 
security, the more powerful safeguard of a wall, fifteen feet high, with 
hattlement.s, was substituted, and had the desired ellect of repi-lling these 
formidable enemies to its prosjierity. As the ardour of the I-'rt iieh co- 
lonists in ])rosecuting the trade in furs made them more dreaded by their 
savagi' neighbours, whouj they succeeded in driving to a griater distance, 
and ri'pressii\g their incursit)ns by erecting forts and establishing mili- 
tary posts, the necessary repairs of the wall were gradually neglected, 
and it fell into decay. The last remains of this ancient fortification were 
afterw'U'ds removed by an act of the provincial legislature, to make way 
for the introduction of some improvements, planned with judicious re- 
gard to the convenience, comfort, and embellishment of the ])lace. At 
different periods the city has suffered extensive damage from fire; I)ut 
from the gradual widening of the streets, as new buildings take place, 
the better construction of the houses, and other means of precaution 
now resorted to, this calamity, when it does oceur, seldom causes much 
devastation. 



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ill lis j)rc'si'Mt state Montreal certainly merits tlie apjiellaticni ot' a 
liaiidxtiiu' eity. It is (li\ idcd into tiie upper and lower town, altlioiiL>li 
llic ilevation of one aliove the other is si'areely peiTe))tihle ; these are 
ai;ain siil)di\ icU'd into \\ irds. -'he streets are airy, and tlie new ones 
partieuhirly. ol' a eomniodions width: some of them niiminii; the whok" 
length oi' the town. ])aralU'! to tlie river, interseeted by others at ri^iit 
ani;]i's. 'I'hi- lionscs are lor the most ])art built of a «;reyish stone, many 
of them lary,i'. handsome, and in a modi'rn style: sheet-iron or tin is the 
nn:\c'rsal eoveriii"' of the roofs. The Hue Notre Dame. extendin<!; from 
till' (^ucl)ec to the HeeolUt suburbs, is l.'JU. yards in leni>th, and ;iO feet 
l)roid : it is by much the handsomest street in the ))laee, and contains a 
ji'ivat many of the |)ublic buildinu,s: the removal of the old cathedral, 
which w;i so injudiciously situated that it occu])ied the wlioli' breadth 
of till' street at the I'lace (rArmes. will be a ••reat improvement, the 
eileet of which will be ania/in<;ly enhaneed by tlie mai^niliceiit (iothie 
structure of the new cathedral that occu])ies the easti'rn face of the 
riace irArnies. 'IMie ra/ii\i>' of the old citadel has also |)roved an im- 
portant amelioration by its makiiii;' room for ,in (>k\<j,aiit s(|nare, into 
which Notre Dame-strci't now opens to thenorth-east. St. PauTs is another 
Hue street, runnin_i>' the whole U^nnth of the town, but more irregular in 
its course and bri'adth than the foraier; from its eontip;uity to the river, 
the situation i- very convenient for busine.s.s. 

Amont;- tlu' edilices that attract notice are the Hotel Dieu. tlie con- 
vent of Notre Dame, the Montreal deneral IIos])ital, the Hospital Ge- 
neral i\vs Su'ursnrises, the I-'niich Cathedral, the JJecollet Convent, tlu' 
convent ot' the- tiiev Sisters, the seminary of St. Sulpice. the New C"ol- 
jeae or I'etit Seminaire, the l<',niilish and Scotch churches, the C'ourt- 
house, the new j^aol, the (io\c'rmiient-house, Nelson's monument, and 
the (Quebec barracks. The Hotel Dieu, in St. raul-street, extending- 
;JL>1- Mnglish fec-t in front, by KiS I'eet in depth on St. .loseph-streei, is 
an establishment for the reception of the sick and diseased poor of both 
sexes: it is conducted by a sii])erior and thirty-six nuns. Tlii' French 
government formerly su))plied nu-dicines and many other necessaries, 
hut now the funds for maintaining the eliarity are principally derived 
from soir.e landed property, which (and it is a subject of regret) is not so 
junple as could be Avislicd, when comj)arecl with its utility ; however. 



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v% 



CITY OF MONTREAL. 



217 



tills as wt'U as every other eliaritable institution in the province is occa- 
sionally assisteil with grants of money from the provincial ])arliament. 
The whole of the buildiui's on the space before mentioned inchule the 
hos))ital, a convent, and a church ; attached is a large garden, a cattle- 
yard, with extensive stal)les and outbuildings, and a cemetery. 

The convent of La Congregation de Notre Dame is in Notre Dame- 
street, and forms a range of buildings 2'i4- feet in front and -iXi m deoth 
along St. John IJaptist-strcet, containing, besides the princi))al edifice, a 
cha))el, lunncrous detached buildings for domestic uses, and a large gar- 
den. The Congregation is composed of a su])erior (la Soeur Devoisy) 
and sixty sisters : the object of this institution is female instruction in 
its different branches, wherein th.e greatest ])art of the members are 
emi)loyed ; boarders are taken into the house on very moderate pen- 
sions, and receive a careful ediication. From this establishment some 
of the sisters are sent as missii)naries to different ])arts of the district, 
for the jjurpose of giving fuller effect to the intentions of the foundation 
by opening schools in ])arishes remote from the convent. The general 
hospital, or convent of the Cirey Sisters, situated about 300 yards 
vSouth-west of J'oint Cailiere. was founded in 1750, by Madame de 
Vouville, as a refuge tor the infirm poor and invalids; it occupies a 
space of ()7H feet along the little river St. Pierre by nearly the same 
depth, containing a convent for the residence of the nuns, a church, 
wards fV.r patients of both sexes, all re(piisite oflices, and a detached 
building for the reception of such as labour in)der mental derangement. 
It is governed by a superior (Mile. Marie Marguerite I^emaire) and 
twenty-four sisters ; the cares which they bestow upon those whom 
misfortune obliges to seek tiieir aid are directed with great kindness 
and an u,rr -nutting zeal in earnest endeavours to alleviate the burthen 
of huiiia. iiiisery. 

ri'e corner stone of the new catholic cathedral was laid on the 3rd 
Sei i niber, \H'2-i. The edifice is a chaste specimen of the ])erpeiulicular 
style of gothic architecture of the middle ages. It ranks with some e. 
the first buildings in North America ; and will, while it stands, be a 
magnificent monument of the public s])irit of an infant country with 
limited means. 






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218 



LOWER CANADA. 



" It fronts the Place d'^Vrnies, and its northern Hank faces St. Jo- 
seph-street. The soil on which it stands is of iniecjual (quality, which 
rendered it necessary to use {;reat caution and attention in constructing 
the foundation, there being a declivity of 13 feet from west to east, 
terminating in soft and marshy ground. On account of that declivity 
and other causes, a terrace became necessary on which to base the build- 
ing. This will add nmch to both its convenience and appearance when 
surmoimted i)y an iron railing with gates, lam])s, \c. 

*' The length of the church, from east to west, is lil^.'j feet (j inches. 
and its breadth, from north to south, is 134 feet 6 inches. The hcigiit 
of the flanks is 61 feet from the flagging of the terrace to the eaves. 
There are six towers so arranged that each flank presents three, and the 
east and west ends two '.'ach. Those on the principal or west front are 
220 feet high. The towers are of a (piadrangular form with octangular 
buttresses placed at the angles of each, and terminating at t''e toj) in 
conical j)innacles of the same shape. The space between the front 
towers is 7'i feet by 120 iu height, crowned with an embattled ))arr;])et. 
The Hanks, and east end towers, are each 115 feet in neight. The Hanks 
are decorated with buttresses corresponding in form with those of the 
towers, and crowned on the top with hollow ])innaclcs, which serve as 
chinmeys. The exterior of the building is faced with hewn stone of an 
excellent quality, and of a hue well ada])ted to the gothic style. 

"There are five ])ublic and three private entrances to the Hrst Hoor, 
and four to the galleries, so that an audience of 10,000 (the mnnber for 
which it is seated) may assemble and disperse in a few minutes without 
disagreeable ])ressure. 

"The eastern window at the high altar is (U feet in height and half 
that size in breadth. It is separated by shafts into Hve com])artments, 
and subdivided by nudlions into ;J() divisions in the perpendicular style. 
The windows in the Hanks consist of one range, and those in the front 
are Hnished in the same style as the eastern window. 

*' The building will be surrounded with a spacious terrace, from which 
arc all the entrances to the apartments. This terrace when Hnished wiil 
form the line of St. .Fosei)h-street and the Place d'i\rmes. The building 
will recede on it in front 41 feet. The ascent will be by 5 steps, after 



CATHOLIC CA nil- DUAL, MONTUKAL 



219 



which there will bo a t1i<>ht of 7 steps to the portal, Avhich is formed by 
ail areade, eoiisistin'v of three arches, each 1}) feet by IS in i\ei^ht. From 
this arcade there are five entrances to the chnrch, two of which lead to 
the galleries. Over this arcade is ])laccd another of the same form, in 
relievo, which coimects the towers and ])iers. Hetwecn these are trefoil 
cano])v-headed niches, intended for marble statues in alto-relievo. At 
the termination of the front, between the towers, there will be a ])ro- 
menade 7() feet by 20, elevated 1120 feet above the surface of the I'lace 
d'iVrmes. To this there will be a safe and easy access by a geometrical 
stair, and when the ascent is gained the spectator will have a most de- 
lightful and extensive view of the river St. Lawrence and the surround- 
ing country. To strangers this uuist prove particularly interesting, and 
we understand books will be kept for notes, i-Vc. The front towers are 
intended to contain clocks and bells; and to form observatories accessible 
to the sununit by safe and easy flights of ste))s. 'I'he girth of the build- 
ing, including the ])rojections, is lll>.l feet. 

" The roof of the church is covered with tin, and the gutters, liips, 
and valleys are lined with copjier. The embattlement ])arapets at the 
eaves of the Hanks, which are ])eculiar in the crowning of gothic edifices, 
are omitted on account of the great quantity of snow that falls in this 
country during the winter. 'IMie severity of tlie frost, also, prevents 
considerably the decoration of buildings in cold climates. 

" Interior, — The floor, from the front entrance to the chancel, is an 
inclined plane of .'} feet. This gives commodiousness to the general 
aspect. There are seven spacious aisles leading in the same direction, and 
two crossing these at right angles, one of which leads to the flank doors. 
Between these the pews *are ])laccd, and raised six inches above the aisles. 

" There are seven cha])els. so ])laced that all are seen from the front 
entrance. The high altar is seiii in a direct line, nearly at the extremity 
of the nave : it is elevated in the chancel 'J feet (5 inches above the floor 



* N'umln'r of pi'ws (III the ^riiiiml Jioor 
do. (in tlio first j;allory 

do. on tlic second do. 



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LOWKR CANADA. 



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of the cliurc'li, and is cjiconi passed on tln-eo s'uK's by semicircular scats, 
for the clergy, \:c. The front of the chancel is open, and is accessii)le 
by an easy flijfht of 5 ste])s, in the form of a double semi-reverse. The 
eastern window, high altar, and choir will be seen from the front door 
to great advantage, together with a perspective view of the Hank windows, 
side altars, side galleries, and the groined ceiling, SO feet in height. 'I'he 
vaults of the cieling and galleries are supported in part by a double range 
of grouped colunnis, .'i feet 4 inches in diameter; from these s])ring the 
groi.Msof the ceiling. The niiiMle vault is intersected by an imitation of 
bas-rclievo ribs, dis])osed diagonally over the vaults, paintetl in fresco; 
the intermediate parts of a grave and gloomy aspect, which would have 
been in kee])ing with the gothic style, had it been more soft, iVc. 

" Tilt' pillars are of wood, and painted in imitation of cloud( d Italian 
or American marble, which jn'events, in some degree, defects from ap- 
pearing in the wood, as well as the jullars from being soiled by hands. 
The hue accords with the ceiling, and. in time, age will make the eflect 
pleasing. The facing of the gallery-trusses, and the greatest portion of 
the carpenter's work, are ])ainted in imitation of oak, resend)ling the oak 
finish in the gothic cathedrals in Europe. The gallery screens are in 
moveable panels, and painted a crimson colour. 'I'he railing, in front 
of tlviMU, imitates iron, and produces an agreeable eifect. 

" There are rcct :->ses in the piers, between the windows on the first 
floor, intended for family monuments, \c. and in the recesses of the 
windows are ])laced the confessional screens. Suitable arrangements 
are made in the interior for all the monuments and historical paintings 
that may be wanted ; and at the high altar, on each side of it. and 
flanking the east window, there are places assigned for \2 large lii- 
litorical paintings, which will produce a fine effect, as the light brought 
on them will be hap])y. 

" There are geometrical stairs in the eastern towers, leading to the 
galleries, as there will be in the front t«)wers when finished. The galleries, 
the access to which is commodious, consist of two tiers. The organ 
is placed upon the upper gallery, over the front entrance, the floor for 
which is elastic and is ii7 feet by 27 feet (i inches, and projects (> feet 



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ITIM^IC miLDINGS, MONTUI.AI.. 



oo j 



beyond the lino of <>allerie.s in a sej»ment form, wliicli ^ivos <;ioat oajMU'ity 
to the tone and sound of the or^an ; the front of the scgincnt is finished 
with a trefoil eurtain frin<;ed with drops. 

•' The ehoir sereen is finished in reeessed seats for the eU'rj;y, and 
surmounted witii endjattlement penchmts, reversed into alto-relievo. 

*• The wardens' seats are phieed opposite the pulpit, and crowned by 
ano))en frini;;ed ])arapet : the pulpit and eanopy are attached to one of the 
pillars; the access tt) it is from the first j;allery. It resembles, in form, 
that in the <;othic cathedral in Strasbur«;\ in(iermany; the canopy is 
crowned with a crockit, but has not its ellect, owin^' to the paintin<f 
of it. 

'•'I'he hi<;h altar is a little in the florid style, rcsemblino-. in part, that 
of St. I'etcr's at Rome, but is placed too near the eastern window, a de- 
fect which impairs the aspect of both. 

*• 'I'he eastern window was intended to be filled with stained glass, 
which would have j)roduced a grand effect, but patent glass was sub- 
stituted for cheapness. ^Vs the ])ainting was not well done, it must be 
rei)ainted again, to dim the strong glare of light. It is. however, the 
intention to have it filled with stained glass at some future day. The 
ceiling was to be painted in the best style of tracery in fresco, but the 
design made for it wa;. reliiupiished, from want of time and materials to 
accomplish it. 

'• Notwithstanding the alterations and substitutions made in it, yet 
the whole of the interior, as arranged, has every possible convenience, 
and is disposed of so as to obtain the object for wliicii it was erected. It 
was intended to be warmed with hot air, conveyed from furnaces placed 
in a))artments muler the tioors, but will at present be heated with stoves. 
'I'lie building, although ])laced on a cramped and limived site, unites 
convenience and j)roportion with effect, and grandeur without orna- 
ment*."' The first high mass celebrated within its walls took place on 



m 



' TliL' arcliitiTt to wlmso t^kiW tlw phinnin!^ anil Mi]u'riiiti'n(k'iK'e iif tin- fditioc wvvv ciiii- 
tidod is .Mr. M'Ddimlil, "Iik lias s|)arfil no pains in tin- dm- jifrforniance of the arduous uiuKt- 
tukiujT. Tin" niaslor liuildiTs aro ^Icssrs. Laniiinta^'ni' and St .John, niasitns, natives of Canada ; 
Messrs. Hedpath and Mackay, masons and stoiu'-cutlors, natives ot" .Scotland ; ^Icssrs. iVriv 
and Wetlierilt. jilastcrcrs, natives of Enjiland ; and Mr. Cox. carjionter. native of the stafi- 
of New York. 



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the 13tli July. 1821). on uhuli oc'casion Monscifrncnr tlie Bisliop of Tt-l- 
mc'sso ofliciatc'd, ami the Uev. Mr. (^iiihlicr (Iclivorcd an chMiiicnt ami 
appropriate oration. The j^reatest |)art of the Canadian Roman C'atliolic 
clergy were present, and the solennnty, ^raml and iniposinji in the 
hi»;he.st decree, was attended hy the ^'overnor in ehief, tlie staf!'. eorpo- 
rations, and other ])nl)iie bodies, and ii])\var(ls of SOOO ])ersons. 

The Kn<j;lish eluneh. in Notre Dame-street, is one of the handsomest 
speeimens of modern arehiteeture in the ])rovinee; it i.s .spaeious in its 
dimensions and elegant in its structure, and surmounted by a lofty spire, 
with timekeepers on the four faees of the belfry. The seminary of St. 
Sul])iee, or Montreal, is a large and eonnnodions building adjoining the 
eathedral : it oeeu])ies three sides of a stpiare, i'.i'2 feet long by 90 deep, 
with spaeious gardens and ground attached, extending :U2 feet in Xotrc 
Dame-street, and 4 H along that called St. Fran(;ois Xavier. The ))ur- 
posc of this ft)undation is the education of youth through all its various 
d(>partments to the higher branches of philosophy and the mathematics. 
It was founded about the year 1().37 by the Abbe (^uctus, who, as before 
mentioned, then arrived fn)m France, commissioned by the seminary of 
St. Sulpice at Paris to superintend he settlement and cultivation of 
their property on the island of Mcmtrc 1. and also to erect a seminary 
there upon the ))lan of their own. llis instructions were so well fulfilled 
th;,t the establishment he framed lias existed until the present time, 
modified by many and great im))rovemej'.ts. The superior of this college 
is M. Houx, assisted by ])rofessors of eminence in the difl'erent sciences, 
and other subordinate masters, who pursue a judicious jdan of general 
instruction that reflects distingaisiud honour u])on themselves, while it 
ensures ji contimial advance ii. knowledge to a very considerable nimdjcr 
of students and scholars. 

The New College, or Petit S6ninaire, near the Little Uiver. in the 
Hecollet suburbs, is most eligibly situated; the body of it is 210 feet 
long by 4.5 broad, having at eaiii end a wing that runs at right imgles 
1S() feet by nearly 15. It is a handsome regular editiee, built a few 
years ago by the >eniinary of St. Suli)ice, at an expense of more than 
10,000/., for the purp»v^e of extending the benefit of their plan of edu- 
cation bevond what the aeconnnodations of their original estaKi^ilnnent 



¥-,Y\ 



M'GILL COLLEGE, MONTREAL 



OO'i 



would admit of. On the exterior, decoration and neatness arc so judiei- 
onsly blended as to carry an air of •^randein-, to which the interit)r distri- 
bution perfectly corresponds; the arrangements have been made with 
the utmost attention to convenience, utility, and salubrity, consistinji; of 
residences for the director, professors, and masters; a chapel, airy dormi- 
tories, apartments for tlu' senior and hujior classes, refectories, and ev( ry 
domestic oHice. The intentions of the institution through every depart- 
ment are ])r()moted with the utmost regularity and good eflect, b(»th with 
res])ect to instruction and internal economy. The director, M. I?o(|ui'. 
and chief professors are as eminently distiuguislu'd for their literary 
acquirements as for their /cal in did'using them. In this college as well 
as in the i.eminary the number of pupils is very great, with whom a very 
moderate annual stipend is ])ai(l ; the benefits that arise from the disse- 
mination of useful instruction over so extended a ])n)vince as Lower 
Canada will not fail to be duly a|)preciated ; and for their endeavours in 
so beneficent a cause, the reverend Sulpiciens are fairly entitled to the 
gratitude of all their Canadian brethren. 

IJesides these principal seats of learning, Avherein the French lan- 
"uau'e is the vernacular idiom, there are in Montreal some good Enuiish 
schools, conducted by gentlemen of exemplary morals and talents, who, 
by their exertions, hitherto su])])lied in some degree the want of an 
Knglish college. Such an establishment, however, has ceased to be a 
desideratinn since the final termination of the long ])rotracted suits at 
law that interfered with the o])cning of M"(iill College. As far back as 
1 SOI, the creation of a corporate body, \mder the denomination of the 
Uoijal Institution, for the advancement of learning, was contemplated by 
an act of the legislature; and in ISIS that institution was actually incor- 
porated by royal charter. In 1S14 the Hon. .lames M'Ciill, an opideiit 
and highly respected citizen of Montreal, bequeathed in trust to this 
institution the valuable estate of Burnside, at the Mountain, together 
with the sum of 10,000/. for the endowment of a college, which should 
bear his nam .\ In 1S21 the college, thus liberally endowed, was incor- 
porated, in conformity with the terms of the devise, and the governor 
and lieutenant-governor of I^ower Canada, the lieuteAant-governor of 
U])per Canada, the chief justices of Montreal and Upper Canada, \\\c 






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LOW I'll CANADA. 



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lord bisljop of Queboc, iuid tlic |)rln('i])al of tlio ('()lh><,'o, wore, l)y tlu' 
cliiirtcr of iiU'()riM)rati()ii. appointod ^on fiMiors of tlio institution *. It was 
not, however, iiitil the 'Jltli .lunc. IK!>H, that the eorporatioii of M'Clill 
C'olIe«i[e was eoinpletely ])iit in possession of thi* ])roperty devised, and 
at a innnerons and respeetabU' n.oetiu,_,", held that day in the duelling- 
house on the estate of llurnside, the Hi<(ht HeverencS the Lord Hishop 
of (jiu'hee and the A'enerahle Arehdi'ae(»n M»>nntaiM explained, at 
some length, the ori<rin, progress, and views of the institution. Tiie 
eonstitiition and rules for the }^overnm( .1 of the (■olU<;e are based upon 
those liberal prineiples that will render its benefits as universal as possible, 
no tests beiiijj; imposed eitlier u])o',i llie professors or the students, all 
olliees whatever thus beeoniin<; freely open both to protestants and 
Roman catholics, wiiilst stii.lents of all denominations are ))ermitte(l 
to attend. It is necessary, at present, that tlu' professors siiould be 
•fraduates of some l?ritisii university, but a ))reference is hereafter to 
be shown to tliose who will have graduated in the institution. The 
system of eolle«;iate education will extend to all those branches end)raccd 
by similar establislnnents in (ireat Uritain ; and, in order to forward the 
advancement of the medical (U'])artment of the college, it is contemplated 
to eni^raft upon it the Montreal .Medical Institution, which has already 
aecpiired considerable rejmte from its respectability and learning. 

Such a foundation, superadded to the ])re-existing colleges and schools 
in the C'anadas, will leave little to bo wished for, as regards tiie education 
of youth, and we certainly hail the opening of M'Ciill College as an im- 
portant era in the history of the ])rogress of learning, literature, and 
science -n the colony. Kncoiu'aged by the imperial and local govern- 
nients. fostered and sup))orted by the inhabitants of the province, and 
enlightened by eminent professors, it cannot but flourish, an honour to the 
country, and a perpetual monmnent of the libeality of its munificent 
founder. 

• Prtiffssors, ,\:c. apjiuiiitcd 4tli Dcci'inlifr, lft2ll: — Principal and Profcsscir of Divinity, the 
UcviTcnil (i. J. J\rim:it:iin. I). 1). (of the liiivcrsity of ("anil)ri(lf:t'.) Professor of iMoral Pliiio- 
so|)liy and learned Laiij:uaj;es, the Hev. .1. \j. Mills. 1). 1). (University of Oxford ) Professor of 
History and Civil Law, the Hev. J. .Straehan, I). D. (University of Aherdeen.) Professor of 
Mutheniatics and Natural Phiiosciphy, the Hev. CJ. J. Wilson, A. ]M. (University of Oxford.) 
Profevv'" iif ^ledicine, Thomas Fargnes, IM. 1). (University of Edinburgh.) 



MONTUr.M. (iKNKlJAI. IIOSI'ITM 



JJJio 



i'lic MaiitriJil jffiu'ral liospital is a lU'at building-, 7(1 frvt Ion;,' hy 
40 wi<U>, siiniiDiintcd hy it ciipohi, and situated upon Doivlirstt'i'-strci't. 
in the St. I .iiwrcnci' .snl)uil). I he I'orncr stoni' was laid with masonic 
solcinnitv on tlif (itli .Inni', IS'il, and on tlir 1st of Mav. tlu- lollowiny; 
yi'ar, it was opened (or the reception of patients, eijrhty of whicli it is 
now ealcuhited to admit. The total cost of the "•round and huihliu" 
amounted to ."j.H.'»M/. «.v., which sum was levied l)v voliuitarv sid)scri|)tions. 
bestowed with a liberality that reHeets the greatest credit upon the r 
habitants of Montreal. This humane institution first ori<;'iuated I of 
the Lfi(/i('s liencvolviit Soclrfi/, an association of females, fornuii I'X- 
])ressly for the relief ot" in(lij;c'nt emi_i;rants, who, in\alided by a lon^ 
seii-voya^e, and oi'ti-n in a state of absolute destitution, landiil in a strange 
countrv, the most miserable objects of public charily. In ISIH a fund 
of IL'OO/. wi s raised to relieve the wants of this class of suHerers and 
the |)oor of the city ; and a soup kitchiii. as the most ellectual means of 
affording- relief, was opened, where thesv r- •■,;:; thropie ladiivs, personally, 
iiperinti'uded the distribution of alm-v 'iliiv plan was followed up by 
lii. establishment of a /totf.sr of ircun'ri; tor U\v ri'ception of the indiyi-nt 
k, and ultimately ended in the foundation of the Montreal "^i neral 
Hospital, the members and subscribers to which were incorporated bv 
charter on the UOth .lanuary, 1H!,';{. In thus j;ivin<>; some account of the 
establislnnent of an institution so interestin<;" to the cause of humanity, 
it is alike a duty and a pleasure to record its most i)rominent benefac- 
tors, in the list of whom we find Thomas Naters, Ms(|., the llonourables 
John Hichardson, ^V. Forsyth, and William M'Ciillivray, Messrs. Koss, 
Molson, Gillespie, Sk.c. The sums to defray the expenses of this institution 
are derived from three sources; 1st. J.ei;islative grants; yd. Charitable 
donations; jiublic subscriptions, and the annual contribution of tijc j^o- 
vernors and other subscribers; .'id. From the sale of tickets to the students 
of medicine in the town, who are, by the rules of the institution, allowed 
to attend to see the hospital practice, and witness the operations, on paying" 
each the sum of two guineas ])er annum*. 

The Montreal library and reading-room occupy a neat and conve- 
nient building in St. Jose})h-street, a central part of the town. The 

* By tlie annual rqiort, jjiiblisliod in ^lay, 1H21, it will bo seen tluit tlie iidviintagos of 






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23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 





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'226 



LOWER CANADA. 



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A 



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■'in 






former contains several thousand volumes of the best authors in every 
branch of literature, and the latter is judiciously furnished with foreign 
and domestic magazines, news])apers, and journals. The subscri])tions 
both to the library and reading-room are moderate, and strangers and non- 
residents may have free access to the latter upon being introduced by a 
sidjscriber. 

The court-liouse, on the north side of Notre Dame-street, is a plain 
liandsome building, 144 feet in front, where the courts of civil and 
criminal judicature are held. The interior is distributed into halls for 
the sittings of the chief courts, besides apartments for the business of the 
])o1ice and courts of inferior jurisdiction. The handsome appearance of 
tliis building is heightened by its standing some distance from the street, 
Avith a grass-plot in front, enclosed by iron railings : its proximity to the 
Champ de Mars renders it extremely airy and agreeable. The gaol of 
the district stands near the court-house ; it is a substantial spacious 
building, erected upon the site of the old gaol that was destroyed by fire 
in 180,'j. 'I'lie salubrious situation of this spot is peculiarly fitted for 
such an establishment ; the interior plan is disposed with every attention 
to the health, cleanliness, and comfort (as far as the latter is com])atible 
with the nature of such a place) of its unfortunate inmates, both debtors 
and criminals. The government-house, usually classed among the 
pidilic buildings, is on the south side of Notre Dame-street : being very 
old, and an early specimen of the impolished architecture of the province, 
it is not much entitled to notice ; it is, however, kept in good repair, 
and furnished as an occasional residence of the governor-in-chief, when 



the institution are progressively extending. Admitted from 1st iMay, 1823, to 1st ^lav, 
1824— 

Protestants. Roman Catholics. 

.254 216 



Out-patients, wlio re- \ 
ccivod advice and > 254 



medicine, Sec. 



508 



110 



320 



Remaining in hospital. 

The increase in the number of patients in one year, 



Total. 


Of tlicsu there 


were ili 


■ichargeil, 


470 


Cured, . 


. 


378 




Relieved, 


. , 


30 


364 


At their request. 


16 




For miscon 
Died, . 

20 


duct. 


2 
13 


834 




460 


in one yei 


ir, . 115 







CITY OF MONTREAL 



22; 



ho visits tlic up])cr district: on the opposite side of tlie street, border- 
ing on the Cham]) de Mars, is an excellent and extensive garden be- 
longing to it. 

Tlie old monastery of the Recollcts stood at the western extremitv 
of Xotre Dame-street. The ehnrch is still nsed for divine worship, but 
the house itself is demolished, and the extensive ground belonging to it 
was exchanged by government for St. Helen's Island, opjiosite the city, 
that belonged to the Honourable Charles Grant, and upon which military 
woi'ks have since been thrown up. The cluu'ch is chiefly frequented 
by Irish catholics, and the grounds are laid out into streets that arc 
rapidly building upon. At the u])per part of the ncAV market-place, 
close to >.'otre Dame-sti'cet, is a handsome monument, erected to com- 
memorate the hero of Trafalgar, innnortal Nelson : it is composed of 
a cylindrical column placed upon a square pedestal ; at the base of the 
colunni, on tlie different angles, are allegorical figures, of very good 
workmanshi]), representhig the victors chief attributes; and on the 
sides suitable inscriptions : in compartments, on each face of the pe- 
destal, are bas-reliefs of four of his principal achievements, executed 
with great spirit and freedom, and composed with a chasteness of design 
guided by much classical correctness. This highly ornamental tribute 
to departed worth was completed in I^ondon, and the expenses defrayed 
by subscription among the inhabitants of Montreal. 

The principal streets, both lateral and transverse, have a direct com- 
munication with the suburbs, which occupy a much greater space than 
the city itself: they surround it on three sides; on the south-west are 
the divisions called the St. Anne, the llecoUet, and the St. Antoine 
suburbs ; on the north-west the St. Laurent, St. Louis, and St. Peter's ; 
and on the north-east the Quebec : in all of them the streets run in the 
same direction as those of the city ; they are very regular, and contain a 
great nund)er of superior dwelling-houses, built of stone, and se\eral in- 
habitants of the first rank have fixed their residences there. 

Montreal, as it is at present, containing a population of about ,'30,000 
souls, rivals the capital of Canada in many respects, and as a commercial 
emporium certainly surpasses it : seated near the confluence of several 

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228 



LOWER CANADA. 






large livers with the St. liawrence, it receives by their means the pro- 
ductions of tlie best settled and also the most distant parts of the district, 
those of the fertile ])rovince of I "p])er Canada, as well as from the United 
States. I'ossessing- these combined attractions, it is by no means un- 
reasonable to infer that in the la])se of a few years it will become tlie 
most flourishing and prosperous city of the British North American 
dominions; and Quebec, vic^\ed as a military ])osition, may always 
be looked upon as an impregnable bulwark to them. Extending 
from the suburbs on the south-west side of the city, along the river 
as far as the Quebec suburbs, an elevated terrace was formed several 
years back, which, independent of its utility as a road, is sufficiently high 
to form an effectual barrier against the floating ice at the breaking up 
of the frost : it also impedes the communication of fire to the town, 
should it take place among the large quantities of timber and wood of 
every description that are always collected on the beach. The little river 
St. Pierre is embanked on both sides as far as the new college, formin<>' 
a canal 20 feet w'ide, which is contiiuied along the south-west and north- 
west sides to the Quebec suburbs, with bridges over it at the openinos 
of the principal streets and other convenient places ; at the angles orna- 
mental circular basins are formed, and a lock near the mouth of the little 
river, by which the water may be drawn off for the purpose of cleansino- 
it : this work is so constructed as to raise boats, kc. from the St. liaw- 
rence, from Avhence they may proceed to the further extremity of Jiis 
canal. The buildings on each side are retired thirty feet from the water, 
tliereby forming a street eighty feet wide, having the canal in the centre. 
To the northward of Notre Dame-street there is another street parallel 
to it, sixty feet wide, called St. James's-street, running from the Place 
d'Armes to the Haymarket ; but it is contemplated to continue it throun-h 
the whole length of the city, and to terminate it at the Quebec suburbs 
by one of the same breadth, leading to the St. Lawrence suburbs. In 
' ^s street is situated the Montreal bank, a regular and elegant cut-stone 
ice, ornamented in front with emblematical devices of Agriculture, 
Manufactures, Arts, and Conunerce, executed in basso-relievo. Near the 
bank is the^N'esleyan cha])el, built in a good style of architecture,and quite 



CITY AND HARBOUR OF .MOMRKAI, 



iiU\) 



an ornament to the street. Tlie Place d'Arnics is to luivo its dimensions 
enlarged to ^92 feet by 344, which will protract it to the canal; from the 
south-west side of the canal, towards the St. Antoine suburbs, anotiier 
scjuare or rather parallelogram is made, 4CS feet by IHO. The Champ de 
lilars, from being originally very circumscribed, and ([uite inadecpiate as 
a place of military exercise, has been made level, and carried on nearly 
to the canal, forming a space 227 yards by 114. It is now an excellent 
parade as well as an agreeable ])romenade for the inhabitants : seats are 
fixed for the acconnnodation of the ])ublic, and trees planted in va- 
rious parts of it. From this spot there is a fine vicAV of the well cul- 
tivated grounds, beautiful orchards, and coimtry houses towards the 
mountain. Adjoining the new college a lot of ground, 1.56 feet by 2.)S, 
is reserved as the site of a new house of correction. 

The new market-plae(^ occupying the groiuul where formerly stood 
the college founded by Sicnr Charron in 1719, and destroyed by fire 
many years back, is 36 yards wide, and reaches from Notre Dame-street 
to St. Paul-street; in the middle of it arc ranges of stalls for butchers, 
covered in by a roof supported on wooden pillars : great care is taken to 
enforce the regulations to ensure cleanliness. On the two princi])al market- 
days in each week the market is well sup])lied with every necessary, 
and nearly every luxury for tlie table, in great abundance, at prices ex- 
tremely moderate. The produce of the upper ])art of this fertile district 
is almost wholly brought hither for sale, besides a great quantity from 
the American states, particularly during the winter, when fish frequently 
comes from Boston and the adjacent })arts. 

It is only within the last fifteen years that these numerous and im- 
portant improvements have taken place, imder tlie direction of conuuis- 
sioners appointed under an act of the provincial legislature. They 
have for many years been indefatigable in their exertions to carry its 
provisions into effect : as their functions have been arduous and fre- 
quently unpleasant, from the number of law-suits they foimd it necessary 
to institute and defend in cases of disputed claims, they are entitled to 
the esteem of their fellow citizens for the manner in which they have 
always performed these duties to the j)ublic ^•rattiiion.sh/. 

The harbour of ^lontreal is not very large, but always secure for 



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230 



l,()\\'i:il ('AXAl)A. 



ship))ing (lurino- tlic time tlic navigation of tlic river is o])cn*. N'essels 
drawinir fifteen feet water can lie close to the sliorc, near the Market- 
gate, to receive or disdiarge their cargoes ; the general deptli of water is 
from three to four and a half fathoms, with very good anchorage every 
where between the Market-<";ate Island and the shore: in the spring this 
island is nearly submerged by the rising of the river ; but still it is always 
useful in protecting ships anchored within it from the violent currents 
of that period, and at other times serves as a convenient spot for re])air- 
ing boats, water-casks, and performing other indispensable works. Two 
small shoals lying off the west end of it, at the entrance of the harbour, 
and the narrowness of the deep water channel below it, generally make 
it necessary to war}) out large ships, and drop thcni down the stream by 
kedge-anchors imtil they come abreast of the new market-place, as the 
leading winds for bringing them out cannot always be depended u])on : 
at the east end of the island is a channel, of which small craft canal ways 
avail themse^\'es. The greatest disadvantage to this harbour is the rapid 
of St. Mary, about a mile below it, whose current is so poA\erful, that, 
without a strong north-easterly wind, ships cannot stem it, and would 
sometimes be detained even for Aveeks about two miles on.ly from the 
place where they are to deliver their freight, were it not for the appli- 
cation of tow-boats impelled by steam-engines of high power. In ])ur- 
suing the grand scale of inrprovements it may prt)bably be found prac- 
ticable to remedy this evil by the formation of another short canal, or 
extension of that of La Chine ; ships might then discharge their cargoes 
at their anchorage below the cm-rent into canal boats, by which they 
could be by such a communication conveyed immediately to the city. 

The environs of Montreal exhibit as rich, as fertile, and as finely 
diversified a country as can well be imagined. At the distance of a mile 
and a half from the town, in a direction from S. W. to N. E., is a very 
picturescpie height, whose most elevated point at the furthest extremity 
is about 5.50 feet above the level of the river ; it gains a moderate height 
at first by a gradual ascent, which subsides again towards the middle, 
thence it assumes a broken and uneven form imtil it is terminated by a 

* iM:itcriiil improvements in its cdminodiousne.ss are contemplated, anil liberal legislative 
provision has recently been made for that purpose. 



MONTREAL MOUNTAIN, OIK'IIARDS, .^( 



231 



sudden elevation in shape of a cone. The sh)))es on the hiwer part are 
well cultivated, but the upper part is covered with wood. These forests, 
however, are soon to j^ive place to Avorks of art, <>overnnient having 
commenced the construction of fortifications upon this part of the moun- 
tain, by which its sylvan appearance will necessarily undergo a total 
change. From several s])rings that rise towards its top the town is plen- 
tifully and conveniently sup])lied with water, which is conveyed to it 
under ground by means of wooden pipes. The sunmiit, to which there 
is a good road of very easy ascent, commands a grand and most magni- 
ficent prospect, including every variety that can embellish a landsca])e ; 
the noble river St. Lawrence, moving in all its majesty, is seen in many 
of the windings to .in immense distance ; on the south side the view is 
b(mnded by the long range of mountains in the state of New York, that 
is gradually lost in the aerial ])erspecti\e. 

The space near the toAvn, and all round the lower part of the moim- 
tain, is chiefly occupied by orchards and garden-grounds ; the latter 
])roducing vegetables of every description, and excellent in (juality, afford- 
ing a ])rofuse supply for the consumption of the city. All the usual 
garden fruits, as gooseberries, currants, strawberries, raspberries, peaches, 
apricots, and plums are produced in })lenty, and it may be asserted truly, 
in as much, or even greater perfection than in many southern climates. 
The orchards afford apples not sur])assed in any country ; among them 
the jMVime de neige is remarkable for its delicate whiteness and exquisite 
flavour ; the sorts called by the inhabitants the famcH/ie, pomme gri.s; 
houi'rafisa, and some others, are excellent for the table ; the kinds proper 
for cyder are in such abundance that large (piantities of it are anniudly 
made, which cannot be excelled in goodness any where. On the skirts 
of the mountain are many good country-houses belonging to the in- 
habitants of the city, delightfully situated, and possessing all the re- 
quisites of desirable residences. 

By the side of the road that passes oyer the mountain is a stone 
building, surrounded by a wall that was formerly distinguished by the 
appellation of the Chateau des Seigneurs de Montreal, but now generally 
called La Maison des Pritrefi, from its belonging to the seminary. There 
are extensive gardens, orchards, and a farm attached to it, which are 



:r' 






2!V2 



I.OWl'R CANADA. 



il 




rotaiiUMl for the use of tlic |)ro))riotors ; it is also a place of recreation, 
wliere, during the summer, all the members of the establishment, su- 
periors and pu])ils, resort once a week. A little more than a cpiarter of 
a mile to the northward, most coTis])icuously situated beneath the abrupt 
part of the mountain, is a mansion erected by the late Simon IM'Tavish, 
es([., in a style of nuich elegance. This gentleman had pr<)jected great 
imjirovements in the neighbourhood of this agreeable and favourite spot ; 
had he lived to superintend the completion of them, the place would 
have been made an ornament to the island. ISIr. M'Tavish, during his 
lifetime, was highly res])ected by all Avho enjoyed the pleasure of his 
acquaintance, and as nuuii lamented by them at his decease; his remains 
were deposited in a tomb placed at a short distance from the house, sur- 
rounded by a shrubbery : on a rocky eminence above it his friends have 
erected a monumental ])illar, as a tribute to his worth and a memento of 
their regret. IJoth the house and the ])iriar are very prominent objects, 
that disclose themselves in almost every direction. 

Of ten established ferries from the island, in different directions, 
the longest is that by steam-boat from the town to La Prairie de la 
INIagdelaine, a distance of six miles ; it is also the most frequented, as 
the passengers arc landed on the southern shoi-e, at the main road, leading 
to Fort St. John's, and into the American States. From the town to 
liongueuil is the King's Ferry, three miles across, and also much fi'e- 
quented, as many roads branch off in all directions from the village of 
I^ongueuil, at which the boats arrive ; steam and horse boats are also 
used in this traverse, but they ply at the foot of St. Mary's current ; that 
from the west end of the island to Vaudreuil is three miles across, in the 
direct line of communication between l^pper and Lower Canada : from 
the eastern IJout de I'lsle to Repentigny, where the road between INIon- 
treal and Quebec crosses, the ferry is about 1300 yards only. The others 
are of much less distance : at all of them convenient bateaux, canoes, and 
scows * are always ready to convey passengers, horses, carriages A'C, from 
one side to the other. 



"■ A sort of liglitor impelled by poles or oars, iu shape of an oblong square, and sometimes 
large enough to cross four horses and vehicles at once, with several passengers. The horses, &c. 
are driven in at one end and disembark at the other. 



POPl'LATIOX, &(. or MO.NTUEAI., CO. OF VAIDUEUIL. Q'i'i 



From lU'])cnti^iiv to Tslc l^ourdoii, in tlic UiviiTo dcs Prairirs, and 
thence to tlie island of >Fontreal, a liandsonie wooden hridj-e was con- 
structed, at a very ;^reat expense, by Mr. Porteons of TerrclMJnne, 
autlioriscd by an act tliat passed the provincial ])arlianient in ISOS; hut 
it was unfortunately destroyed the sprint- after it was Unisiied, by the 
pressure of the ice at the breakinj;' up of the frost. The same <^entlenian 
had ])reviou.sly obtained an act in ISO.j, but in the sprini;' of 1807 the 
Avorks were carried away before his undertakin<.>' was entirely c()ni])leted. 
Notwithstanding- these failures, it is considered that some plan niay yet 
be devised to erect one, whose s])an may be sullieiently hii'h to allow the 
masses of ice to drift down the stream without bein*;- so lodj>;ed as to 
accunndate an overbearini>" force. In this situation such a work would 
be of fjfreat public utility, from connecting tlie most freciucnted main 
road of the province. 



I 



The census taken in 1825 gives the following result as the popu- 
lation, kc. of the toAvn. and the different vil]a<>es on the islaiul of 
Montreal. 

I*(>pul(iti(»i of the count ij of Montreal. 



! i 

Town and \'illnges. % 


Absent. 
DwiIIings. 




3 

I 




c 

1 
I 

3 


^ Division of St. Pierre, 
\ parish of 3Iontreal. 
S Division of St. IMichael, 
\ parish of i\Ioiitreal. 


City and Suburbs . . 
^'ilLiilv of St. Ilcury or } 

Tiinucrios clcsRolliiiids ^ 
Villajre des Tanneries lie ) 

Beiair \ 
Pointo aux Trembles 
Rivit re dcs Prairies 
Sank 

St. Laurent 
Stc. Genevieve . 
Pointe Claire 

Total in town & villages 

Country 


22,.3.^7 
4()2 

11(5 

18.> 
32 
13!) 
328 
1()4 
333 


I4U 2,!)08 
4 G(] 

24 

... i 28 

8 

2() 

:a\ 

... i 2o 
3 1 .'57 


147 
3 

1 

1 

"4 

1 
1 


!)() 
2 

1 
1 

)) 
1 
2 


70 

1 

1 
"\ 

14 


24,1 Hi 


l;-)3 3,200 


ir.8 


100 
03 


]2,!)()9 


14 J,878 

i 


22 


Grand total of the county 


37,085 1G7 ! 5,078 

i 


180 202 


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'I'lic c'oimty of \'<ui(lreiiil, vliidi complt'tcs the tract of coimtry we 
have imdc'i'takt'ii to (k'.scril)c' imdcr our assiiintul division of the province, 
forms a toiijj;ue of land, hounded south-west hy the waters of the St. 
Lawrence, and north hy tliose of the Ottawa: to the westward it is 
houndedhy tlie division line hetween l^pper and Lower Cana«hi. This 
county conijjrises four seif^niories and one township. Th soil is in the 
ag^re^jite extremely fertih', and its surface, thou.'^h {j,enerally level, rises 
sometimes into gentle rid<4es or cafcaK.r. The most conspicuous heii'ht 
witiiin it is the Mont;i!L!,ne St. Magdeleinc in the seigniory of JJij^aud, 
near the sununit of which is a rectangular area of ahout twelve acres, 
wholly destitute of vegetahle production, and covered with rounded 
stones, so distributed as to exhibit the appearance of ])loughed ridges, 
whence it has derived the appellation of yvVVv dc }>'ithrlfi. I'.neath it 
the rij)))lings of a brook are distinctly heard, but the Avatcrs themselves 
have never yet been discovered, though some attempts to do so were 
made by throwing up the stones inunediately at the s))ot where the 
noise is most audible. To thede])th of I'JI or 18 feet, to which they have 
penetrated, neither moss nor soil of any species could be found, but 
merely a dry accumulation of trap and sand stones of moderate bulk. 

The pretty village of lligaud is delightfully seated at the base of 
this mountain, on the banks of river A la (iraisse, and near the shores of 
the beautiful lake of the Two Mountains. ?%early one league west of 
Uigaud is the ferry to the mouth of the North Itiver in Argenteuil, and 
about three leagues eastward from the village along the borders of the 
lake, is the ferry at Le Dernier's to the Indian villages on the op])osite 
side the water, Avhere Indian birch canoes are always to be found ready 
for the conveyance of passengers, who will not fail to admire the skill (^f 
tile natives in the management of their frail barks, esjiecially if they 
should ]ia))pcn to cross the lake in windy weather, which they generally 
c;in do with safety. The village of A^audreuil is about six miles beyond 
this ferry ; and six miles further on is the Pointe des Cascades, at the 
eastern extremity of the seigniory. At this point there are three steep 
hills forming the approach to a small village, which by its position is a 
great thoroughfare, where steam-boats and stages, with multitudes of 
])asseiigcrs to and from Fpper Canada, constantly c(.)me and go ; yet it 



Tin: ( i:i)AHs-(()Ti:.\r dc i.ac. 



P.:].') 



(k'vivrs hut littli' pcnniiiiont atlvaiita^v iVoin siuli tr.iiisii'iit I'iriiiin- 
staiK'i's, and is tlu'irfoiv laii<>i'iil in its ^rowtli. Slram-boats pi'rforni tlio 
trip l)(.'twi'c'ii this phici' and La Chine in fiio /tonf.s- ,t;t)in<;' down and ///rcc 
lioi(r.s t'oininn' np. The .stoainci' St. liawrenci' (IH'J?) is iniinlk'd hy a ;{!2 
horsc'-powcr engine, and has l^ hirths i'or passengers: thv' tare is .j.v. in 
the eahin, anil .'j.v. (ic/. in the steeraj^'e. 

The viliaj^e of tlie Cedars, the eentral jjoint of the ))arish of St. .lo- 
seph, is one of nuieh iin])ortanee from its niannitnde and position. It is 
five mik's from the C'aseack-s. and situated at the Iiead of thi' Ced;ir 
Uapids, at the i)oint of rendezvous for all hoats passing- up or down tlie 
river, and iia\ inj^' an estahli-.lied l'( rry to the oi)p()site sei;;iiiory of Meau- 
harnois. The Avell-wooded islands bel'ore it, the <lashin<;" and terrilie 
rush of waters that suee]) hy in broad Vi)lunies in front, the raft, the 
Durham boat, or the batteau, involved in the foaming- rapid on their 
swilt earccr downward, or tin- hitter stru_i;<i;Tm<f heavily alonj; the shore 
in aseendin<^' the river, are objeets that add ania/ingly to the interest of 
the ]>!aee, and enhanee the pietures([ue beauties of its seenery. 

At a ])laee near Iiont>ueuirs mill the batteaux goin^' up the St. 
I^awrcnce are unloaded, and their freights transj)orted in earts to the 
village, in order that they may be towed up lij^ht throuj>;h the (irandc 
Batturc or Itapide du C»*)teau des ("edres. On the opposite shore is the 
Rapid (le liouleuu, dcejjer, but not less didieult to ])ass. The eond)ined 
eff'eets of these two make this the most intrieatc and hazardous ])laee 
that is met with between Montreal and T^ake Ontario. In a military 
point of view it is one of the most important s])ots that can be ehosen, 
if it should ever imfortunately be again necessary to adopt defensive 
measures, as works thrown up on the projecting points of each side would 
completely frustrate any attempt to bring down by water a force suf- 
ficient to undertake offensive operations against ^lontreal. \\ Coteau du 
Lac, just above river de I^'Isle, boats again enter locks to avoid a very 
strong ra})id between Prison Island and the point abreast of it, where a 
duty is collected u])on wines, s])irits, and many other articles that are 
carried by them into l'])per Canada. This place has been always 
esteemed a military post of some eonse((uence. AVorks are here erected 
and kept in good repair that conmiand the passage on the north side of 

It II !> 






3*,; 



'236 



LOWKH CANADA. 



tlic river; and were anotlier thrown up <>n Prison Island, it Avould rondor 
till" pass so diflicult as to make it very impiohabir that any i-ncMuy, how- 
ever entcrprisinj^. wonhl run the hazard of it, or i'\ en venture through 
the outer ehannelhetween I'rison Islaixl and (iranch* Isli". The stream 
is interrupted hereabouts by several islands, between whieh it rushes 
with j;reat ini|)etuosity, and is so inueh a<;itated that bouts and rafts en- 
eounter great ineonvenienee in desci-ndinn- : (o go down in safety they 
nnist keep elose \uider the shores of I'rison Island. At two utiles from 
C'oteau du I^ae is M'Doiu'H's tavern, a very good house for the aeeoni- 
niodation of travellers towards the uj)per province, and conveniently 
situated for that purpose, 

Tiie principal road in the county connnences nt Point Fortune, at 
the foot of Carillon Uai)id, and runs along the borders of the water (by 
which it is in some jdaces undermined), round to I'oint an IJaudet. Tt 
generally ])asses at the base of La Petite Cote, a gentle and well-cul- 
tivated rising ground tiiat lies on the right; but the road itself is very 
l)ad in many ])laees, and, from its passing through a rich soil, reciuircs 
constant repair. The concession and cross roads are tolerably good in 
all the seigniories, and the dwelling-houses neat and substantial, and 
often built of stone. In the Concession de la Petite Cote in Xnn- 
dreuil an extensive vein of iron ore has been discovered, but it has not 
yet been opened. From Coteau du Lac the steam-boat navigation, 
which is left off at the Cascades, is resumed, and continued through 
Lake St. Francis to Lancaster in TpiJir Canada. In the seigniory of 
New I^ongucuil there are some settlements along the new road in front; 
but the most populous parts of the seigniory lie more centrally, and 
along the river de LTsle, on the borders of which is situated the j)arish 
church of St. Polycarpc. 

The county of Vaudreuil contains a population of 1;J,S()0 souls; but 
a large portion of its inlial)itants follows the ])ursuit of roi/(t^<>'ei(/',s, to the 
material injury of the agricultural interests of that valuable tract of 
country, and the evident demoralization of the people, from its inducing 
those wandering habits that are inconijiatible with rural economy, and a 
dissoluteness of morals which marks but too generally that class of men. 



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COUNTRY Iir.TWnEX TIIUKK UIVKRS AXD QlT.nr.C. 1237 



NORTH SIDK OF TIFK ST. LAWRKNCK. 






§ II.— COUNTKY nKTWKKN TIIkSt. MAiriUCR ANI» TIIkHaOITKNAV. — Culiuticn: — ClIAMIM.AIN, 
I'OUTNKUK, QUKIIKC, AIoNTMOHKNCI, (llltl /iiirl o/'SaOUKNA V. 

Tlie ])»>|)iiliiti()ii of tilt' trai't of coimtry lyinj;' hc'twini tlio rivi'is 
Sa^^ucnay and St. Maurit'f ainoimts to about 70, ()()() souls, (uriii>ym;j,' tlic 
lands on the northern hank of the St. Lawrt>iU'o to the average deptli of 
three leagues from tiie niarj;in of the river. 'I'lie distanee from the mouth 
of one river to the estuary of the other rather exeeeds !<)() miles, (^iichee 
being situated in an intermediate and almost central jxysition between 
them. 

Of the two sections of country divided by the intervention of the 
cai)ital of the j)rovinee, that to the westward is by far the most populous, 
though ])erhaps not the most interesting luuler every other aspect. It 
is amply watered by the numerous tributaries and uiain branches of the 
rivers Jac(|ues C'artier, I'ortneuf, St. i\nne's, and Hatiscan, which havi* 
their sources to the north and north-east of their mouths, and How in 
the general direction of south-west to their respective junctions Avith the 
St. Lawrence. They all are frecjuently rapid, and conse(juently can ofler 
but limited advantages from their navigation ; yet some of them an- 
effectually used in spring for the transport of rough tind)er, made solidly 
into cribs or small rafts, and floated down to mills, Avhich are usually 
situated as near as ))ossible to the waters of the St. Lawrence. 'I'hey. 
nevertheless, generally admit of river craft ascending a few rods above 
their cndjouchures to convenient places of embarkation and loadiiig. Se- 
veral other inferior streams flow througb the country, turning in their 
courses grist and saw mills, which arc often, however, inoperative in 
summer, owing to the deficiency of water. 

There are from three to four concessions or ranges of the seigniories 
and fiefs lying above Quebec, within the limits above mentioned, that 
are effectually settled, if the seigniories of Champlain and Cap la Magde- 
leine be alone excepted, the settlements whereof extend but ])artially to 
the second range. The concessions seem almost imiversally to be laid 
out to suit the convenience of the settlers, without regard to regularity, 



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and for tliis ])ur])osc the oourse of rivers is, for the most ])art, a(lo])tcd as 
a line of douhle ranges (doiihlc cof/cc.ssiott.s'); and hence in many instances, 
I'.s on the Hatiscan, the St. Amie's, i^c, tlie settlements are formed on 
both banks of the river to a remote distance from the St. Tiawrence. A 



far greater (juantity or land is in general conceded witlnn the seigniories 
than what is actually cultivated, most of the inhabitants having, besides 
the farm they cultivate, another lot, from whence they derive supplies 
of building-timber and fuel. 

The lands in the aggregate consist of a generous soil, Avhich, how- 
ever productive near the shores of the river, is stated to improve as it 
recedes from them — a circumstance tending to remove the ])rejudices 
existing against inland settlements. The light sandy soil which predo- 
minates in the seigniories above ])articulari/ed (Cap la Magdeleine and 
Chainplain) makes them an exception to the general fertility of this 
tract of country. The only townships that fall within this section are 
Stoneham and Tewkesbury, which were originally surveyed in 1800; 
but it is only recently that their settlement has commenced with any 
vigour, new surveys having been made, and the prosperous neighbouring 
settlements of the seigniories of St. (Jabriel and Faussambault liavin<x 
spread their beneficial influence to thein, and brought those township 
lands into notice. 

The principal roads connecting the line af ])arishes, bordering this 
part of the St. Lawrence, or leading to the more inland parishes of St. 
Augustin and Lorette, are generally kept in good repair, but much 
inconvenience is suffered from the »tce]) hills that are met with on 
the ri\"er road at Cap Rouge, St. Augustin, Jaccpies Carticr, and the 
Eucrails ; some of these hills however may be avoided by the adoption 
of the roa(' passing over the upper Jacciues Carticr bridge, or that lying 
through the new village of St. Augustin, which is the route followed 
bv the j)ublic stages, and the means of avoiding the abrupt hills of Cap 
R(nige. 

Leaving Quebec by the upper road, cither of Abra'm's Plains or 
St. Foy, the eye dwells with delight on the ])icturesque valley of the 
St. Charles, which meanders beautifully through fertile and luxuriant 
fields, amidst flourisliiim' settlements, along the rear of which, boundiiijir 



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(jri'iU'C, nisTouicAL ski:tch. 



'239 



the hori/on westward, cxtoiuls n bold mountain range, whose majestic 
grandeur is displayed to singular advantage immediately alter sunset, 
when its distinct and prominent outline is Hgured against the lieavens, 
still glowing with the transparency ami warmth of solar radiance. A])- 
proaching the village of Point aux 'rrend)les, the mountains of (Quebec 
are lost to sight, and the roail is carried along the river nearer and 
farther from its banks, the country exhibiting no very bold character of 
feature, though its aspect is always agreeable. 'Die general elevation of 
the country about Quebec is considerable, and the beds of rivers falling 
into the St. liawrence are in conse(juence nmch depressed, with deep and 
bold banks, occasioning long and tedious hills, such as occur on either 
side the river .Iac(|ues C'artier. The parishes of Caj) Sante anil St. Anne's 
are the most im])ortant between (ijuebec and Three Uivers; and the 
latter, from its medium ]K)sition between both towns, is invariably 
stopped at by travellers, who can be accommodated Avith comfortable 
fare at two or three good inns in the village. 



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SoMK notice of Quebec has been taken already as a sea-port in thi' 
observations that have been made upon the river St. liawreiue, but it 
will perhaps be excused should the same points be again adverted to in 
giving a detailed description of the city. I'^roui the time that C'artier 
visited Canada, uj) to the period when the concerns of the colony came 
under the superintendence of Champlain (about seventy years), the 
French settlers and adventurers were dis])ersed over various ])arts of the 
sea-coast, or islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, as each, or a few toge- 
ther, discovered convenient places to fix their habitations in : during that 
time none of them had attem])ted to settle on or near the (ireat Hiver. 

The selection of a situation for building a town, wherein the bcMulits 
and habits of social life might be enjoyed, and from whence tlie managi - 
ment of the trading intercourse with the natives, and the government of 
the colony, could be more advantageously carried on than what tluy 
hitherto had been, was reserved for Sanuiel l)e Champlain. geographer 
to the King of France. Acting under a connnission from the Sieur de 



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240 



LOWER CANADA. 



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Monts (wlio shortly before had obtained from the court of France the 
exchisive privilege of trading between Cape Raze in Newfoundland and 
the fortieth degree of north latitude), he in 1608 made choice of the site 
of an Indian village called Stadacone, upon the promontory now named 
Cape Diamond, and there, in the month of July, laid the foundation of 
the metropolis of New France, which has through many vicissitudes risen 
into importance, and at the present day maintains a distinguished rank 
amongst the towns of the greatest consequence on the northern division 
of the new hemisphere. No less difference of opinion has arisen as to 
the origin of its name, than about that of Canada; and the result of the 
dis})utcs has not been more satisfactory in fixing its derivation. Whether 
it conies from the Algonquin, Abenaqui, or Norman languages, to each 
of which conjecture has assigned it, we have not the means of verifying; 
nor is it indeed very material; it is enough to know that Champlain 
called his new town Quebec. 

The ])rogrcss of its aggrandizement there is much reason to believe 
was slow ; for the new settlers, and indeed Champlain at their head, 
were not only so impolitic as to encourage the prosecution of hostilities 
between the two ncighboin-ing nations of the Algonquins and Iroquois, 
but even to join the former against the latter. This interference drew 
upon the French the hatred of the powerful Iroquois, and was the means 
of involving the whole colony in a long and most destructive w^arfare, 
which at an early period rendered some defensive fortifications necessary 
to protect Quebec from the enmity of her new^ but implacable enemies. 
The defences were at first of the rudest description, being nothing more 
than embankments strengthened with palisades. In 1629 it was in an 
untenable state against the English, and fell into their hands ; but, with 
the whole of Canada, was restored to its former master in 1632. From 
this period some attention was paid to the increase of the town; and in 
1663, when the colony was made a royal government, it became the 
capital. Its progress towards prosperity was then somewhat accelerated. 

From its growing importance, the English were desirous to recover 
possession of the place that a few years before they had not thought 
worth retaining, and made an unsuccessful because ill-timed attempt 
in the latter part of the year 1690 to reconquer it, which was attended 



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witli ii disastrous result and severe loss. An tlie ])laee obtained eonse- 
quenee, and became an object of desire to otber and far mori^ ])()\verful 
enemies than the native savages, it was in tiie last-mentioned yi'ar for- 
tified, according to the rules of art, in a more regular manner, by stone 
works,which from that period have been carefully attended to, and ])y 
continual additions and rebuildings are now improved into bulwarks 
that may stand in comiK'tition with some of the best constructed and 
strongest fi)rtifications of Europe. From 1()90 the increase was gradual 
while it remained under the French government ; but since that ])eriod 
its })rogrcss towards ))rosperity has been much more ra))i(l. 

The sitiuitlon of Qn.isKC, the capital of Lower Canada, and the 
residence of the governor-general of IJritish North America, is inmsually 
grand and majestic, in form of an amphitheatre. The city is seated on 
a pr()montory% on the N.\V. side (^f the St. Tiawrence, formed by that 
river and the St. Charles. The extremity of this headland is called Ca])e 
Diamond, whose highest point rises .'34.5 feet above the level of the 
water. It is composed of a rock of gray granite mixed with (piart/ 
crystals (from which it obtains its name), and a species of dark-coloured 
slate. Tn many places it is absolutely ]v.'rpcndicular and bare ; in others, 
where the acclivity is less abrupt, there are patches of brownish earth, 
or rather a decomposition of the softer parts of tiie stone, on which a few 
stunted pines and creeping shrubs are here and there seen : but the 
general aspect of it is rugged and barren. From the highest part of the 
ca])e, overlooking the St. Tjawrence, there is a declination towards the 
north by flattisli ridges of a gradual decrease as far as the steep called 
Coteau St. (ienevieve, whence the descent is more than 100 feet, nearly 
per))endicular. iVt the foot of it the groiuul is level, and continues so as 
far as the river St. Charles, and in fact far beyond it. The distance across 
the peninsula from one river to the other, in front of the line of forti- 
fication, is 1H37 yards. These fortifications may be called the ct/ccii/fe of 
the city, and the circuit within them is about two miles and three quar- 
ters. Out of this space forty acres or thereabouts on Cnpo Diamond are 
occupied by military Avorks. From the ca])e, in a north-easterly direction, 
there is an easy diminution in the height of the rock of about 11.5 feet 
to the Castle of St. Louis and the grand battery, that crest a ])erpeiidi- 

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culiir steep of 200 feet above the level of tlie river, ovcrlookiiitj; the lower 
town. Tills altitude and frownin«f appearance continue with very little 
alteration round the town as far as the entrance called Palace CJate, 
where it sinks to the ridi^e already mentioned at tlie foot of Cotcau Ste. 
Genevieve, and contiinies its course at nearly the same elevation through 
the parish of St. Foi, connecting itself with Cape llouge, and forming 
between the Kiver St. liawrence, the valley through which the St. 
Charles Hows, and that xuuler Cape llouge, an hciglit of land about 
eight miles long, rising above the general level, like an island above the 
surface of the ocean. 

The city, beside the distinction of Upper and Lower Towns, is 
divided into domains and fiefs, as the king's and seminary's domains. 
Fief St. Jose])h, ground belonging to the TIotel-Dieu, the Fabrique 
or church lands, and the lands that formerly belonged to the order of 
Jesuits. These, witli the military reserves, constitute the ])rincipal 
divisions, in which tlie suburbs are not included. In the year 1623 
Quebec did not contain more than 50 inhabitants*, and in 1759, the 
])opulation was estimated to be between 8,000 and 9,000 ; at present, in- 
cluding the suburbs, it is about 28,000. The public edifices are tlie 
Castle of St. Louis, the Ilotel-Dieu, the convent of the Ursulines, the 
monastery of the Jesuits, now turned into barracks, the protestant and 
catholic cathedrals, the Scotch church, the Lower Town church. Tri- 
nity chapel, a ^Vesleyan chapel, the exchange, the Quebec bank, the 
military and emigrant hospitals, tlie court-house, the seminary, the gaol, 
the artillery barracks, and a monument to AVolfe and Montcalm : 
there are two principal market-places, besides two minor ones, a place 
d'armes, a parade, and an esplanade. The Castle of St. Louis, the 
most prominent object on the summit of the rock, will obtain the 
first notice. It is a handsome stone building, seated near the edge 
of a })recipice, something more than 200 feet liigh, and supported 
t(nvards the steep by solid stone buttresses, rising nearly half the height 
of the edifice, and surmounted by a spacious gallery, from whence there 
is a most commanding prospect over the basin, the Island of Oi-leans, 



• Cliarlevoix Hist. New France, vol. i. p. lafJ. 



WOLFE AND iMONTCALM'S .MOM .MI:M 



243 



Point Levi, and the .sinToun(lin<«' country. The \vh()k> \)]\v is \i)2 feet 
long by 45 broad, and three stories hif^h ; but in the direetion of the 
cape it has the appearance of being much more h)fty. Each extremity 
is terminated l)y a small wing. The interior arrangement is convenient, 
the decorative part tasteful and elegant, suitable in every respect for 
the residence of the governor-general. 

The part properly called the Chateau occui)ies one side of the scptare 
or court-yard : on the ojiposite side stands an extensive building, formerly 
divided among the varit)us oflices of government, both civil and military, 
that are under the innnediate control of the governor. It contains a iiand- 
sonie suite of apartments, wherein the balls and other public entertain- 
ments of tiie governor are always given. Both the exterior and the in- 
terior are in a very plain style. It forms part of the cxu'tain that ran 
between the two exterior bastions of the old fortress of St. Louis. Ad- 
joining it are several other buildings of smaller size, appropriated to 
similar uses, a guard-house, stables, and extensive riding-house. 

The fortress of St. I^ouis covered about four acres of ground, and 
formed nearly a parallelogram. On the Avestern side two strong bastions 
on each angle were connected by a curtain, in the centre of which was 
a sallyport: the other faces presented works of nearly n similar descrij)- 
tion, but of less dimensions. Of these works only a few vestiges remain, 
except the eastern wall, which is kept in solid repair. The new guard- 
house and stables, both fronting the parade, have a very neat exterior : 
the first forms tiie arc of a circle, and has a colonnade before it ; the 
stables are attached to the riding-house, which is spacious, and in every 
way well adapted for its intended pm-pose : it is also used for drilling 
the city militia. On the south-west side of the Chateau is an excellent 
and well-stocked garden, 180 yards long, and 70 broad; and on the 
opposite side of Hue des Carrieres is another, 107 yards long by 84 broad, 
both appendages to the castle : the latter was originalh intended for a 
public promenade, and ])lanted with fine trees, many of which yet remain. 
Between both these gardens is a delightful and fashionable promenade, 
commanding a magnificent view of the hai'bour. 

The ISlonunient erected under the immediate patronage of the Earl 
of Dalhousie, then governor in chief, to the two innnortal heroes who com- 

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miUi(U'(l tlic adverse armies, and foil in the ineint r.ible battle of (^iiei)ec. 
stands in a eonspieuons sitnation on the nortii side of Wuv des Carriires. 
oecupyin^a reeess made for its reee])tion within the line of the njiper Cha- 
tean (iarden. It consists of a solid reetan<;ular eolumn, built of »^ray stoiu". 
and <;radually tapering- from its basement tt) the cap, Avhieh terminates 
in an apex. The total altitude of the momimcnt is ().) feet, of whidi 
hei<;'ht 120 feet 'i inches are taken uj) by the various j^radations of the 
basement *. The fund for its erection was collected by jifeneral sub- 
scri])tions, in which niost of the citi/ens readily joined, thus to comme- 
morate the event that at once deprived the concpierinj^ and the conquered 
hosts of their valiant and ill-fated leaders. 

The Court-house, on the north side of St. liouis-strect, is a large 
modern stone structure : its lenj^th is l.'iG feet, and breadth 4t, prescntinj»; 
a regular handsome front, approached by two flights of steps leading to 
an arched entrance, whence a vestibule on each side connnunicates to 
every part of the building. The ground-iioor apartments are disposed 
for holding the quarter-sessions and other inferior courts, offices of clerks 
of the different courts of law, <S:c. &:c. Above stairs there is a spacious 






See \'igiiette, p. ]'('). The iiiscrijjtioiiis arc the following : — 

MoitTKJI 

vinTrs coji.'Mi'N'F.ni 

FAMASI mSTOUIA 

MONUMKNTUM P0STEKITA9 

DKUIT. 



IIANC COI.UMNAJI 
IN VlUOnU.U ILLISTUMI.'M MK.-MOHIAJI 

WOLFE ET .^lOXTCALM, 

P. C. 

OEORGIUS, COMES DE DALIIOUSIE, 

IN skptknthionams ajii:kic;e paiitibus 

AI) IlUriANNOS PKRTINKNTIBUS 

SU3IMA.M HKIlt'M ADMINISTHANS ; 

OPI-S PKH JIITLTOS ANNOS PR-^ETERMISSUM, 

(iUin DUCI ERUKOIO CONVENIENTIUS ? 

AUCTOIIITATK PHOMOVENS, EXEMPI.O STIAIUI.ANS, 

iMUNlFICENTIA KOVENS. 

A. S. MDCCCXXVII. 

GEORGIO IV. DniTANNIABU.M REGE. 



Till", CA'I'lll'.DIJAl.S, (jri'.l'.I.C 



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chainhiT, in wTiicIi tlii' rourt of kiiij^'s hciu'li is lidd. mul aiiotlur 
wherein the c(mrt »>f a|)|)i'als and the admiralty eourt hold their sessions, 
with ehaiuhers lor the Jud<>es and barristers, and separate olllees I'or tin- 
sheriir, the elerk of the eourt of appeals, and the rei;istrar of the ad- 
miralty. The embellishments of this ediliee, both interior and external, 
are in a style of simplieity and neatness, and the arran<;ements for ])ublie 
business methodieal and judieious. It oeeupies part of the site u))on 
whieh stood an old monastery, ehureli, and warden of the Ueeollets. de- 
stroyed by fire in the year 17;/<). This was at one time a very extensive 
establishment, eovcrin^' the whole s])aee between the parade, Hue dcs 
Jardins, St. Louis, and Ste. Anne. The order is now extinet in Canada. 

The I'rotestant Cathedral is situated near the eourt-house. ami 
parallel with Ste. Anne-street: it is l.'i(i feet lon^- by T.j broad, built of a 
fine ^ray stone, and oeeupying ])art of the ground of the lUeollets, nr 
Franeiseans. This is, jjerhaps, the handsomest modern editiee of the 
city; and thoug'h not highly decorated, the style of arehiteeture is ehaste 
and correct. In the interior, a neat and iniostentatious elegance j)revails. 
wherein ornament is judiciously but sparingly introduced. An elegant 
marble slab, with a neat monumental inscription to the memory of" the 
late Duke of Richmond, forms one of the cons})ieuous objects within its 
walls. The unhappy fate of that distinguished and hunented nobleman is 
well known, and nuich too painful and alt'ecting to be unnecessarily dwelt 
upon, ilis death shed for some time a gloom over the whole covmtry, from 
the well-founded hopes the inhabitants had entertained that the cxnltcd 
rank and influence of so distinguished a peer would be powenuily 
exerted in the promotion of the interests and prosperity of the Canadas. 
There is a ])rincipal entrance at each end of the church, ap])roaclied by a 
tiight of steps. The spire is lofty, elegant, and covered with tin ; and the 
church standing upon high ground within the city is a very consjucuous 
object at a great distance. 

The Catholic Cathedral stands on the north side of Buade-street. 
fronting the market-place, on ground belonging to the Fabri({uc, or, in 
other words, church-land. It is a lofty, spacious, plain stone edifice, 121(i 
feet in length, by ISO in breadth: the interior is divided by ranges of 
arches into a nave and two aisles : at the u])pcr end of the former is the 






^1} 



1^ 



'J4(i 



l.OWKIl CANADA. 



t % 



} 



oraiid iillar, placed in tlic iniddlc of a circidar flioir tliat lor \\w lui<^ht 
of about Hi I'crt is lined with wainscot divided into s(|iiiire compartments, 
each including' a ])orti()n of Scripture history vepresented in relief: the 
spaces between the scpiarcs are wrouj^ht into dillerent devices. In the 
side aisles tliere are four cha])els, dedicated to different saint.s. The in- 
terior is lofty and imposing, and the ceilin<j; elegantly vaulted in stucco. 
It has always the ap])earaiice of neatness and cleanliness; but not being 
heated in winter, it is intensely cold and uncomfortable. On the out- 
side, the .solidity of the building may perhaps attract a spectator's notice; 
but nothing like taste in design, or graceful cond)ination of architectural 
end)ellishment, will arrest his attention. The steeple is lofty, with an 
air of lightness not altogether devoid of beauty, and, like the roof, is 
covered with bright tin. Instead of springing from the apex of the rooi', 
it is ])laced on one side of the front, giving it an appearance of allected 
singularity which it could not be intended to produce, the design having 
originally been to build two corresponding s})ires ; but what circumstance 
prevented the execution of this j)lan we are not aware. The chinx'h is 
dedicated to Notre Dame de Victoire, and is sufliciently spacious to con- 
tain a congregation of about 4()()() persons. The organ is an excellent 
one. The presbytery is the residence of the curate and four vicars of 
the cathedral, and has a covered avenue leading from it to the church : 
there is also a similar one between the church and the seminary. 

'I'he extensive building called the Seminary of Quebec stands near 
the cathedral, and is within the precinct of the seminary's domain, oc- 
cupying with its attached buildings, court-yard, gardens, tVc. a large 
space of ground. It is a substantial stone edifice, principally two stories 
high, though some portions of it have been raised to three. It forms 
three sides of a square, each about 7.'i yards in length, Avith a breadth of 
■10 feet : the open side is to the north-west. This establishment, origin- 
ally intended for ecclesiastical instruction exclusively, was founded ir. 
the year IfiC.'J by ISI. de Petre, under the authority of letters patent 
granted by the King of France. The early regulations have long been 
departed from, and at present students of the catholic pcrsiuision in- 
tended for any profession may enjoy the advantage of it. It is divided 
into two branches, distinguished as the Grand and Petit Seminaire. The 



III' 



iiii' ii()Ti;L.i)ii:r and i ksi i.im: (owI'Ms. 



Ji47 



studies of tlu' superior (Icpartnicnt arc conducted under tlii' supi>rintend- 
tMlcc of tlie Uev. M. Deniers, \'.(i., who is liiniself j)rofessor of pliilo- 
so|)liy, three directors, iuid a competent lunnher of professors in thi- 
(liferent hraiu-hcs of literature and science. Uev. M. A. Parent is director 
of the I'etit Seminaire, .liich is exceedingly useful as a "•em-ral school, 
wherein f^reat numbers arc educated fri'e of e.\i)ense, excepting- only the 
trilliui^ annual sum of five shillin<;s as a compensation for fuel. ll()arder>< 
are also received on the very moderate pension of twelve |)ovnuls ten shiU 
lin<.fs per annum. 'I'he interior i)Ian of this structure is judicious, and 
the arrangement very convenient: it contains all recpusite domestic 
apartments, hulls for the senior and junior classes, residences for the su- 
perior, directors, professors, and dillerent masters. The situation is airv 
and salubrious. The house is surrounded by hw^v productive <;ardens. 
enclosed by a wall, and extendinj^- in depth to the ^^rand l)attcry wliere 
it overlooks the harbour: the len<;th is 17!i yards, and the breadth UOO. 
It is well laid out, and ornamented by many handsome trees. 

In the year 1703, the whole of the buildings bcloni^in<^' to the semi- 
nary were destroyed by fire, and no time was lost in replacing' them : 
when, imfortunately, they again fell a sacrifice to a similar calamity in 
170.5. The Catholic IVishop of Quebec has fixed his residence in tlie 
seminar}', where he lives surrounded and respected by his clergy, and 
not less esteemed by the laity of all persuasions for his piety and 
urbanity. 

The H6tel-l)ieu, including under that name the convent, hos])ifal. 
churcli, court-yard, cemetery, and gardens, contains within its walls a space 
of ground extending from the French burying-ground, or Cimeticre des 
Picotes, to the Rue des Pauvres, or Palace-street, a length of '291 yards 
by a depth of li)6 from Couillard-street to tbe rear wall. This establish- 
ment, for the rcce])tion of the sick poor of both sexes, was founded by 
the Duchess D'Aiguillon in lC.'i7, througli whose charitalde zeal sonu- 
nuns were sent from France for the purpose of commencing it and su- 
perintending its progress. The principal structure is 38.'} feet in length 
by ;30 in breadth. From the centre, on the west side, a coi-j).'< dc h^i.'; 
ranges a length of 148 feet, and of a proportionate breadth. The whole 
is two stories high, substantially built of stone, with more regard to 






i 



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i.()wi:i{ ( A\.\i).\. 



intirlor (•(mvonitMicc tlian iittciitidn to syniMU'trv. smil lotally <Kv<>i(l of 
iiiTliiti'ct\ii'al (K'conitions. It coniiiins tlic coiivt'iit, liospitul, iind lu-arly 
;ill tlic (loiiifstic od'urs. Tin- cliiircli, alxtiit 100 fcit in Iciinlli hy M 
in bnadtli, fiu-inj;' tlic Iloti'I-l)i('n->tr('('t, lias notliiii;^' to rccoiniiuMKl it 
to notice l)iit the plain neatness of hotli its inti-rior and cxti'rior. The 
convent contains llie residenci" of tlie siiperii-iire. and acconiinodations 
for all the sisters of the ('ony;re<;atioii. The hospital is divided into Avards 
for the sick, wherein hoth sexes receive nonris'.ment, medicine, and 
attendance, free of all espiiise. 

This charitable institution produces extensive benefit to tlii' coiii- 
iminity. and contimially ad'ords relief to j;reat nuiiibi'is snlleriiio; under 
the accuiimlated op])ression of disease and poverty. 'I'lie funds by which 
it is su])ported are derived from landed proj)erty within the city, from 
whence it is entitled to all fod.s cf vi'iilcs ; also from the rovemies of some 
seif^niories that have been (j,ranted to it; ami although these are con- 
siderable, yet, from the liberality and extensive natinv of the disburse- 
ments, the expenditure so nearly balances the revenue, that it re(iuires, 
and occasionally receives, grants of public money. The whole admini- 
stration, care, and attendance of the establishment are conducted by a 
superieure, \.i\ lU'vcrende Mere Ste. iVntoiue, and thirty-two sisters, to 
whose zeal in the oHices of luimauity nnist be attributed the state of 
comfort, cleanliness, and «i;ood arranj^ement that invariably obtain the 
encomiums of every stranger who \isils the institution. 

The I'rsuline convent is situated a short distance to the northward 
of St. liouis-street, within the fief of St. .losepli, a property that belongs 
to it. It is a substantial stone editice, two stories high, forming u scpiare, 
Avhose side is 11 !2 feet. The building is 40 feet broad, containing amj)le 
and coineniciit acconunodatiou for all its inmates. The church of St. 
Ursula, connected with the convent, is O-'J feet long by 4;j in breadth, 
very plain on the outside, but eminently distinguished for the good taste 
and richness of its interior ornaments, and the beauty of some of its 
paintings. To tlie eastward of it arc several detached buildings, forming 
])art of the establishment. The surrounding ground, ()4.5 feet long and 
4,'j() broad, is encircled by a lofty stone wall, and, with the exception of 
a space allotted to the court-yard, is laid out in tine productive gardens. 



jLsrns' DAHUACKs, gruhix, 



241) 



This institution, for the |)iir])OHo of cxtoiulin^ t\\r lu'iiofits of a ciiffftil 
and ri'lip[ious fdiication to the frnialt's of the col i»ty, owi'.s its foundation 
in the year Ki.'J!) to Madunu' <U' hi IVItrio, a hidy ivsidin;; in France. It 
consists of a supcricure, La Hcvi'rende Mere Sainte Monii|ue. and !■.'> 
nuns, who are eniphjyed in the instriicti(»n of the pupils in thi' most 
useful hranches of knowledf^e, hesidcs enihroidery, fine work, and other 
female acconiplislunents. The luins live very recluse, and are more austere 
in their usaj^es than any other in the province. Tlii' laiuled property of 
the institution is not very j^reat, hut the industry of the sisters is inces- 
sant, and the profits arising; from it are all placed to the jjeneral stock, 
which therchy is rendered sufficiently am])le. Their enihroidery is highly 
esteemed, particularly for ecdesiaslical vestments and church ornaments : 
their fancy works are so much admired, that some of them ohtain con- 
siderahle prices. The produce of their ii,iirdens, beyond tlu'ir own con- 
sumi)tion, also serves to increase the revenue of the eonununity. This 
estahlishment heinj^- well worth ins])cction is usually visited by strangers; 
for which purpose a |)ermission or introduction from the catholic bishop 
is necessary, and <>enerally j^rantcd upon an ajjplication bein^ made. 

The monastery of the ,Fesuits, now converted into a barrack, is a 
spacious stone buildinj;-, three stories hi^h, formiiifj; a scpiare, or rather 
parallelogram, of liOO feet by ii24, enclosed within a wall extending moiv 
than iJOO yards alon<^ Ste. Anne-street, and the whole of Hue de la Fa- 
bricpie. On the arrival of some of the order in Canada in Ki.'J.^, their 
first care was the erection of a suitable habitation, which beinjr destroyed 
some years afterwards, made way for the present structure. It was 
formerly surrounded by extensive and beautiful <>;ardens ; 1)nt these, to 
the great regret of many, have been destroyed since the house, in com- 
mon with the other property of the order, has reverted to the crown, 
and now form a place of exercise for the troops: indeed, no one could 
view without much reluctance the fall of .some of the stately and vene- 
rable trees, yet untouched by decay, that were the original tenants of the 
ground at the first foundation of the city. As a building, this is one of the 
most regular of any in the ])lace. After the reduction of Canada in 1T;>}). 
it was bestowed by government u])on Lord Amherst, but subsequently 

K K 



m 



'■•:, * 



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250 



LOWER CANADA. 




J" 






reverted to tlie crown ; and the legislature of the province have peti- 
tioned his majesty for its restoration to purposes of education. 

The gaol is a handsome building of fine gray stone, 160 feet in 
length by ()8 in breadth, three stories high. It is situated on the north 
side of Stc. ^Vnne-street, with the front towards Angel-street. Standing 
on an elevated spot, it is airy and healthful. It has in the rear a space of 
ground 100 feet in depth confined by a lofty wall, where the prisoners 
are allowed the benefit of exercise. The interior is most judiciously 
planned, as it respects the health, cleanliness, and safe custody of those 
who are so unfortunate as to become its inmates. The design and con- 
struction confer much credit upon the architect, and the commissioners 
under whose superintendence it was erected. It was first occupied in 
1814. The expense of the building, upwards of 15,000/., was defrayed 
by the provincial legislature. 

Opposite to the gaol is the Scotch church, a small building not di- 
stinguished for any thing deserving particular mention. The edifice itself 
is not deficient in neatness, but it is disfigured by the inelegance and dis- 
])roportion of its spire. 

The building denominated the Bishop's Palace, and standing on an 
elevated spot, is very conspicuous. It is situated near the grand battery, 
extending in an easterly direction from Prescot-gate, or the communi- 
cation to the liower Town, along IMountain-street 118 feet, and then 
in a line running at right angles to the former, 147 feet. Its average 
breadth is 34 feet. On the south and east sides it is three stories high, 
but on the others no more than two. It was built for the residence of 
the catholic Bishop of Quebec. It contained a chapel with every suitable 
convenience, and was by no means destitute of embellishment. An an- 
nuity has been granted by the government to the head of the catholic 
clergy in Canada in lieu of it. 

The different divisions of the building are now occupied by the le- 
gislature, the offices of the legislative council, and those of the house of 
assembly. The chapel, 65 feet by 36, is fitted up for the meetings of the 
iiouse of assembly. Adjoining it are the wardrobe, the different committee- 
rooms, library, kc. Above this part, that forms the north-west angle, is 



1*1 


w* 



ARTILLERY BARRACKS, UNIOX BUILDINGS, QUEBEC. 251 



ifj 



the apartment where the legislative council holds its sittings ; and on the 
same floor are the committee-rooms, coimeil office, &c. &c'. de])endent on 
that branch of the legislature. Tlie vaults underneath the palace are 
partly appropriated to tlie secretary of the province, and occupied as de- 
positories of the archivi's and most of the public records of tlio province. 

The artillery barracks form a range of stone buildings, two stories 
high, 527 feet in length by 40 in breadth, extending in a westerly di- 
rection from Palace-gate. They were erected previous to the year 1750, 
for the accommodation of troops, by which the garrison was reinforced, 
and were then distinguished as the casernes vounelles. Tlicy are roughly 
constructed, but very substantial and well arranged. The east end of the 
range ivas for several years used as a common prison, but since the 
erection of the new gaol this practice has been discontinued. Besides 
sufficient room for quartering the artillery soldiers of the garrison, there 
is an ordnance office, armoury, storehouses, and workshops. 

The armoury is very considerable, and occu])ies several apartments, 
wherein small arms of every description for the equipment of 20,000 
men are constantly kept in complete repair and readiness for inunediate 
use. The musquetry and other fire-arms are arranged so as to admit con- 
venient access for the pur])ose of cleaning, he. The armes blanches of 
all classes are w^ell displayed in various designs and emblematical de- 
vices, and present, on entering the room, a fanciful coup (Vwil. In front 
of the barracks there is a good parade. 

The Union IJuildings, formerly the Union Hotel, are situated near 
the Chateau, on the north side of the Grand Parade or Place d'Armes, 
and contribute greatly towards its embellishment. 'JMiey form a ca])acious 
well-built stone edifice, three stories high, in a handsome style of modern 
architecture, 86 feet in length by 80 in breadth. The priuci])al build- 
ing was erected about the year 1803, under an act of the provincial par- 
liament, by a number of persons v. ho raised a sufficient joint stock by 
shares, and who, by the act, were foiined into a corporate body. The 
object was to have a commodious hotel oi the first respectability, for the 
eception and accommodation of strangers arriving in the capital. It was 
three years ago purchased by the chief justice of the province, who lias 
considerably enlarged and improved it; and the whole is now leased by 

K K 2 



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252 



LOWER CANADA. 







I 



government from the proprietor at a rent of 500/. per annum, and ap- 
propriated to public purposes, the chief departments of the colony 
having their offices established there. They are those of the governor's 
civil secretary, the receiver-general, the surveyor-general, the auditor- 
general of accounts, the commissioner of crown lands, the warden of the 
forests, the secretary to the corporation for clergy reserves, and a tem- 
porary hydrographer's office. An elegant room is fitted up for the 
sittings of the executive council, and chambers allotted to its clerks. 
The great room, which was originally denominated the assembly room, 
where the subscription balls were given during wanter, is now converted 
into a museum attached to the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, 
first founded in 1S24, under the auspices of the Earl of Dalhousie, and 
subsequently united in 1829 to the Society for the Promotion of Arts and 
Sciences in Canada, which was founded in 1827. The museum contains 
already a valuable collection of minerals and fossils, a considerable portion 
of which was collected in various parts of Upper Canada, classed and 
presented to the institution by Captain Bayfield, 11. N, The botanical 
department is also supplied with many beautifid specimens, amongst 
which the classified plants presented to the museum by the Countess of 
Dalhousie are prominent. In mentioning this interesting branch of 
science, we cannot forbear associating with it the name of one of the most 
zealous and intelligent members of the society, and one of its vice- 
presidents, ]Mr. Shepherd, whose practical as well as scientific knowledge 
of botany has enabled him to lay before the society, at different times, 
much important information relative to Canadian trees and plants. 

The walls of the great room are hung with paintings in various 
styles, some of which are of the best schools, and would do honour to 
any gallery. The collection belongs to JNIr. Joseph Ligare-, a Canadian 
artist of reputation, and a member of the society, who has liberally con- 
sented to this gratuitous exhibition of art upon the mere condition that 
the paintings should be insured by the society against accidents by fire. 
Next to the great room is a large and convenient apartment, appropriated 
to the meetings of the members, whether in general assemblies or class 
sittings : it is also used as the library, and, as such, contains several va- 
luable standard scientific and literary works ; but the institution being 



i^ii^ 



STREETS, MARKETS, QUEBEC. 



253 



merely in its infancy, the catalogue is not yet very copious, though it is 
daily acquiring an accession of new and important books, &c. The 
entrance to the building is under a portico of good proportions and tasteful 
design, approached by a flight of steps. 

The peculiar situation of the city, as already described, occasions ir- 
regularity and unevenness in the streets : many of them are narrow, but 
most of them are well paved, and the others are macadamized : the 
breadth of the princi])al ones is 32 feet, but the others usually only from 
24 to 27. The greater number of the houses are built of stone, very 
unequal in their elevation, with high sloping roofs, principally shingled, 
though sometimes covered with tin or sheet iron. Great improvement 
has taken place of late years in the mode of building and in the appear- 
ance of the dwellings, as the old-fashioned methods of tlie country are 
gradually su])erscded by a modern style. No less amendment has taken 
place in paving the streets. Mountain-street, where formerly the ascent 
was so steep as to make it difficult for a carriage, is now passable for all 
sorts of vehicles with the gi'eatest ease. John-street, Buade-street, 
Fabrique-street, and tlie greater part of Palace-street, are the great 
thoroughfares, and may be considered as the mercantile part of the lJ]}per 
Town, being inhabited chiefly by merchants, retail traders, artisans, 
and numerous tavern-keepers. St. Louis-street, running nearly parallel 
to St. John-street, is much more elevated, airy, and agreeable, and by 
far the plcasantcst part of the town : as such, most of the superior officers 
of the provincial govcrmncnt, and peoj)lc of the first rank, reside tliere. 
IMany of the houses are modern and very handsome : that formerly be- 
longing to the late Chief Justice Elmsly, though not modern, is large 
and elegant, and at present converted into a barrack for officers. Near it, 
in the rear, is the military hospital at the foot of Mount Carmel. 

The market-place is 165 feet long: in front of the Jesuits' barracks it 
is 2.50 feet broad, but near the cathedral it is only 172. In the centre is an 
elongated building, circular at both ends, and divided into Uvo rows of 
butchers' stalls facitig outwards, to which access is had on the side of 
Fabrique-street by a flight of steps and alandiug. The hayandwoodmarket 
occupies a regular area, formerly the site of the Jesuits' church, adjoining 
the drill-ground of the Jesuits' barracks, from which it is divided by a 



11 



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254 



LOWER CANADA. 



wall. Main streets diverge from the different sides of the market to 
the principal entrances into the city. The market is held every day, 
and almost always well stocked ; but Saturday usually affords the greatest 
abundance, when there is a good show of butchers' meat of all kinds, 
furnished both by the butchers of the city and the habitans or peasan , 
who bring it from several miles round. The supplies of poultry, fish, 
fruit, vegetables, herbs, and indeed every article of consumption, are 
brought by the country people in large quantities from the different 
fertile seigniories round the capital. In fact, nothing is wanting to 
furnish the table, and that too at a modei'ate price, for every rank of 
society, fi-om the humble labourer to the man of affluence, who can enjoy 
both the comforts and luxuries of life. 

The Place d'Armes, or GrandParade, in front of the Chateau, though 
not extensive, is handsome, and may be termed the court end of the 
town. Surroimded by the most distinguished edifices in the capital, 
and having in its centre an enclosed space, confined by chains and 
wickets, and laid out into walks, it is not destitute of attractions, and 
affords an agreeable promenade. 

The Esj)lanadc, between St. Louis and St. John's gate, has a length 
of 273 yards by an average breadth of 80 ; except at the St. Ursula bastion, 
where it is 120 yards. It is tolerably level, in some places presenting a 
surface of the bare rock. This is the usual place of parade for the troops 
of the garrison, from whence, every morning in summer, the different 
guards of the town are mounted : in winter the barrack drill-ground is 
generally used for parades. The musters and annual reviews of the 
militia belonging to the city are held liere. 

The Lower Town is situated immediately under Cape Diamond, 
and by the continuation of merchants' stores and warehouses reaches 
from L'Ance des INIers round the point of the cape as far to the north- 
west as the suburbs of St. Iloch. It stands on what may be termed an 
artificial groiuid, as formerly, at flood tide, tlie waters of the river used 
to wash the very foot of the rock. From time to time, wharf after wharf 
has been projected towards the low-water mark, and foundations made 
sufficiently solid to build whole streets, where once boats, and even vessels 
of considerable burden, used to ride at anchor. The greatest breadth of 



ft 



!§»' 



LOWER TOWN, QUEBEC. 



2,55 






this place is at Hue Sous le Fort, where, from the cape to the water's 
edge, the distance is 240 yards, but proceeding more to the nortliward 
this dimension is greatly reduced. L'Ance des Mers, or Diamond 
Harbour, is the southern extremity of the Lower Town. It is inune- 
diately imder the highest part of Cape Diamond, having around its 
shore a continuation of extensive wharfs, stores, and Avorkshops in full 
activity, from which there is an uninterrupted routine of business canied 
on with other parts of the town. A commodious dock for repairing 
vessels, and a yard for building, from whence ships of large tonnage are 
frequently launched, contribute very much to increase the importance of 
the place. From L'Ance des JNIers to lirehaut's ^^^harf, the road passing 
by the foot of the cape is very narrow; and that the communication may 
be rendered as direct as possible, it has been necessary in many ])laces to 
cut through the solid rock. The government gun-boat wharf and guard- 
house are near Brehaut's Wharf at Presdeville, a spot of historical celebrity 
since the defeat of General Montgomery, who, advancing under cover of 
the night, on the 31st December, 1775, to attack the place, at the head of 900 
Americans, was killed, and the assailants repulsed with great slaughter*. 
From this wharf a direct communication is formed with the citadel 
by an inclined plane or railway 500 feet in length, constructed upon the 
rugged face of the cliflP, which is 345 feet in perpendicular height. It is ex- 
clusively used by government for the more expeditious conveyance of 
stone and other materials required in the erection of the fortress on 
Cape Diamond, but may be ascended or descended by persons having 
pass-tickets to the fortifications, there being a flight of stairs, with a hand- 
rail, between the carriage ways. From Prtsdeville to the Cul de Sac is 
almost an uninterrupted succession of storehouses and wharfs, at the 
greatest part of which ships can lie without taking the ground at low 
water. At Ilacey's A¥harf are the large and valuable premises called 
the Cape Diamond Brewery, where an extensive business is carried 
on, not for home consumption alone, but in porter and ale for ex- 
portation. 

* A simultaneous attack was made by General Arnold on Sault au IMutelot at the other 
end of the town, in which that officer was wounded, but the British forces in that quarter 
were driven back about 200 yards to a barrier nearer the central part of the Lower Town. 



'i 



256 



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M I 



Tlie Cul dc Si 



LOWER CANADA. 



s situated between the King's and Queen's Wliarf s, 
forming an o])cn dock, dry at every tide. Sliips can be there conveniently 
hiid aground to receive any necessary rejjairs. In the winter, boats and 
small-decked vessels that navigate the river between Quebec and Mont- 
real are also laid up in security from the ice. It spreads 540 feet in 
length, and about 2-10 in dejjth. All craft lying here for repair, or other- 
wise, must observe the rules and regulations ])rcscribed by the Trinity- 
house, and are placed luider the inunediate superintendence of the as- 
sistant harbour-master. IJetween the Queen's and IM'Callum's AN'harf 
is the princi))al landing-j)lace, about 200 feet wide, where boats and 
canoes usually set their passengers on shore, but where much incon- 
venience is frequently occasioned by the numerous rafts of fire-wood 
that arc brought down the river for the use of the city, and moored 
hereabout, sometimes to the complete obstruction of the passage. If 
the regulations of the harbour, properly enforced, be insufficient to 
prevent this public annoyance, it should be removed by legislative 
interference. 

The public buildings and other objects of note in the I^ower Town 
are the catholic church, the Quebec bank, the exchange, the government 
warehouse, the custom-house, the wharfs, dockyards, and markets. The 
catholic church fronts "the principal market-place. It is the only house of 
worshi)) in the Lower Town, and was built upwards of a centuiy ago, 
in compliance, it is stated, with a vow made in 1690, during the siege of 
Quebec, by the English forces under General Phipps. It was nearly 
consumed by fire in 1759, but afterwards repaired, and surmounted by a 
spire. The Quebec bank occupies a lofty building, faced with wrought 
lime-stone, and having two fronts, one on St. Peter and another on Sault 
au JNIatelot streets. The edifice also contains the fire assurance com- 
pany of Quebec, to which it belongs, and also the Quebec library, besides 
several chambers used as offices. The library contains the most valuable 
collection of books, classical, scientific, and literary, in the province, and 
is inuncdiately supplied with the new works as they are published, the 
fund for their ])urchase arising out of the subscriptions, and the con- 
trol of the moneys devolving to a committee of management composed 
in general of the oi.'^inui shareholders or proprietors of the library, or 



ir 



tr 



THE KING'S AND SEMINARY'S DOMAINS, QrEMEC. 



2M 



their representatives. The government warehouse on tlie King's AN'hart' 
is a spaeious stone buiUling, 250 feet h)ng, appropriated for the reeeption 
of naval and military stores, and guarded by a small military detaeh- 
ment. The Kxeliange will be hereafter notieed. Tiie Custom-house 
stands on iM'Callum's AN'harf; and during that part of the year when 
the navigation of the river is iminterrupted, it ))resents the erowded 
seene of aetivity and business comnu)nly met with at sueh establish- 
ments. The insuflieieiu'y of the aeeonnuodations of the present esta- 
blishment for a department of that nature has been seriously felt, and 
the legislature has lately provided for the creetion of a custom-house, 
for which ])ur|)ose an eligible situation was judiciously selected by His 
Kxcelleney Sir James Kempt when administrator of the government, 
and it is intended this spring (IS.'il) to lay the foundation of the new 
building adjoining the extensive government warehouses on the King's 
>\harf. 

Some distance from iM'Callum's Wharf, and between the ))remises 
heretofore belonging to Sir John Caldwell, and those of Mr. Tod, 
passes the boundary line between the king's and seminary's domains. 
A definition of the precise extent of the former would ])rove tedious, 
as it is presumed to include generally all ground in and about the 
city not disposed of by deed of concession, or letters ])atent, either 
to public bodies or individuals. Such parts of it as may be deemed 
necessary are reserved for military and other public uses, and the 
remainder is usually conceded, subject to the ])ayment of /o(h- et veiite.s: 
The seminary domain Avas granted by JNIonsieur de Chauvigny, the 
governor of the province, to the seminary of Quebec, on the 29th of 
October, 1686, by which concession the whole extent of beach in front, 
and reaching to the low-water mark in the river St. Charles, was con- 
firmed to it. This grant is quoted by Le ISIaitre La Morille, Arpenteur 

Royal et Jure a Quebec, in bis ])roces verbal, dated — — , 1758, 

wherein be minutelj' describes the boundaries of both domains, and also 
of the ground granted to the Hotel-Dieu. The seminary's domain is 
nearly as follows : beginning at the separation from the king's domain 
in the Lower Town, it passes between the houses of the Honourable 
INIr. Caldwell and ^Ir. Tod; from whence it extends in an easterly 

L I, 



f^ 



V-^is^ 



I 



;.jl ; 



w: 



f 1 



i 



258 



LOWER CANADA. 






i 



ii 






direction as far as the low-water mark. Ilcturning to tlie first-men- 
tioned separation from the king's domain, it shapes nearly a west-south- 
west course as far as the presbytery, near the catholic cathedral, where 
it takes a direction nearly north-westerly to the French burying-ground, 
or Cimetiere des PicottJ-s ; and from thence it ends by a line running- 
north eleven degrees west by compass to the low-water mark, dividing 
on this side the domain from the grounds of the IIotel-Dieu. From 
M'Callum's to Messrs. Munro and Bell's wharf, the line is occujjied by 
a continuation of water-side premises and wharfs, conveniently situated 
towards the St. I^awrcnce, and well calculated for the extensive shipping 
concerns of their respective owners. From the avenue leading down to 
Munro and Bell's, the Hue Sault au Matelot is prolonged in a westerly 
direction as far as I^a Canoterie, so close under the cliff as to admit of 
only one vow of houses; and although by undermining and cutting 
away the rock so as to make it quite perpendicular, the street has been 
rendered as convenient as the nature of circumstances would admit, yet 
in one place, with all these contrivances, it is no more than twelve feet 
wide. In the rear of these houses is another line of wharfs, that can 
be reached by river craft at or a little before high water only. Over 
these wharfs a new street (St. Paul's), long projected, was some years ago 
opened, and is now become a gi'eat thoroughfare, communicating at one 
end by an angle with St. Peter-street, and at the other with a new street 
leading to St. Roch. From the end of Rue Sault au Matelot a hill 
communicates with the Upper Town by Hope Gate. Proceeding west- 
ward through St. Charles and St. Nicholas-streets, there is a range of 
spacious wharfs, the king's storehouses anr" wharfs, the batteaux-yard, 
and the jetty. The latter was no more than a loose pile of huge stones, 
extending from high to low water mark, and covered with a platform 
that served as a public promenade. It is at present partly embodied 
into wdiarfs, and partly left in its original rude state. In the batteaux- 
yard the boats and batteaux employed in the service of government are 
built, repaired, and laid up during the winter. 

On the western side of St. Nicholas-street, and fronting that of St. 
Vallier, are the ruins of the intendant's palace. After the conquest in 
1759 but little attention was paid to it, and in the year 1775 its ruin as 






LE PALAIS— KING'S WOOD-YARD, .^c Ql'EDEC. 



2.59 



11 ])a]aco was completed ; for wlien the Americans, under Arnold, block- 
aded the city, they found means to establish a b(*(ly of troops within it ; 
but they were soon afterwards dislod<jfed from their cjuartcrs by shells 
thrown from the garrison, which set it on fire, and nearly consumed the 
whole. Near the ruins is a small building preserved in good repair, and 
appro])riatcd for some time as the residence of the chief engineer of the 
garrison. Since the period of its demolition, a small part that required but 
little expense to restore has l)een converted into government storehouses. 
The distinction of Le Palais is still applied to a part of the Lower Town, 
in the neighbourhood of the ruins. Between I^e Palais and the beach 
is the king's wood-yard, occupying a large plot of ground, wherein u 
sufficient quantity of fuel for a year's consumption of the whole garrison 
is always kept in store. By its northern side is constructed an artificial 
road, substantially wharfed so as to prevent its inundation by the flood 
tides that rise in the estuary of the river St. Charles, along the banks of 
which it runs. Regular slants at convenient distances descend from the 
level of the road to the beach, which is always crowded with river craft, 
boats and rafts, the two former bringing generally deals, provisions and 
forage to market, and the latter consisting chiefly of fire-wood. 

On the western side of the wood-yard the suburb of St. Tlocli com- 
mences, and extends in a Avesterly direction to La Vacherie, a distance 
of 735 yards, and from the Coteau Ste. Genevieve to the river St. Charles 
about 730 yards. Towards La A'acherie especially the extension of the 
suburbs has been of late extremely rapid, and the fields formerly occu- 
pied as grazing grounds are now in a great measure covered with 
houses. The streets, though narrow, are regularly built and straight, 
crossing each other at right angles. The greater part of the houses 
are of wood, but a few of those lately constructed are not destitute 
of a showy exterior. The church of St. Roch is a handsome but 
plain structure of large dimensions. The ground on which it stands 
was a free gift from J. Mure, Esq. ; and the edifice itself was erected 
under the patronage of the late catholic bishop*, who was also the patron 



HI. 



k^ 



f* 






* Monseigneur Plcssis, whose great virtues and eminent talents rendered liim one of the 
most distinguished bishops that ever tilled the Quebec Catholic see, 

L L 2 



1^ 



QGO 



LOWER CANADA. 



of ii ])iil)lic' scliool ill this suhiul), and jinothcr in St. Jolnr.s. Tlic inha- 
bitants of St. Roc'h are cntitlcil to vote for tiie ro|)resentatives in })arlia- 
incnt for the Lower Town, whieh elects two. From the extremity of 
the subnrhs to the hiinks of the river St. Charles, whieh winds heautifnlly 
through the valley, as before mentioned, there is a large extent of fine 
meadow and ])asturc land, varied at intervals by gardens, and intersected 
by the road leading from the city to the former site of Dorchester 
bridge. 

The beaches of the rivers St. Charles and St. Lawrence, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Quebec, re(iuire a few words of ])articular observation, as 
they are disposed of by specific grants, and sometimes sold in ])ortions at 
great prices, or let at high rents, or for other valuable considerations. 
That of the river St. Charles from Pointe a Carey to the old Dorchester 
bridge is low, flat, and generally sandy, with many groups of rocks lying 
about it, but ])articularly between the I'oint and the .Jetty, where they 
almost edge the low-water channel. The s])ace that lies between a line 
prolonged from St. i*eter-street down to the low-water mark of the 
St. Charles and the St. I^awrence was conceded by the seminary to 
^lessrs. Munro and IJell, and within its limits these gentlemen had very 
extensive premises, that have been judiciously divided into lots and dis- 
posed of to considerable advantage for the building of wharfs and other 
improvements, -which are rapidly proceeding. The peculiarly favourable 
situation of this ]n'operty, at the angle of the Quebec rock, has led to its 
selection as a fit site for the erection of the New Exchange, which is 
an elegant gray cut-stone edifice, supported by an arched colonnade and 
piazza, and standing conspicuous on a projecting wharf. The edifice is 
()5 feet long by .'34 broad. On the first floor is the reading-room, 50 feet 
by 30 ; and above is the room appropriated to the committee of trade, a 
deposit room, and four other apartments. Uj)on another wharf, near 
the Exchange, is a market for the immediate accommodation of that 
quarter of the I>ower Town. The Exchange is well situated to be made 
a sailing-mark, by which directions might be laid down to prevent vessels 
in coming to their ancboragc before the town from keeping too much 
within the river St. Charles, where, at half ebb, they would get aground 
upon the reef that stretches nearly across its mouth. From Bell's Wharf 



PIER AcH- x^ 



IE ST. < IIAIILES. 



UGl 



down i> thee' ;• of the <X. Lawrence at low water the distanee Is '2:iO 
feet, ju irly ii!' reef of t nu'k and in a uortii-easteily (lireetioii, the 
Pohitc a (art a laroc «i;iilar ridjjfe, nms about 2K) yards heyoiid thi" 
wharf. It l( r» a mv w passa^^e for the ehainiel of the St. Charles, 
from whenec another eliawi of roeks ran<jfes In different direetions aluait 
the entranee of it, wliieli at hnv water is uneovered, and at hij;l» water 
has about two fathoms and a half upon it. I'rom the (iranil IJattery on 
the eliff, a little before the Hood tide makes, two distinet reefs ean be 
seen stretehin^- aeross it, nearly ))arallel to eaeh other. The entranee into 
it is elose within I'ointe a Carey, where several sand-banks form two or 
three different passajros between tliem. 

The construetion of a pier aeross the estuary of the St. Charles is 
a measure of the i^reatcst praetieability and of paramount importante 
under every aspeet, and a subjeet that was brouj^ht under the notiee of 
the le<j;islature in 182;), when it received the most serious consideration 
in conunittee, and was very favourably re|)orted upon ; but no bill lias 
yet been introduced tending to encourage so momentous an undertaking. 
The most judicious position contem{)lated for the erection of such a j)ier 
is decidedly between the New Kxchange and the Heauport distillery and 
mills, a direct distance of 4,;J()0 yards, which, witii the exception merely of 
the channels of the St. Charles (that are neither very broad nor deep, nor 
numerous), is dry at low water, and affords every advantage calculated 
to facilitate the construction of a work of that nature. It a])pears that 
anterior to the con([ucst the French government had entertained some 
views in relation to so great an amelioration ; but the subject seems to 
have never been properly taken u]) until IH2'2, when the jjroject was 
submitted to the governor in chief of the province by James Cieorge, 
Kscj. a Quebec merchant, conspicuous for his zeal and activity, as well 
in promoting this particular object, as in forwarding the views of the 
St. Lawrence Company, an association formed avowedl) foi- the im- 
proveincnt of the navigation of the St. Lawrence. 

Of the benefits to be derived from thus docking the St. Charles no 
one can doubt, whether the undertaking be considered in a local, numi- 
cij)al, or commercial point of view. ..Vs a means of extending the bounda- 



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wi 






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'2()'2 



rOWKIl CANADA. 



rics of the liowcr Town, and biiiijfinfj; under more imnu'dialo hni)rovc- 
nicnt the extensive iKaelies of the St. Charles, it is of the ^^n atest eonsc- 
(|uenee; whilst it will open a more direet and eonsiderahly shorter aceess 
to the eity from the fine eountry to the north-east, and therefore further 
oneoura<;e the introdiietion of produee into the (^nehee UJarkets, and 
nlso faeilitate tlie more frecjuent and general intereourse hetwcen town 
and eonntrv. Property in its vieinity would he ania/in;;l\ eidianeed in 
value, whether on the lleauport or the (^uehee shore ; and we almost 
niigiit look forward to the ])erioil when hoth hanks of the St. Charles 
would he identified as the Lower Town. 

Connnereially eonsidered, this ])ier (whieh would at first form a 
fi(/r-(fo('/,- that mi<;ht eventually be converted into a act-doci,-) would be 
of incaleulable advantaj^e from the great facilities it would oiler to the 
general trade of the ])lace, and es])ecially the tind)er-trade, which has 
freepiently involved its mend)crs in much per|)lexity, oAving to the 
deficiency that exists of some secure dock or other similar reservoir, 
where that stai)le article of the colony might be safely kejit, and where 
shijjs might take in their cargoes without being exposed to the numerous 
diHiculties and momentous losses often sustained in h)ading at moorings 
in the coves or in harbour. Hy building the outward face of the ))ier in 
deep water, or projecting wharfs from it, an extensive advantage would 
also be gained, attbrding increased conveniences in the unlading and 
lading of vessels. In fact, it would be im])ossible, in sinnmarily noticing 
the beneficial tendency of this great work, to particularize its manifold 
advantages : they are too weighty to be overh)oked either by the legis- 
lature or the conununity at large, and will doubtless dictate the expe- 
diency of bringing them into effectual operation. The different modes 
suggested of raising the ca])ital recjuired for the undertaking arc, 1st, 
from the i)rovincial revenue by the annual vote of a loan ; 2ndly, by 
an act vesting it in the city of Quebec, by way of loan to the city, to be 
refunded by the receipts of rents and dock dues arising from the work ; 
3dly, by an act of incorporation, the province taking a share in the stock, 
and appointing cor- missioners ; 4thly, by an act of incorporation only. 

From the western boundary of the Seminary Domain as far as the 



lU'AC lli:S OF THE ST. CII.\Ul.i:S-I)OU( IIKSTKR IMUDfil! 



.v;:» 



m 



I 



Jctfy. or Stone Dyke, tlio boiu-li bi'loiiffs to the IIottl-Dicn, and, witli 
the rij^lit of Usheiy, was jfranted to it hi Hi IS; hut tlie ^reatir part has 



been eoneedctl hy that estabhshnient to tliilerent persons, and is now 
occupied either us \\ barfs, (h)ek-yards, or tiinbcr-f^rounds. From the 
.Jetty, as far as St. Iloch-street, the whole of the bcaeh is reserved l)y 
government, beyond which tlie rcniaining portion, in front i>f St. Hoeh, 
was granted by the crown to the lion. .John Uichardson of Montreal, 
in trust for tlie heirs of the late M'illiani (Jrant, Ivs(|., from whom it was 
ae(|uired by the late .John Mure, Kscj., and is now the pro])erty of Mr. 
l\)zer. It is divided into several dock -yards, wharfs, aiul tindjcr-j^rounds, 
and occupied by various persons. Anu)nif the former, (ioudie's yard is 
the most eminent and complete, where sliip-buildinif upon an enlarged 
scale has been carried on fo"' ni^ ly years. There is in this dock-yard a 
spacious saw -mill, with nnui'M. , ^ts of saws, worked with prodigious 
velocity by a steani-ci^i' ( >nsiderable ])ower. C'.nnpbeirs AN'harf 

projects so far into the . v a' o form rather a remarkable ♦cature in 
looking toward Dorche The large building formerly called 

Grant's Mill still reniiiii.s apon it, though in ruins. Within these pro- 
mises there is a very exter.sive wet dock, or dam, for keeping timber 
afloat. From the line of La \'acherie uj) to the site of the old bridge, 
the beach on cither side of the channel is generally used as tind)er. 
groinids, and provided w ith extensive booms, dve. The bed of the St. 
Charles is flat. At low water the two channels are narrow, winding, and 
frequently divided by wide-spreading shoals of sand or mud. \\'hen the 
tide is out, the water in them varies from 8 to 27 inches, but at full flood 
the average is from two to two fathoms and a half. 

Dorchester bridge was originally situated higher up the river, at the 
termination of the road in the rear of Ly nd's farm on one side, and the point 
of junction of the Beauport and Charlesbourg roads on the other. This 
route, however, being very circuitous, public convenience suggested the 
expediency of building a new bridge nearer the town, and an act to that 
effect passed the j)rovincial legislature several years ago, authorizing 
ISIessrs. .John Anderson and Charles Smith to build the existing toll-bridge, 
and to demolish the old one. The new Dorchester bridge may be considered 



"i:l 



a 






k 



•nil 



LOWF.ll CANADA. 



lil^ I 






ill 



M : r 



ii 



ail 



as situated at tlu> UKnitli of tlie St. Charles, as hotli sliorcs lower down 
trend outward, and i'orui the ex])ansive estuary of that river. The bridge 
forms a direct continuation of t'raig-street, one of the leading thorough- 
fares of the suburb of St. Hoch, a;ui, inde])endent of its incalculable 
utility, constitutes one of the greatest ornaments of tliat ])art of the 
town. It is supported by substantial frame piers filled with stones, and 
its surface, wliich is macadamized, lies on a perfect level with the roads 
which it connects. I'rojecting from the centre ])ier. in the manner of 
Avings, are two light buildings, neatly fitted up, and occupied by restau- 
rateurs. Hetween the last ])ier and the abutment on the Heauport side 
is the drawbridge, constructed to admit the ])assage of river craft or 
larger vessels that are sometimes launched from or re])aired in the dock- 
yards above the bridge. The pros))ect ou every side from the bridge is 
agreeable and ])leasing : the town, suburbs, and the ca])e, are seen to 
great advantage. It is always l\C])t in good re])air, although the toll is 
fre(|uently avoided by passengers going along the beach at low water : 
in winter, as soon as a solid track can be maile u])on the ice. this evasion 
is almost general. At the northern extremity of Dorchester bridge is 
the valuable estate of .1. Anderson, Ksq., and some distance beyond it, 
on the Charlesbourg road, the elegant coimtry seat and residence of C. 
Smith, Ks(|. — tv, o gentlemen mIio arc the chief proprietors of the bridge, 
and have laid out a considerable ca])ital in its construction. 

The suburb of St. John, above the Coteau Stc. Genevieve, is built 
on very uneven grouiul, with an elevation towards the Grande ^Mlce, or 
road to Sillery. It occu])ies a ujile in length by half a mile in breadth, 
and is incrcvising very fast in buildings as well as population. There are 
several ])arallel streets crossed by others at right angles, exce])t Cieorge- 
street, which takes a diagonal direction across Uichelieu and Olivier 
streets, connecting this suburb with St. Koch, by the Cote d'Abraham, 
and comnnmicating with the road to JiOrette. St. .lohn-street is the 
])rincipal one, and from the end of it the road continues to St. Koi. In 
different ])arts of this suburb many well-built houses present themselves, 
several of which are of stone. On the south side of St. John-street are the 
protestant burial-ground and chapel. In the elections for members of 



i 1 



(jRAXDE ALLKF.— AllHAllAMS PLAINS. 



I2( 



)i) 



])arlianicnl, the inhabitants of St. John's subnrb arc tntitlcd to vote for 
tlie two Avho represent the I'pper Town. 

On tlie Cheniin dela (Jrande Allee, just beyond St. TiOuis-iiate, is the 
house and i>"arden formerly beh)n<;in<;' to Mr. .lones, and now occupied by 
the lion. .loiui Stewart ; furtlier along the road, on the left hand sid(>, is 
the buildinuj still called l'\'ru;usou"s House, standiui;' on the hii;lu'st 
n-round of tiie celebrated plains of Abraham, and in the occu))atit)n of 
Colonel Durnford, the conunandins>- royal en<>ineer in the i)rovince. It 
is calculated to be .'5;U) feet above the level of the river, and conunands 
most of the works on this side of the town, except those on the very 
summit of Cape Diamond. Avhich are still hi<;her by 10 or 1.5 feet. To 
diminish the ))robability of this eminence beiiiii,' ever seized nj)on as a 
point of offence ajj;ainst the city, four Martello towers have been erected 
some distance in advance of it, extcndin<;' from the St. T.,awrence, across 
the])eninsula, to Ste. (Jenevievc\ at between .^00 and (iOO yards' distance 
from each other, and so posted that they can sweep the whole breadth of 
the plains; they are very solidly constructed, and their batteries mount 
guns of heavy calibre. Proceeding along the Grande .Vllce westward, on 
the left-hand side are several large ])ieces of ground belonging to the 
IIotel-Dien, and the l^rsuline convent; on the o])posite side, well cul- 
tivated lields and rich pastures s])read down to the Ste. Foi road. The 
four meridian stones fixed in 17J)0 by the late Major Holland*, then 
surveyor-general of Canada, are placed at convenient distances from each 



ifii 



I ■? 



• This hifjlily scicntilic and ineritorious otlii-er was survoyor-goiieral of tin- wliolc (if Hritisli 
North Aiiu-rica aiitt'viorlv to tho Aiiicricaii rovohition. IIi- was at the lakiiij; of Lcwisburj:;, 
ami suhs('(nu'iitly at tho rcdiii'ticm of (^in'bt'c in 17 'i'. anil stood near (Jfncral A\'olf(' when that 
j;rt'at hiTo fi'll on the plains of Alirahani. The j;allant jii'iicral, as a tcsliniony of his rcjjard, 
presented ]\Iajor (then ('a])t.iin) Holland with his ]iistols, and left him the jj;reatest i>art of his 
plate. Several years before his death in 1)!()1, ."Major Holland sniiered a severe attaek of the 
palsy, ^vhieh di'prived jj;overnment of his valnahle services in his im]iorlanl department. He 
died, after nearly fifty years of active serviee, a meniiier of the Le'iislative and Kxeentive Conn- 
eils of Lower Canada, and earried with him to the grave the resju-et and sincere rejrrets of all 
uho had known him. lAly friend and patron in the early j)eriod of my professional career, as 
well as my predecessor in ollice and neai relative, I shonld be wroiifiinji: those leelings of gra- 
titude that I feel for his friendship, were I to withhold this feeble triimte to his supt'rior merits 
and his memory. 

M M 



f.i 



lib. 






'26ij 



LOWER CANADA. 



't' 



il 



other across tlie plains : they represent a line astronomically north, and 
were established for the purpose of adjusting the instruments used in the 
})ubHc surveys of lands. One of them that stood in the angle of a field 
redoubt where General W^olfe is said to have breathed his last, has been 
greatly im])aired by the ])ious reverence of curious strangers, who, wish- 
ing to bear away a relic of any thing from the spot consecrated by the 
hero's death, have broken off ])ieces of the stone placed there thirty years 
after that event. The object for which these meridian stones were 
placed has since been frustrated by the extension of the suburbs of St. 
Lewis and St. .John, the buildings of which intercept the view from the 
one to the other. When meridians are established in various parts of 
the province for the convenient verification of surveys, as is about to be 
done, new meridians will be re(iuired at Quebec, so situated, if possible, 
as to prevent the recurrence of such interception. 

IJcyond these stones are some open fields belonging to the Hotel- 
Dieu, but retained b f government for military uses. One of these on 
the left towards the St. Lawrence is converted into a race-ground, where 
the lovers of turf-sports meet twice a year, generally in June and Sep- 
tember, to enjoy the exciting anuisement of horse-racing. The course is 
a mile in circuit, and its situation so trulv deliohtful that it is well cal- 
culated of itself to attract numerous visiters. To the westward of the 
race-course is a property originally belonging to the late llight Kev. Dr. 
Mountain, liishop of Quebec; and contiguous to it is the beautiful 
estate of the heirs of the late lion. Mr. Percival, called Spencer W'ood, 
formerly known by the name of Powel Place, and which used to be the 
country residence of the governor-general. AVoodfield, the property of 
W. Shepherd, Esq. is another valuable and elegant estate, which, from its 
charming position, is very deserving of notice. The beach directly imder 
the height upon which these houses stand is divided into many valuable 
timber grounds, extending to the westward as far as Pointc a Puisseaux, 
which chiefly belonged to the original firm of Messrs. Patterson, Dyke, and 
Co. A\"olfe's Cove is the largest of all the bays in the vicinity of the city, 
and memorableas the landing-place of the English army which achieved the 
conquest of the ca])ital in 17'i59. It is generally a scene of great activity in 






# 



FORTIFICATIONS OF QUEBEC— GENERAL HOSPITAL. 



267 



I 
I 



f 



tlie timber trade ; during the summer season, numbers of shi])s arc conti- 
nually seen anchored in groups before the premises of the different mer- 
chants : it is principally the property of Messrs. Grant and Greenshields. 
The city, whose most vulnerable part is towards the plains of ^Vora- 
ham, is fortified by a strong line of regular works, from Cape Diamond 
to Cotcau Ste. Genevieve, with ditch, covered way, glacis, Ike, strength- 
ened by some exterior works between St. Louis-gate and St. John's-gate, 
Avell calcidated to render the approach to the town by the main roads 
exceedingly difficult, if not impracticable ; but from the ground rising a 
little toAvards the plain, it has been deemed expedient to construct the 
JMartello toAvers before-mentioned, to prevent any advantage being taken 
of its superior elevation. 

In its present state Quebec may rank as a fortress of the first conse- 
quence: the citadel on the highest jiart of Cape Diamond presents a 
formidable combination of powerful works, whence a strong wall, sup- 
ported by small batteries in different places, runs to the edge of the pre- 
cipice, along which it iM continued to the gateway leading to the Lower 
Town, which is defended by heavy cannon, and the approach to it, u]) 
IVloinitain-street, both enfiladed and flanked by many guns of large 
calibre ; thence a line of defence connects with the grand battery, a 
work of great strength, armed with a formidable train of twenty-four 
pounders, and commanding the basin and passage of the river. Hence 
another line is carried on ])ast the Hope and Palace Gates, both protected 
by similar defences to those of Prescott Gate, imtil it forms a junction 
with the bastion of the Coteau du Palais. 

The general hospital stands on the bank of the river St. Charles, 
about a mile distant from the city, in a healthy, pleasant situation, sur- 
rounded by fine fields and meadows, having its front towards the road 
called Chemin de I'Hopital General. It was founded in 1 693, by Mon- 
sieur St. \"allier, bishop of Quebec, for the relief of sick and disabled 
poor of all descriptions. It is governed by a superieure. La Reverende 
Mere St. Agnes, at the head of forty-four nuns. It has a regular front, 228 
feet in length, and forms nearly a square. The main body of the building 
is 3.'i feet in breadth ; but on the S.^^^ side a range, 130 feet in length, 
projecting from it, is .'JO feet in breadth. Detached from the principal 

M M 2 



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'-'68 



LOWER CANADA. 



odifit'c, and on the o})posite side of the road, arc two liouses belonging to 
it : one aj)])ro])riated for the reception and treatment of persons laboiu'ing 
under insanity, and the other as a dwelling-house for servants, employed 
on a farm attached to the establishment. The interior arrangement and 
management of this excellent charity, with respect to acconunodation, 
are very judicious. Tlie patients are lodged in comfortable and spacious 
wards, men on the groinul-floor, and women on the lioor above. For the 
supeiieure and the nuns there is ample room for residence, refectories, 
and apartments for carrying on different woiks in which they employ 
themselves, exclusive of their attendance on the sick. A neat church is 
attached to the convent, ^Vs this hospital administers succour to the 
atllicted under most of the diseases witiiin the wide range of human 
calamity, it is conmionly filled with patients. Its support is drawn from 
the revenues of the landed property that has been granted to it, the sale 
of the works performed by the nuns, particularly of church ornaments, 
which they make and gild in great perfection, and by occasional grants 
of money from the provincial ])arliament. 

In 1H25 the population of the city, suburbs, and banlicue, or limits 
of the town, amounted to 22,021, exclusive of tlie troo])s in garrison; 
but it is believed that the census taken that year fell considerably siiort 
in its results of the numerical strength of the people of Lower Canada, 
as well in the towns as in the country. At present Quebec Avould not 
probably be overrated at .'30,000 inhabitants, and, during tlie shi])pi;ig 
season, that number acciuires an ephemeral increase, that, in a great 
measure, subsides at the close of the navigation, yet leaves in the town 
no inconsiderable accession, arisuig from the emiorants that remain in 
the capital with their families, out of the whole mass of those that are 
landed on the wharfs. 

None «)f the towns in Canada are incorporated, but the jjrincipal 
regulations and assessments are placed by statute imder the direction and 
control of their respective magistrates, who generally hold Jicbdomadary 
or weekly sessions, for the consideration of the different municipal 
matters intrusted to them in their magisterial ca])acity. 

The following table, from the returns of 189.;, will best convey the 
nature and amount o( the assessments : — 



■r'siii. 



i 



II II 



I I 



■'/ / 



/ / 




I 

!■.'(. 



^ii^^ 



ASSEfSSME^'TS, &c. CITY OF QL'EBEC. 



2()}) 



is 






I 






~ in 

Si ^ 









1i 






^ 



Assessment 
for M'atch 
and Light. 


»; c o s o c '.1 


10 


•SlioQ JO -os^ 


O C ?M C -. S 


«* 


•0(1 i>0],ioi|.H-ano_.j 


l^-H (M 3(M O 


(M 


•S.lHlMJJK, ) 
111I.Mt|M-0,HX 


j^cri^^oca 




•BOSJOjj omista[j 


—• sc — CO o 1-. 


© 


Total of Koad 
Taxes. 

! 


■J. C-l l^ '■; L.T L-: CO 

'■w ?: ?i -3 S? ?i ?: 

2^ -. 'J'Ct 


■ © 


Assessments. 


-^ -.c ;= o © o c 
^ 00 '.'; 'c (M — i I-. 


■©~ 

£1 ' 


■SOSJOII )0 -Ofi 


'n ^X,~ r: (?i 



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+! L.- l^ 1- .- 



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•Ksassnrj JO -o^ 



c^ f f so ^ "ih 

CO :;; (M CC 'O l>. 



© 






•saiiaadojj jo 'o^ 



.J (N i-s. t,-^ 1.-5 © ~: 

1" t^— *-r Ol Ol 
•^ ■-■ o\ 1.-^ ct — — 

© 50 rt (M 






c^ "T :c i^r: CO 

© 1^ X © © © 



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•SJOjnudojj JO -oj^ 



ir; © 00 -T I - o; 

>— ■ -r 1-. © :~ © 



:; = o = 

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c:; t.^ -r .=i ^ - 
IS . — ^ :.» — 

(h fcf ^ , 

►-I k^ X X X ^ 
■"■ CM CO ^ '.":* — 



^ijiii; 



I 



270 



LOWER CANADA. 



:Ui 



p. 



TIk' communication between Quebec and Montreal lias been rendered 
not only easy and expeditious, but even agreeable by the improvements 
that have, witliin late years, taken i)lace in the construction of steam- 
boats on the St. Lawrence. Tlie first stcani-boat that jdied on the St. 
LaAvrcnce was launched in the year ISl $2, which, from that circumstance, 
forms an ei)och in the history of both towns, inasmuch as this api)1ication 
of the steam engine in that (piarter gave quite a new and very vigorous 
imjjidse to the connnercial relations and general intercourse of one ])lace 
with the other, and in fact imparted additional energy to the whole of 
the mercantile and trading concerns of the country. The original intro- 
duction of steam navigation into Canada is one of those important ame- 
liorations, for which the inhabitants are indebted to John Molson, Kscj., 
an enter})rising citi/en of INIontreal, who at once embarked a large capital 
in the luidertaking ; and, although he was countenanced in his j)lans, at 
the time, by the provincial legislature, he never obtained any exclusive 
privilege, and has in consequence been, of late years, obliged to contend 
with several ])owerful competitors for the palm of public favour. As 
the competition increased it became advisable to form a company, Avliose 
imited capital might be adequate to the losses that were often consequent 
upon opposition and rivalship, and accordingly an association was formed, 
called the St. Lawrence Steam-13oat Company, in which, we suppose, were 
merged the steam-boat interests of INIcssrs. INIolson and Sons, the chief 
pro})rietors. The boats are in general gracefully moidded and re- 
markably well finished ; and the cabins, both for the ladies and gentle- 
men, fitted up with much elegance and taste : the table is liberally pro- 
\'u\cd with excellent fare, and the dessert usually exhibits a good display 
of the most delicious fruits of the country, whilst the attendance is re- 
spectable and comfortable. Steamers start almost every day from both 
cities, and perftjrm the voyage up the river in from S6 to 40 hours, but 
they are several hours less in accomplishing the trip downwards, from 
the advantage of having a current setting in this direction as far as the 
Richelieu, where they meet with the tide. In the expeditious trans- 
port of troops and military stores these vessels are of the greatest moment 
to government, and viewed as a safe and sure means of forwarding with 
despatch forces that might be required on an emergency, in remote parts 
of the colony, their importance cannot be overrated. 



m 



STEAM AND TEAM BOATS. 



271 



Stalcment qf'Steutu and Tc'(im-ho(itt{ plijiii^ on the St. Lawrence, 
in Lower Canada, isao. 






Ih'lwvcii Qiiphrc and Moiilniil. 




Names. 






Kate of Knight 
Per Ton. 


1 
<2| 


1. 


Uumnrks. 




Ip. Down 


I p. 


Down 


1 

2 
W 
4 
5 
(i 

t 

i\ 

1> 

10 


* Tlie John Jlolson 

* — ' Quebec . 

* — New Swiftsure 

* — ('hambly 

— Lujjrairie 

* — Waterloo 

— Richelieu 

— Hercules 

* — St. Lawrence 

— LadyoftiieLake 


")00 

noo 

300 
400 
100 
130 

a'lO 

(100 

3-)0 

70 


120 
(iO 
(!") 
(>0 
30 

4r) 

4". 

100 

()■) 

2» 


s. 
10 


.?. d. 

7 

... 


1 10 


f ... 
1 ■> 


.V. 

10 


Tlie boats marked tlius '• belong 
to the St. Lawrence Steam- 
boat Company. 

Belongs to .John .AI'Kcu/.ie and 

others of Montreal. 
Hon. Mattliew Hell and others. 
To a company at Montreal. 

To George Gratield and others. 


--■ — 

Frrrii S/cam-hodts /i/i/ing IicIutcii Mimtrcal, LiiikjuciiU, and Laprairic. 


1 
2 


— Kdniond Henry 

— jMontreul . . 


'JO 


4.-) 
4o 










Til Kdniond Henry, Es([. i"v otiiers. 
To 'S\. Haynioml, Kscj. Lajirairie. 


Team lioii/s. 


1 
2 


— Edmond . . 

— Longueuil 


20 

1 


10 












1 




Fern/ Steatn-boats plying between Quebec and Point Levi. 


1 


— Lauzon 


1 
30 Ad. across. 


To Mr. James IM'Kenzie, Point 
Ia-vI. 


Team Boals. 


1 

2 


. 


10 
« 


3f/. across. Belonging to f;iriiu>vs at Point 
Levi. 


Total, 1() steam-boats, and 4 team-boats, plying on the St. 
— (iO river crafts navij^ating between Quebec and IMoi 
Rate of freight, per ton, 7s. "d. 

Square-rigged vessels on tlie stocks at JMontreal 

Do.' do. do. at Quebec 
Small crafts 


Lawrence. 

treal, of 2j to 100 tons burthen. 

. 2 

. !) 


To 


tal, 1 1 2 


There are also 2 steam-boats on the Ottawa river plying bi 
twocn La Chine and Point Fortune, and 1 between La Chine 


tween (Jrenville and Hull, 1 bo- 
and the Cascades. 



1 ■> , 



am 



LOWKH CANADA. 



i* 



Ik'sidi's tlic stcain-boats mcntioncil in the fc)iTj^()lii<^ tahlo, a vcssil 
of lar<;v toimai^f (stated at 700 or KOO tons) is now on the stocks at 
(jiR'bee, and vill soon be launched *, destined to navi-^atc as a steam 
l)acket between that eaj)ital and Halifax, Nova Scotia: such an event 
must conspicuously mark tiie period of its realization, from the 
l)()werful influence it will necessarily exercise upon the relations now 
subsisting' betwixt the chief towns of both provinces. Thus will be 
formed an extensive line of steam vessel conuuunication from the 
^Vtlantic sea coast to -(Vudierstbur<j;h, one of the remote settlements 
of I'^pper Canada, a distance exceedin<f !.;()() statute miles, wliich we 
may expect soon to see extended to the head of F^ake Huron, and 
eventually to the Avestern extremity of Lake Superior, about 700 miles 
beyond Amherstburgh, yielding* a grand total of nearly i2J()0 miles of 
internal steam navigation. \'iewing- at one eomprehensive glance this 
innnensc continuity of navigable waters, composing one vast aiul majestic 
stream, and embracing within the objects of our contemplation the 
gigantic length of the ]Mississip])i, whose surface is swarming witli steam- 
boats ti) a distance of nearly 'JOOO miles from its mouth ; it is impossible 
to resist the i)owerful ai)pcal that such stupendous objects make to our 
admiration, especially when we behold these two m.ghty rivers, with 
their sources in comparative proximity flowing in ahnost o])j)ositc di- 
rections through the v.esivrn half of aii immense continent, to waste 
their waters in the broad bosom of the oce-'tu. 

The navigation being closed in Xovvmijcr; the intcrcor.rse between 
Quebec and Montreal is carried on in winter by stages ti.iit start regu- 
larly from each city thrice a week, aiul jx^rform the journey in two days, 
the intervening night being devoted bv the travellers to rest. The 
vehicle consists of a sledge or carriole, well supplied with buffalo robes, 
and faced and cano])ied with painted canvas, so arranged as to be rolled 
lip on the sides if necessary. It is calculated to hold six persons, with a 
proportion of luggage, and is drawn by two horses driven tandem, or one 
before the other, in consequence of the narrowness of winter roads, and 

* We uiKlerstiiml that the comnnuul is to be given to ]\Ir. Jones, late of H. M. S. Hussar, 
a gentleman in every respect competent to the situation, and well acquainted with the gulf and 
river St. Lawrence below Quebec. 



TRAVELLING— Fi:iUlV.UOATS—Qli:iir,(. 



273 



oli!in{;'C(l at stiif^cs often luilos. The acconnnodiitioii at tlie various inns 
on the road is }>enerally j^ooil, and often very condortahle, as (hu'inj;' that 
season tlic dill'erent estahlishnients are well supported hy the eonstant 
travelliu}^' between both eities. Travellers may also ])roeeed by postin<^, 
there beini;' generally several additional horses kept at the ])laees of relief 
beyond what are neeessary for the re<;ular sta<i,e. In travellinjj; bi'h>w 
Quebee the same mode may be adopted on the southern shore of the St. 
Lawrenee, where ])ost-horses may yet be had at the old post-houses. 
althoU}.!,'h these have eeased, we understand, to be any lon<jfcr maintained 
under the direetion and superintendenee of the deputy-])ostmaster- 
j>eneral t)f the i)rovinee. Tiie expense of jwstin^ is generally one shilling 
a league duriu''' sunnner and winter, or fifteen-])enee in sprinj;' and au- 
tunm ; the eharges of tolls and ferries must be borne by the travellers. 

The conveyance of the re<>ular mail from the post-oflice at 'Quebec 
is a distinct concern from stages or posting ; it is forwarded by couriers 
who leave Quebec ami ^fontreal every day at four o'clock in winter, and 
one hour later in sinumer. Quebec being the central point whence the 
general concerns of the ])ost-o(Hce are managed, arul the focus as it were 
of the mails that are des])atched to all ])arts of the colonies and the 
United States, we will here ijitroducc a series of accurately framed tables 
of distances, showing not only the relative situation of ])articular places, 
but the prices of postage between each. 

lietwcen the city and Point I^evi, on the o])positc shore of the St. 
Lawrence, a steam ferry-boat plies regularly every half hour from six 
o'clock in the morning to eight in the evening, ])erforming the trip 
across in from ten to fifteen minutes. There are also three horse-boats, 
to which the preference is generally given by the country peo])le in 
bringing their produce to market. A great number of other ferry -boats are 
likewise continually passing to and fro, the princij)al ])art of which belongs 
to the inhabitants about the Point, as they are all ])ermitted, by regula- 
tion, to ply with their boats, on condition of receiving no more than the 
established rates, which are very moderate. In almost any weather they 
will cross in their canoes, which are large and very strong, being made 
from the trunk of a tree, hollowed out, or more frequently of two joined 
together, and firmly secured on the inside ; they are managed with great 



m 






Mil' 






m 






'274 



LOWErt CANADA. 






j 



"VX 



tak 



i^^ht 



hosidcs tlu 



(loxtority, mul somrtiinos take as many as ci^iit passengers, nesiacs me 
three or four men wlio work tliem. In the whiter, when larirr masses 
of iee are Hoatino; up and down witli the ti(K', an<l often, when there is 
a stroll";' hree/e, impillid at the rate of three or four knots an hour, this 
passage is sini'iihuly lahorioiis. and to all api)earanee extremely hazardous, 
yet it is very rare tliat a fatal aeeident has liap|)eiied ; in snow-storms, 
indeed, they have heen fre<piently driven several lea<;ui's out of their 
course, either ahove or l)elow the town, without knowin<;' whereahouts 
they •were, hut have always reached their ))laee of destination sooner or 
later. It is not an uneommon thinj>' to see several of these lar^e eanocs, 
laden with provisions for the market, erossin<;' the river as nearly in a 
line as they are ahle to keep. The ear<foes are generally seeiu'ed hy a strong 
lashing; they are provided with strong poles, having iron hooks at the 
end for graj)])ling hold of the iee, and drag ropes. When large sheets of 
ice oppose their ])rogress, the men, hy means of the ))oles and ropes, which 
they employ with an uncommon ahility, get the canoe upon it, and hy 
main force drag it perhaps fil'ty or sixty yards, or until they find a con- 
venient opening to launch it again among the smaller fragments, and 
then, using their ])ad(lles, they ])roeeed until they are intercei)ted hy 
another Hat, upon which it is again hoisted as hefore, continuing thus in 
toilsome succession across the river. Frecpiently, w hile they are forcing- 
it over a sheet of ice, their slippery fouiuhition hreaks heneath them ; but 
they mostly contrive to skij) nimhiy into the canoe, and evade the dif- 
ficulty. Often in pursuing their course through a narrow vein of water 
between two enormous masses, they arc suddenly closed upon ; and, at 
the moment when a stranger would imagine the canoe must he ground 
to atoms by the collision, they skilfidly contrive, by means of their poles, 
to make the pressure of the two bodies act upon the lower part of their 
vessel, and, with a little assistance of their own, heave it upon the sur- 
face, over w'.'ich it is pushed and dragged as before. 

They arc amazingly steady in this laborious work, and loiig habit 
seems to have expelled from th.'jir minds every sense of danger. Thus 
employed, they a])pear to be insensible to the severity of the cold ; they 
are not encumbered with much clothing, which is as light and as warm 
as they are able to procure. If one of them happens to get an unlucky 



Tin: ic;i: oppositk qi r.mu 



o 



ir> 



plim^o, l\c is oxtricatod by liis comriulcs an I'xju'ditioiisly as ])ossil)k> ; 
when u lu'ui'ty cnii/t i/f rtnii all roiiiHl, with wliicli they art' uv\v\ tiiipr.) 
vidi'd, is the usual ivnii'dy tor siu'h niisfortuncs. W'Ikii tluy arrivi' at 
the landiiiff bi'f'oro the luarket-plme, soiuetinies the tide is low, and the 
lee r<)nniu<;' the solid bonier perhaps ten or twelve feet above theni ; in 
this ease they jump out as fast as they can, all but one man : and while 
the ri'st are f;ettiii^ a lirm footiuL^ above, lie fastens the dra<^' rope to the 
fore ])art of the eanoe, and innnediately assisting' his eonu'ades, tlu' whole 
is haided up by niiin foree out of the water, when the ladinj^', eonsistinj;' 
of poultry, eareasses of sheep or pigs, of fish or other artieles, is transferred 
without delay to the nuirket-plaeeH. 

It has been said by many writers, that durini;' tin* winter vej^etablcs 
and milk in a fro/.en state are brought from distant places; this ecrtainly 
used to be the ease, but now tliese artieles are furnished in the best state 
all the year round, from the farms and {gardens in the vieinity. When 
the river fa/iv.s, i. e. is fro/i-n over from (^uebee to I'oint Levi, whieh. of 
late years, has rarely happened, it is not only ])roduetive of nuieh annisc- 
ment, but of {^rcat advanta<j,e to the eity, as well as to the inhabitants of 
the southern shore, who can at that time brinji; their produce to market 
in lar<;e (piantities without inconvenience. Hay, fire-wood, and all bulky 
artieles of consumption are furnished in abundance, and the consumers 
usually experience a great reduction in ])rice in conse(|uence of such an 
inHux, As soon as the surface is deemed sulliciently solid, the road 
across it is immediately traced out, and contimies under the inspection 
of the Ciroiid Voi/er of the district, who causes proper beacons to be set 
up on each side, and at intervals where they are required. AN'hen the 
river has taken in the north channel between the Island of Orleans and 
the JNIain (the southern channel is never frozen over), which is the case 
every year, the markets of the city never fail to feel the effect of it, as 
abundance of provisions of all kinds, the j^rowth of that fruitful spot, 
wliich have been prepared for the approaching season, arc inmiediatcly 
brought in : considerable supplies are drawn thence dm-ing the sunnner, 
but such as do not spoil by keeping are commonly retained, until this 
opportunity admits of their being sent with much less trouble and 
expense. 

N N 2 



% 




1 



fif' 



276 



LOWER CANADA. 



i 



Tlic summer scenery of tlic environs of Quebec m:iy vie in exquisite 
beauty, variety, magniticenee, sublimity, and tbe naturally liarmoni/ed 
combination of all tliese prominent features, with the most splendid that 
lias yet been ])ortrayed in Europe, or any other ])art of the world. 
Towards lieauport, Charlebourg, and Lorette, the view is diversified 
with every trait that can render a landscape rich, full, and complete ; 
the forearound shows the IJiver St. Charles meaiideriim- for many miles 
throuuh a rich and fertile vallev, embellished by a succession of objects that 
diffuses an unrivalled animation over the whole scene. The three villages, 
with their res))ective churches, and many handsome detached houses in the 
vicinity, seated on oently rising- eminences, form so many distinct points 
of view ; the intervals between them display many of the most strongly 
marked specimens of forest scenery, and the surrounding countrv every 
where an a])pearance of fertility and good cultivation, upon which the 
eye of the spectator wanders with ceaseless delight. As the prospect 
recedes it is still interesting, the land rising in gradation, height over 
height, having the interval between succeeding elevations filled up with 
primeval forests, xintil the whole is terminated by a stupendous ridge of 
mountains, whose lofty forms are dimly seen through the aerial expanse. 
The sense of vision is gratified to the utmost, and the .spectator never 
fails to turn with regret from the contemj)lation of what is allowed to 
be one of the most superb views in nature. 

Xor is it t)n this side only that the attention is arrested; for turning 
towards the basin, which is about two miles across, a .scene presents 
itself that is not the less gratifying for being made a .secondary one ; it 
is enlivened by the ever changing variety of ships coming up to and 
leaving the ])ort. On the right hand. Point Levi, with its church and 
group of white houses, several other promontories on the same shore 
clothed with lofty trees; and the busy animation attendant on the constant 
arrival and de))arture of ferry-boats ; in front, the Avestern end of the 
beautiful and ))ictures(pie island of Orleans, displaying charming and well- 
cultiv ited slopes down almost to the water's edge, backed by lofty and 
thick woods, and every where decorated with neat farm-houses, present 
altogether an interesting and agreeable subject to the observer. In tine still 
Aveather, the w//Y/^'<', or rcjlvcts of the different objects around the margin, 






?t 



COINTV XORTIl-I'AST OF QrElJKC. 



'■277 



in all their variety of colourini>", are thrown across theunrutHed surface of 
the water with an almost incredible I)rilliance. On tiie jjlains of Ahraham. 
i'rom the ])reci))iee that overlooks the tiniher-nrounds, where an incessant 
roujul of activity i)revails, the St. I^awrence is seen rollini;- its majestic 
wave, studded with many a sail, from tlie stately shi|) down to the lunuhle 
tishing-hoat ; the opjjosite haidv, extendin<^ up the river, is hii;hly cul- 
tivated, and the houses, thickly strewed by the main road, from tliis 
hcij>ht and distance, have the apjjcarance of an almost iminterrupted 
villajxe, as far as the eve can reach in that direction. The countrv to the 
southward rises by a very gentle ascent, and the whole view, wliich is 
richly embellished by alternations of water, woodland, and cultivation is 
bounded by remote and lofty mountains, softenini;- shade by shade imtil 
they melt into air. AN'hoever views the environs of (Quebec, with a 
mind and taste capable of receiving im])ressions through the medimn of 
the eyes, will acknowledge, that, as a whole, tiie ])ros))ect is graiul. har- 
monious, and magnificent ; and tiiat, if taken in detail, every part of it 
will please, by a gradual unfolding of its picturestpie beauties upon a 
small scale. 

North-eastward fn)m the capital lie the counties Montmorenci and 
Saguenay, and part of (Quebec, exhibiting in the outline by far tlie 
boldest features of any otlier part of the county. Tlie strongly (Telined 
rana'e of mountains that subsides on the Ottawa river in front of (iren- 
ville, stretching eastward across the angvdar tract of land formed by the 
St. Ijawrencc and the Ottawa river, skirts the Hourishing settlements of 
Charlesbourg, Heauport, and the Cote de IJeaupre, and linally strikes the 
St. liawrence at Ca])e Torment. This conspicuous mountain nu>asures 
about 1SJ)0 feet in altitude, and from its romantic situation on the 
borders of the St. Lawrence, has ac({uired much notoriety, although it is 
seldom visited by travellers. It is also the first and highest of a suc- 
cession of granitic mountains called " Les Caps," that rise in abrupt 
slopes to a considerable elevation fron> the inunediate level of the river. 

The mountainous character of the northern shore of the St. Law- 
rence may properly be said to connnence at Cape Torment, although its 
banks above Quebec are for many miles high, bold, and majestic, l-'rom 
Cape Torment the ridge ct)ntinues unbroken, except by the beds of rivers 






■■tMt 



■"■m 



it 



278 



LOWER CANADA. 



I I 



f' ' 



!!..>' 



...t 



and rivulets, until it effectually subsides 15 or 18 miles below tbe Sague- 
nay, in wliicb (juartcr tbe boldness of tbe nortb sbore sinks to a moderate 
level, prese.iing a degree of flatness and equality of surface singidarly 
contrasted witb tbe opposite sbore, wbicli now becomes mountainous, 
rugged, and abrupt. 

Tins tract of country is traversed between tbe west boundary of tbe 
county of Quebec and tbe Saguenay by numerous rivers and streams ; 
tbe best known and most considerable of wbicli are tbe St. diaries, tbe 
Montmorenci, tbe CJreat River or Ste. Anne's, tbe lliv. du Gouffre, 
tbe ]\Ial Bay, tbe IJlack Kiver, and tbe Saguenay, vvbicb bounds on tbe 
N.E. tbe section of tbe pi-ovince imder description. Besides tbese tbere 
are many smaller streams and tributary waters, many of wbicb are im- 
perisbable springs tbat supply tbe inbabitants witb tbe purest water, at 
tbe same time tbat tbey moisten and fertilize tbe soil. On several of tbe 
streamlets, as well as tbe rivers, ai-e frccpiently to be found excellent mill 
sites, formed by tbe rapidity of tbe water-courses, consequent upon tbe 
billy cbaracter of tbe country. Of tbe rivers above mentioned tbe Sa- 
guenay is tbe only one yet known to be navigrl,^ ^ to any extent, vessels 
of any burden being able to ascend upwards of "J T -, . bove its estuary. 

Tbe river INlontmorenci is remarkable, not c il ur the continued 
rapidity of its course, but on account of tbe Falls, situated at its mouth, 
Avbicb lie about nine miles N.E. of Quebec*, and are celebrated for their 
beigljt, magnificence, and beauty. Molently projected over a perpen- 
dicular rock into a preci])ice 240 feet deep, tbe waters of tbe JNIont- 
morenci descend in a bright fleecy sheet, of snowy whiteness, to the broad 
recipient beneath, Avbich forms a deep bay, whose sides rise, almost ver- 
tically from tbe foot of the Falls, to an altitude several feet above their 
sunnuit. The lower regions of the cliffs are destitute of vegetation, but 
it gradually makes its appearance at tbe elevation of 50 or 60 feet, and 
continues with more apparent vigour to tbe highest point of the towering 
banks, tbe verge of which is lined with shrubs and trees. 



* From Dorchcstcr-bridgc, passing towards tlic Falls, some traces yet remain of the field 
fortifications thrown up by the French in the memorable year 1759, as a defence against the 
British army. 







m 



Till-: FALLS OF MONTMOUENCI. 



() 



71) 



; H' 


Itt. ' 



; 3 



On the ri<^lit of tlic Falls, in a most romantic ]n>siti()n, is situated 
Haldimand House, the j)i-o])erty of IVtcr Paterson, l'',s(|uire, and once 
the residence of his late U. 11. the Duke of Kent, when tliat royal and 
lamented prince was in Canada, where his memory continues to hi- 
cherished hy many, as the exalted ])atron and sincere friend of t' * |)i'o|)lo 
of that flourishing colony. On the hrink of the Cataract, (ieneral Hal- 
dimand, ahout 4() years ago, built a suinnier-housc, which is still standing, 
but seluom resorted to at ])rescnt, I'roni the deterioration time has i-Ht'ctetl 
in its condition and security, although it contiiuies to ligure one of tiie 
objects in the scenery. The basin under the Falls is nearly semicircular, 
the Falls themselves occupying the depth of the segment, whilst its 
chord forms the general line of the ford wiiich is ])ractiscd at low water. 

The most advantageous view of the Falls is ])erhaps to be had from 
the left bank ; but there are a variety of beautiful ])oints of view in which 
they may be beheld. TIic descent to the bottom i)i' the Falls is practicable 
on both sides, although attended with considerable fatigue, yet the vi- 
siters of this "'oriivous water scene seldom allow tiicir ardour, in search of 
the sublime, to be checked by such dillicnlties, and generally eNpU)re the 
depths of the chasm, ])referring. however, the X.F. side as tlie k'ast ])re- 
cipitous of the two. Tiie height of the Cataract of Montniorenci is indeed 
very great, when we consider that it is unbrol-:en by any gradation what- 
ever, and that the waters fall in one extended beautiful and undivided 
sheet; but it will bear no comparison ^\■ith the stupendous elevations 
of Pyrenean or Swiss Falls, some of which exceed l!JOO feet in /o/a/ 
height, although the beholder cannot, at one glance, survey tiiis col- 
lective altitude, owing to the broken and gradatory formation of the ca- 
taract. In this res))ect ^Montmorenci is ])rol)ably not rivalled in tlu' 
world, since at one view the spectator embraces the eiuscuih/e of the ca- 
taract, hurled from its brink to its base, in splendid niagnitici'nce, its light 
and commimited waters flying off from its very sunnnit. in intinitely 
small, and infinitely numerous, white bubbles, whilst the majestic, heavy, 
and deep gravitation of the mass, creates from below, copious columns of 
gushing mist, that curl gracefully into air, and disclose tlie glowing dyes 
of their prismatic particles. " When the river St. Lawrence is frozen below 
the Falls, the level ice becomes a support, on which the freezing spray 



ll'^l 



^i. 



I ri"^ 



IH 



i 



P!*^ 



280 



LOWER CANADA. 



«i : 



'h •; 






(Icscciuls as slcct; it there remains, and <Tra(liially enlarges its base and 
its lieig-lit, assinHin<;' an irregularly conical form; its dimensions thus con- 
tinually enl.irging, become towards the close of the winter, stu])endous; 
its utmost height in each season necessarily varies much, as the (juantity 
of spray it is formed of depends on the degree in which the water pro- 
ducing that spray is copious: it has not been observed higher than 1'2G 
feet, which altitude it attained in March, 1S2<) — the wliole of the pre- 
ceding season had been unusually humid. The face of the cone next the 
Fall presents a stalactitical structure, not apparent elsewhere, and there 
occasioned by the dashing of water against it, which, freezing ir^ its '" 
scent, assumes the form which characterizes it under such circr tane- 
The whole cone is slightly, yet very perceptibly, tinged with an earthy 
hue, which it can only have derived from infinitely comminuted portions 
of the bed of the Montmorcnci, attracted by the torrent, and conveyed 
into the atmos])hcre with the spray *." 

The rock, over which the stream is precipitated, consists of gneiss, 
and the remoter faces of the basin of shaly limestone. Above the Falls 
is a neat toll-bridge, and, about half a mile higher up, are the natural 
,sti')hs, a section of the banks of the river, so called from its exhibiting a 
series of rectangular gradations of rock, resembling stairs, and supposed, 
by some, to be formed by the abrasion of the waters, though, by others, 
deemed to be original in their formation. 

At the foot of the Falls, on the western side, are situated the saw- 
mills and extensive timber establishment of Mr. Paterson, a particular 
account of which is given in the Topogi-aphical Dictionary. 

AVith the exception of the channel courses of the rivers, the 
estuaries of the St. Charles, the Riv. du GoufFre, and INIal liay are almost 
dry at low water, and afford safe and convenient strands to the river craft 
and boats trading at Quebec, at St. Paul's and Murray IJaysf. The 
apples from the orchards of the seigniory of La Petite Riviere near St. 
Paul's Ray are esteemed in the market, and may be considered a minor 
object of trade. At all these places several good square-rigged vessels of 

* Williiim Grpoii, Esfjuirc. Transactions Lit. and Hist. Soc. Quebec, vol. i. p. 187. 
t Deals, boards, and fire-wood, with some wheat, constitute the chief articles of trade at 
these three places, and at the Ebouleniens. 



ii ! 



ROAD TO MAL BAY— SAGIKNAY COINTIIV. 



281 



from l.'iO to <200 tons liavc been occasionally launched, and two or three are 
generally to be seen every year on the stocks in the ship-yards, besides 
several schooners. In the facility of ])rocurin<f tit timber, and its consccjuent 
cheapness, consists the chief advantage of building vessels at so remote a 
distance from the ])ort : an advantage Avhich has induced some ship- 
owners to contract for vessels as low down as Mitis. ^10 miles from 
Quebec. 

The communication by land with St. Paul's l^ay and the settle- 
ments lower down has hitherto suffered some im])ediment from the 
badness of the road laid o])en in the interior along the highlands already 
mentiojied, called " J^es Caps ;" but a recent legislative ])rovision, for the 
amelioration of that route, will throw the (Quebec markets o])en to the 
produce of a rich and fertile tract of the district of (Quebec. Helow St. 
Paul's ]Jay, whose settlements lie chietly in the deep vale of the Itivicrc 
du CoufFrc, or on the slope of the lofty hills that bound the valley, the 
traveller is op])ressed Avith the as])ect of a succession of steep and lengthy 
ascents and descents, seldom relieved by the grateful aspect of the plain 
throughout the distance to Mai Hay, whose settlements arc the last Avitli 
which aland communication is kept up on tliat shore of the St. liaw- 
rence. To compensate in some degree for the fatigues of so tedious a 
journey, the traveller almost constantly beholds a scenery well calculated 
to insi)ire him with ideas of the sublime, and elicit his admiration. 
Exalted considerably above the St. T^awrence, he connnands a magnificent 
view of the majestic stream before him, its diversified islands, and the 
flourishing settlements that adorn the southern shores; and most ])ro- 
bably may be seen, no insignificant objects in the landscape, the cheering 
harbiiigcrs of news and conunerce sailing up or down the river. 



! >li, 



Interior of the Coiniinj hjinff betxccen the SAGIH^NA Y and the St. A[AT;RICE, as 
taken ^froiii the liejiort <7/" JosEi-ii Bouciikite, Jln. Esq., Deputij-Survcijor- 
General oj'the Prov'nue. 

It was reproachfully but correctly stated anteriorly to the ])erform- 
ance of the ex])loring operations of 1K'2H, that the country for ten leagues 
to the northward of the capital of British North iVmerica was as little or 

() o 






i 



y, 



% ■» 



282 



LOWER CANADA. 



less known than the lieart oC ^Vf'riea. The inii)ortance, however, of ae- 
i|uiiin<;- a competent knowledge ol" tliat jjortion of the vast wihls of this 
continent lying to the north of tlie St. liawrenee, and Avithin tlie prohahle 
range of eventual settlement, had previously been felt by a learned and 
eminent member* of the Assembly of Lower Canada, who, taking tliat 
charaeteristie and enlarged view of tlie Huhjeet which it deserved, laid 
the ground-Avoi'k of those valual)le explorations, that have since aiforded 
so much \alual)le information relative to the Indian country ranging 
between the Ottawa river and the Saguenay. If on the whole the re- 
sult did not ))r()Ae altogether as favourable as had been desirable, the 
lands in the interior having been discovered to be, in the aggregate, cha- 
racterized more for their barrenness than their fertility, the accession it 
has yielded to the geographical knowledge of the ])rovince, is neverthe- 
less of the utmost imjjortance ; at the same time that the surveys, from 
the judicious combination of talent with which they were carried into 
eflect, have tended to develope nuich of the geological character and 
other parts of the natural history of the country f. 

Under the French government there is no doubt that the interior 
of Canada was eom])aratively better known than it afterwards was \i\) to 
the ])eriod of the late surveys, the religious zeal of missionary Jesuits 
having at the time led them to form establishments amongst the natives 
Avith a view of converting them to Christianity, whilst the ])ro,s])ects of a 
lucrative fur trade, induced several individuals to push their discoveries 
to remote pai'ts of the Canadian wilderness. The information, how- 

* Andrew Stuart, E.sq. Tlie subject of the settleiiient of crown hinds had been brought 
under the attention of tlie h'gishiture I)y the then goveruor-in-chief, Lord D.illiousie, and led 
to the noniination of a standing connnittee, of wliicli ]\Ir. Stnart was ai)[)ointed chairman. 
The labours of this connnittee form the subject matter of a series of iDvaluable rcjxirts, wliich 
contain the most useful and extensive information relative to the lands of the province, and 
every thing connected with their administration. 

i Gentlemen conversant with these branches of the natural sciences were always added to 
the parties. The exi)edition to Lake St. John was divided into three parties: — One consisting 
of Sir. Uouchctte, the Deputy-Surveyor-Cieneral ; JMr. W. Davies, and Lieut. (Jouldie, (ilith 
regiment ; another of IMr. Ilamel, L. S., Lieut. IJaddeley, R. E., and ^Ir. Howen ; and a ;{rd 
of IMr. Proulx, and Mr. Xixon, (!(!tli regiment. I\Ir. Stuart, one of the commissioners, and 
jMr. Wagner, accompanied the two latter parties to Lake St. John. Each party had a canoe, 
and a complement of four or five men, with Indians. * 



11 



THE SAGUENAY COINTV. 



'283 



ever, that had come down to lis was but vas^uo and very impcrf'crt. 
Jean Dii I-.act, C'hani))hiii), and Cliarlesvoix all mention the Sanucnay 
country, and descri' it <»;cnerally from the dicta of tlie Indians iis moun- 
tainous and barren, covered with ])erpetual snows, and alto<;ether forbid- 
din<>- in its aspect; but tiiis unfavoural^lc account, tliou<;h partially true, 
was obviously coloured by the fears of the natives from whom it was 
derived, they bein^' desirous of (lam])in^ the zeal of explorers who mi^ht 
eventually usur]) the possession of their huntinjf <j;rounds. ^fotives 
something of a similar nature, it is probable, tinctured the narratives of 
traders, who felt loath to encourajfc either competition or settlenuMit in 
those Indian countries, by connuimicatino" too exact aknowledne of them. 
^Ve have, nevertheless, in Pere Charlevoix's History of New 1'" ranee, a 
toh'rable correct maj) of liake St. .lohn and the Sa<i;uenay, which, con- 
sidering the early period when it was drawn, added to the vestiges of 
•Tcsuits' settlements found at Tadoussac, Chicoutimi, and Lake St. John, 
constitutes abundant proof that the French were not then ignorant of 
the gcogra])hy of that section of the ])rovince, and that they looked upon 
it as not altogether unfit for colonization. It was left, however, to the 
present age to develope more satisfactorily the physical geogra])hy of those 
regions, and nuich it is admitted has already been done towards the pro- 
motion of that important object. 

The Ottawa river, the St. Maurice, and the Saguenay ])rescnting 
themselves as three leading highways to the remote regions of the ter- 
ritory north of the St. Lawrence, the plan of operations laid down by 
the conunissioncrs in 1S!2H, was .so regulated in the different surveys, as 
to take advantage of this circumstance; one e\])edition asceiuling one 
river, and traversing by collateral branches, lakes, dvc. to the other ; 
whilst a second ascended another river, and ])cnctrated to some other 
part of the country. ]Mr. Houchctte, at the head of one of the expe- 
ditions fitted out for liakc St. John, took his departure from Three 
Ilivers, and travelled up the St. INIauricc to the trading posts at La 
Tuque, situated upwards of 100 miles from the mouth of the river. Lie 
thence ascended the IJastonais river, and traversed the country, crossing 
lakes, rivers, and portages, to the head-waters of the Ouiatshouan river, 
which he descended to its discharge into Lake St. John. After exjdoring 

o o 2 



lii 






2M 



I.OU I:R CANADA. 



tlic Assouiipinoiissdin to tlif Falls of JVinonka, aiul fircunniavi«;'atin<,' the 
Lake, he \\vn\ iij) tlio Ik-llf Hiviiiv, t-rossi'd tin- l-akc Kiimauami or 
Tsiiuia<j;aini to tlK'C"iru'oiitimiiivt'r,<l(iwM wliicli lictraM'Ik'd to its juiictioii 
with the Sa<^iu'iiay: and liaviiii;' explored the Tcnr.s lioiit/jiic.s or broken 
lands, he deseended the latter rivi-r, and returned to Qiiehee hy the St. 
Lawrenee: thus completing; an internal eireumnavigation of about 800 
miles, in an Indian bireh-bark canoe. 

The St. Maurice is a river of considerable niaj^iiitude, risini;' far to 
the northward, and Ho\vin<4- j>-enerally betMcen bold banks, in a broad 
deep stream, often checjuered in its carei'r by falls and rapids. l"'roni its 
mouth, at Three Rivers, to La Tucpie, it receives on either bank se\cral 
large rivers, \ i/.. the Shawcnegan, Hatiscan, Matawin, Hiver aux ]{ats, 
and IJastonais * ; and also numerous miin)r streams. The trading post 
of La Tu(|ue is situated at the ui)per landing of the carrying ))lace in 
latitiule, by t)bservation, 47" IH' ',i2" north. There is also a post main- 
tained by the Hudson's Hay Company, trading in opposition to the 
King's Post Company, that have an establishment here, under the manage- 
ment of a clerk. The land about La Tucpie jireserves, with few ex- 
ceptions, the unfavourable character that generally j)ievails below it, the 
soil, consisting of a light arid sand, ])roducing a growth of spruce, white 
birch, as])in, cyjjress, and ])ine. Above the ])osts, a nmnber of islands 
and extensive natural meadows, yield abundant forage for the use of the 
establishments, besides affording wholesome pasturage. 

Leaving the St. Maurice to penetrate across the country to Lake 
St. .John, .Mr. JJouchette traversed a scries of lakes and portages, and in- 
tersected, or went up or down numerous rivers, in tlivers succession. 
The principal rivers met with, in the route he followed, are the IJastonais, 
which the party ascended, the IJastican, North IJastonais, the \. W . and 
N. E. branches of the IJatiscan. and the Ouiatshouan falling into the Lake 
St. John. The chief lakes, which they crossed, are the Grand and Little 
Wayagamack, Kdward, Kajoualwang, Quequagamack, Commissioners, 

* III tlie TojiDirraiiliiciil Diciiouary of Lower C'aniida, foriiiiiig part of this ^^•ork, an- I'oii- 
t lined ])articiihir accounts of these rivers and of the St. Maurice, as far as they are know n. 
UefereiiLc must also be had to the Dictionary, under the respective names, for a description of 
the several lakes, rivers, portajjes, iS:c. that will hereafter be mentioned. 






;5^;:.S«j?i^5i 




1 \ ' . I \ I 










I ur t- I 




'»^J^ 



,fl':. 



I u 



! ^^Kj 



!!!* 



kH 



h I 



i 



hi 



M 
% 



SAfJlKNAY COrNTY-I.AKi: ST. lolIN. 



^'Ho 



and Hoiu'liottc; Imt miinprousiiifViior lakes and si'viral Kcrli ponds wcri' 
intcrsci-tcd and traversed, often eoni'cctid, as well as tlii' lar^^er lakis. 
hy portajics. 

or the country tints cNplored, the follow in/j," desiription is (jiioted 
from the Keport of the deputy Surveyor-! General : — '• In takinn a siuu- 
niary and eolleetive view of the traet just deserihi'd. it may In- ohserved. 
that the territory lyin^- l)etw(>en the St. Mauriee at La'ru((ue, and Lake 
St. .John, is j^t'uerally covered liy lakes and extensive swamps, oeeasionally 
traversed by chains of hills of no remarkahk' hei/^ht (»r eontinuity. com- 
posed chiefly of ])rimitive jjiranite. The prevailing' tind)er. that composes 
its forests, are spruce and tamarack, while birch and |)ine. Arouiul 
some of the larj^i'r lakes, occasional tracts of cultivable land may l)e 
found, but their remote situation, and the conseiinent impracticability «)f 
tiU'owing them open to actual settlement, must render this section of 
( .)untry a barren waste and wilderness for a{j,es yet to come."' 

Lii .J St. fohn is situated between tlie parallels of IH" !.'7' and iS' 
.>!' P'^'Mi latitude, and the meridians of 71" .'i->' and 72" lo' west lon<ifi- 
tude, or therea' )uts. Its general shape is circular, and its circumference 
4il)out 100 mile.,. 

In dcscribin<^" the I^cke St. .lohn and Saj>uenay country, we shall 
borrow Mr. Houcliette's own lan^ua<;e. 

"The rivers, which dischar<;e themselves into the lakes, are. on the 
north, the Mistassini, IVriboka, and Kocuatien ; on the west, the As- 
suapmoussoin, Ouiatsluianish, and other small streams; on the south- 
west, the Ouiatchouan; on the south, the Metabetshuaii, Kushpahiganish, 
and the lielle Riviere. The Grandi' and Petite J)(e/tar<>e, the only out- 
lets of the lake, lie on the east side. 

" From the King's Post Company's Kstablishment, at the mouth of 
the Metabetshuaii, the land that borders the southern shore <»f the lake, 
to the foot of the hills that form a chain wuh the ()uiatsl,iian Hills, is 
generally of good (quality, the soil of which is variously composed of an 
argillaceous and sandy loam, on which a rich vegetable mouhl has been 
deposited. The timber growing tliercon consists of ash, black and 
yellow bircli, basswood, elm, fir, balsam, cedar, and spruce, intermixed 
with some red and white pine and maple. 



Hi 



\\G 



LOWER CANADA. 



I 



(lii 



" Near Poiiil ii la Traverse is a valuable limestone quarry, and the 
eoast, I'roni r^ietabetsluian to Ouiatsliuau, oceasionally bold, is eliieHy 
composed of iiuTuied strata of calcareous stone, on wliidi s])cciniens of 
marine shells and other oiganie remains, as also fra^i'inents or blocks of 
white and gray marble, are to be found, all Avlnch are. more or less, in- 
dications of a fertile soil. It may therefore be said that, between these 
two last mentioned ))laees, is oU'ered a front of near twelve miles on the 
lake, by an average of lour miles depth, forming a superficies of about 
;{0.()()() acres of land susceptible of cultivation. 

*• This chain of hills rumnng westward from the Falls of Ouiatshuan 
for about eiglit or ten miles, then gradually bending its course sue- 
lessively to tiie north-west, north, and north-east, intersects the As- 
suapmoussoin at the Cirand IJapids, and forms an arc t)r crescent, partly 
circumscribing a valley, containing a su])erficies of about 2;}(),()0() acres, 
bounded by the west side of the lake, from the falls to the mouth of the 
Assuajnuoussoin, near fifteen miles, and by that river forming the base 
or front, and, as it Avere, the chord of the are described by the hills. 

" 'IMiis valley ap])ears to be generally an horizontal tract of country 
which 1 thus deduced, both from the nature of the valley itself and a 
trigonometrical distance of the hills that form it. Its front on the lake 
discovers the mixed soils of tlay, loam and sand, tind)ered with elm. 
i)irch. s))ruce, pine, fir, balsam, ])(^plar. and a superior growth <;f cedar. 
It is in a manner j)enetratc(l into by tiieiVssna])moussoin. which I ascended 
l.> the J'ortage de l'enioid<a, about thirty miles, in latitude M)" north. 

"The land, as far as the I'ortage ;i 1/Oins, about ten miles below 
Temoid^a, and particularly as res; ects the western bank, is generally al- 
luvial, exhibiling, beneath a vegetable mould, an argillaceous loam, some- 
times called tt-nr i>r<(.s,\i'. resting on a stratum of white clay, under which is 
oceasiontdly observed a bed o\' soft blue marie, di})))ing under the edge 
•■•^i' the water. The timber ])rincipally consists of elm. ash, cedar, fir, 
iialsam. red spruce, \\hite and red ))ine. yellow birch, and some poplar, 
or aspin. 

*' Although, on the eastern bank, these sub-strata of soil prevail 
more or less, yet the loam ])ossesses a greater ])ro])ortion of sand, and 
rests in beds of greater depth on the clay. 



|> « 



THE SHORES OF LAKE ST. JOHN. 



'^'W 



87 



" ^Vbovc the Portage a L'Oiirs, wliicli lies altogctlicr tliroiigli a 
gnnvth of cypress, small red ])ine, ami Hr, prodiiecd on a lin-lit saiulv soil. 
the clay l)cins>; at a considerable depth, the land attains. Avith (ew ex- 
ceptions, this last character, \vith the addition of white birch and as])in, 
forming the foliage on the banks to the portage of Pemonka, (which 
means the last pine); spruce, tamarack. -white birch, aspin, and cypress 
are the prevalent descriptions of trees growing further in the interior. 

*' 1 should, tlierefore, conceive the greater ])ro])ortion of this valley 
to be fit for cultivation, especially in the vicinity of the rivers and their 
tributai-y streams, which dc>))osit, in their progress from the hills, the ma- 
terials ibr improving and I'ertilizing the soil. 

'* Xotwithstandin"- the inferioritv that distinguishes the soil of the 
eastern bank of the i\ssua])moussoin from the western. I believe it pro- 
bable, from the ])roximity of the INIistassini, that a tract of very culti- 
vable land mav be foiuul between those two great rivers. 

"From the mouth of the Mistassini, proceeding round the northern 
parts of the lake towards Periboka, I obser\ed the character of the 
country to differ essentially from the southern side: it is low and flat, 
and its soil chiefly of a sandy nature. The growth of timber consisting 
of white spruce, white bircli, aspin, and cypress, some red and while 
pine. 

" I do not, however, entertain a doubt but that the land improves, 
penetrating towards the interior, aj)proaching the great chain of moun- 
tains that arc seen bending their course S. S.-easterly. and which 1 believe 
to be a continuation of the hills that form the (Jreat \'alley of I^ake 
St. John. 

" In j)assing the cluster of islands that are situated along th(> eastern 
coast, about the mouths of the Ciraudc and Petite Dccliar^c, 1 noticed 
that the rocks, of which they are com])osed, are strongly impregnated 
with magnetic iron ore. Near the Petite Ih'eharfi'e (the only ])lace I 
landed at on that side of the lake). I found a favourable change in liie 
aspect of the land and timber : the soil, consisting of a yellow loam, in- 
termixed with some gravel, producing the s])ruce, cedar, balsam, white 



and black birch, some red and white i)ine. 'riience the laud a])pears ge- 
Jicrally arable to the post of Metabetshuan. 



v:?'! 



"M 
«!;: 



1 



288 



LOWER CANADA. 



H 



V I 



" Tlio river Kusli])aliii>anisli, Avliidi 1 ascended for the distance of 
about seven miles, ])reseiits in its alluvial banks a soil composed of clayey 
loam. AN'lien lliey rise to any elevation, the clay lies beneath a bed of 
liirhter loam and the A'e<>etable mould. The former are clothed with 
elm, ash, black birch, basswood. alder and fir: on the latter, the prin- 
cipal tind)er is white ])ine, some red ]iine, spruce, fir, ■white birch, 
cedar and tamarack. ]'enetratin<j; about two miles inland, I found the 
countrv hillv, much intersected and broken, but not however of a rocky 
nature, the soil bein<;- a rich yellow loam, or clay, at a few feet depth, 
which, although diHicult to cultivate, is well calculated for ])asture 
gToimd. The timber most jirevalent on this elevated tract is black and 
yellow birch, spruce, maple, a good descrijjtion of red and white pine, 
ash and elm. 

"These iiills apjiroach the Tiuke borders, uniting with the Metabet- 
shuan heights, whicii 1 also explored on foot for about five miles, nntil 
I intersected the river Metabetshuan. In this distance the land is more 
or less broken. For about half a league it is generally level ; thence 
rising from a small stream, which I foinul strongly impregnated with 
carbon oHron and sulphur, we ascend the hills, occasionally passing along 
the abru])t face of a clilf, while at its base is a rich ash and alder swamj) 
or marsh, intermixed with sj)ruce and cedar; its soil consisting of a dark 
loam, of a rich argillaceous nature, imder the vegetable mould. On ttje 
heights the land becomes a ligiit sandy ln.iin. producing the jioplar, white 
birch, s])ruce and pine: from which we descend to the Metabetshuan 
river, which is here rapid, shallow, and about fifteen yards wide." 

Tims is afforded an extent of about eleven miles front on the lake, 
from the ])ost of Metabetshuan to tiie mouth of lielle lliviere, by an ave- 
rage depth of fixe or six miles, forming about tO.OOO superficial acres of 
laud susce|)til)le of cultivation. 

In ascending tiie Kushi)ahigan. or IJelle liiviere. Mr. IJouchette 
noticed an extensive tract of level land on its banks, the soil of which 
consisted of a rich loam, resting on a bed of blue and white clay ; and 
this descrijjtion of laud he found to predominate as far as the river des 
Aulnes, except on the eastern bank of the IJelle Kiviere, where for about 
three miles the land is rather hilly and broken. The course of the river 



rv 



1 ! II 



SACJUENAY— FENLNSl'LA— ClIlCOl TlAll. 



^^si> 



(J 



des Aiilncs lies aloDj;- a ridj^e td tlic soiitlnvard, of niodcrati' liciolit, 
which, receding from the river, loses itself in the more prominent hills 
that form the sonthern horders of Lac ^'ert ; to the north, the banks of 
the river exliibit an alluvial tnu't, in sonic ])laces of a wet swampy 
nature; and nearly ))arallel to them, some detached eminences, of no 
great altitude, rise above the conunon level, and also diverge from the 
river, in their ap])roach to Lake Tsi- or -Kiiuiagomishish. The former 
hills form part of the chain which crosses the Kush])ahiganish, and may 
be traced from the banks of the Belle Uivic're and the mouth of the Assii- 
apmoussoin. To the foot of this chain, would probably be found to 
extend the lands ada])ted to cultivation, end)racing part of the IJelle 
Riviere and Uiviere des Aulnes as a front, which would give, as <ar as a 
calcidation can be made, a further superficies of about .50,()()() acres, 
which, superadded to the tracts already stated to be cultivable, gives a 
total of .'{40,000 acres, or thereabouts, adapted to the piu'poses ol' colo- 
nization. 

The section of this country called the Peninsula, is situated between 
the Grande Dechargc, Lake St. John, the IJelle llivivre, Lakes Kimia- 
gami and Kimiagomishish, \Vi(|ui, Lac Vert and Chicoutimi river. It is 
about .'3S miles long, by ai\ average breadth of 17, and contains abi)ut 
400,000 acres of land. Its position, from being almost surrounded by 
navigable waters, is very advantageous, and its general soil ami timber 
such as hereafter to invite settlemetit. 

Chicoutimi*, the princi])al post, after Tadoussac, established by the 
King's Post Company, is situated almost intermediately between Lake 
St. John and the river St. Lawrence, being about i2.'i or 24 leagues 
distant from Tadoussac, and nearly the same distance from Metabetshuan. 
It is well calculated to become the focus of the trade of that part of the 
country, and connnands momentous advantages from the excellence of 
its harbour, which, though not calculated for ships of heavy burthen, 
affords safe shelter and anchorage in one fathom and a half water. 

The Saguenay is navigable for two leagues above Ciiicoutimi, but its 
width is more contracted. Hclow Cape St. Francois, the stream increases 
in magnitude, and the banks gradually rise into greater and bolder alti- 

* Particular accounts of Chicoutimi, 'radoussac, PortncuC. \c. arc to be tbuiul in the 
Topographical Dictionary. 



m 



s 



: , 



at 



"i. 



ii90 



LOWER CANADA. 



tiulc, ])articuliirly on the northern sliorc, where a prominent ehain of 
mountiihis is seen stretehin<^ from tlie north, coast, and thence bending 
its j>eneral direction with the conrse of the Saguenay. ^Vbont five miles 
beh)w Chicoutimi, the river assumes tliat boUhiess of character whicli it 
))rcserves to its discharge into the St. Lawrence, its rocky banks rising 
abiuptly in barren hills, thinly clad with fir, spruce, birch, and cy])ress. 
The rocks composing the hills on the north shore are, in some ])laces, 
strongly impregnated with tnagnetic iron ore, which produces such 
fre(juent aberrations in the compass as to render its use extremely de- 
ceptive. 

'i'he IJay des Has I is (>() miles above the mouth of the Saguenay. 
" This bay," says Mr. IJouchette, " appears to have been formed by 
natin-e, as the ])rincipal scat of the trade and connnerce of all this portion 
of country. 1st. On account of the vast tracts of arable land that sur- 
round it, and extend to Lake Kinuagami and Chicoutimi. 2d. On 
account of its harbour, capable of attbrding siielter to the largest ships 
of the line, that can sail directly into the bay with the same wind that 
brought them up the river, and anchor in the second bay, which is 
formed into something like a basin, offering u|)ou its shores, a fit site for 
the establishment of an extensive mart of trade. ;jd. Because of the facility 
that is offered of opening a road to Chicoutimi, or direct to the head of 
Kinuagami ; l)esides the practicability of opening a Avater conununication 
with the lake, to avoid the intricate and circuitous route by Chicoutimi 
ri\er. 

'• It is protected by Cap ;i L'Kst, and the other prominent hills 
that form its entrance; the former, rising boldly in broken cliffs to 
an elevation of about 'AH) feet, couunands a view of 12 or i:J ])romon- 
tories down the river, and guards the entrance to the upper parts of tlie 
Saguenay." 

The ))ost of Tadoussac is situated at the mouth of the Saguenay, in 
latitude about 48" 5' 'i')' north, longitude ()9'' 137 west. Its harbour is 
formed by a peninsula called LTslet. which separates it, on the south-west, 
from the Saguenay, its breadth being about a third of a mile across, and 
its horizontal depth near half a mile. At low water, which is twenty-one 
feet perpendicular below tiie flood level, shoals, on which are extensive 
fisheries, are uncovered to a considerable distance, that materially contract 



SACTKNAY— TADOUSSAC— LATITIDKS, .^c. 



291 



its dimensions. It is liowcver secure, and slicltcred hy the surroiindinn 
hills from most winds prevalent on the St. Lawrence ; but ^ales i'rom the 
soutliAvard may affect vessels at Hood tide, AN'hite Island and IJatture aiix 
Allouettes shelterinj«- them from the force of the stream at ebb tide. 

Tlie entrance of the channel to tlie liJirbour of Tadoussae, or the 
Sagnenay, is very intricate, ])articularly at ebb tide, for vessels de- 
scending* the St. I^awrence. These must come almost abreast o' the 
Green Island light-house, and tlien pass to the north of White island, 
which is the extreme end of the liatture aux Allouettes, and clear the 
slioal on the o])posite side of the channel. It is far less diflicult for 
vessels coming from below. 

Tlie land about Tadoussae is of very inferior (juality, its soil is sandy, 
and the hills arc barren and rockv. There is, however, a valuable tract 
of excellent land, from Point aux .\llouettcs, embracing I'oint aux 
liouleaux, to the Iliviere aux Canards 

Table of the TAififiidcs and fariatioun of tlic Compafis ohftcrvcd hij M. IJor- 
ciiF.TTK, the Depiitj/Siirrei/or-Geueral, in his route on the Kxjdoriniy 
Survey throuii'h the Inferior Count n/J'roin the St. Mauriee to 'I\idoNf<ar. 



Names ok I'l.ACEf. 



Falls (if Sliaweiu'^an (St. INIauricc) 
LatiKjiic, Kinj^'s Post . . . . 

Division of the water of the St. IMavirice 

and Ouiatc'hoiian . . . . 

He.'id of Coiiiinissioncr's Lake 
^louthoftiu'Oiiiatt'lioiianon Lake St..Joiin 
Grossi- Isle, south side . . . . 

Foiiite an liouleaii ..... 
Moiitli of the Jletabetehuan, at the King'.s 

Post 

Assiiajniioussoin . . . . . 

I'eriboka ...... 

Rajiid of I'einonka. on the River Assnaji- 

niiuissuin ...... 

River des Anlnes, above the I'ortiige 
We.'it of the Presnuisle, opposite the River 

''pikubateh about half way on Lake 

Tsinoponn . ..... 

Chieoutinii ...... 

Meadows on tiie Sagucnay, op))osite tlie 

River Teniistieobish .... 

Rui.'seau La Triniti .... 

Tadousae ... ... 

Port an Parscy ..... 



Latitude. 


Vnriaiion. Ktmaiiks. 


4() WO (10 


ft 
10 00 


ow 


47 IJ! 32 


11 10 


ow 


47 "i2 0(t 


14 4.'. 


w i 


4» 17 00 


!.■) 00 


' 


4» ;}o 1:. 


1.*. 45 


ow Longitude, 72" 10' 


4» :J2 10 


i:. ")() 


W b\ two ol)si'r\ ations of 


4}! 2!l 00 


1.-, 40 


W tlie transit of the ."\Ioon 
,ind Mar- o\ fi- the nie- 


4n 27 in 


l.'i 40 


^\' ridian, the wateh being 


j 4!t :«) (to 


k; (HI 


\V regulated for >iderial 


1 4)i r.i ].-) 


k; ;{2 


^\■ time by previous ('(jual 
altitudes. 


4i» 00 l(t 


}! ;^o 


OW 


4H 2) ;io 


I.'-) m 


W Attraction east abonl 7" 


4!t 1(5 :a 


15 50 


1 

w 


\l\ 2.-. 10 


1(5 00 


(t .\ttraetion about 4' W 


48 2a 00 


1(5 15 


(t P.-irtiiil attraction. 


4H 21 4;j 


1(5 10 





40 .') .'ir. 


k; 2;? 


.SO 


4« 47 ."'O 




1 






2<)2 



LOWUU CANADA. 



,i 



As early as l.'j^S*, an CN])e(liti()ii was fitted out from Quebec, under 
the coiuiiiand of Monsieur de Itoherval, to ex])lore tlie river Saguenay ; 
but the ultimate issue of the survev is involved in obseuritv, nothinc 
further beiuy' recorded on the subject, than the loss of one of the vessels 
t)r barks en<i,ai>ed in tiiat service, to<;ether with eight men. In 1.^})!), 
Sieiir de Chauvin. by the desire of Sieur de I'ont (irave. n)ade a futile 
attempt to settle on the Saguenay, and died at Tadoussac in his subse- 
quent endeavours to realize his object I. This part of the country 
appears, thenceforward, to have been deemed interesting on account of its 
fur trade only, and in couseciueuce. we find the exclusive right of trading 
Avith its natives put uj) to public sale, and adjudged to Sieur Demaiix in 
KJ.jS. The limits, within which this right was to be exercised, a])])ear 
to iiave remained undefined, and a source of diiliculties until ITli.'J, when 
thev were described as commencing at the lower end of the Kboulemens. 
opposite the north-west extremity of Isle aux Coudres. and extending 
to Cape Cc^rmorant. a distance of about SO leagues, the St. J^awrence 
being the boundary in front, and t'e Hudson's Hay territory in the rear, 



:i M'i 



ill 



NOUril SIDE o/ c//r St. LAWREN'CE.— Jj. III. Territor,!/ ,;tsl o/ f/ie SXGVl]- 
\AV, to the /jouncldii/ of th.- I'rochicc. 

The last section of the province, north of the St. Lawrence, remaining 
to be noticed, is that which extends eastwardlv from the Saguenav river, 
as far as Ance au Sablon. on the Labrador coast, from whence a line 
drawn due north to the .Vid parallel of north latitude, forms the eastern 
limits of Lower Canada in that (juarter. This section occupies a front 
of about (jiio miles on the river St. r^awrenee and the gulf, following the 
curvatures of the coast, which beyond I'ointe des Monts, sweeps sud- 
denlv round in a deep seiiinent, and imlK)soms the island of Anticosti. 

The knowledge we possess of this tract of territory is, in a great 
measure, confined to the coasts, which have been from time to time 
ex])lored by individuals connected with the fur trade or the fisheries. 
IJelow the Saguenav, the juoimtainous boldness of the north shore gra- 
dually subsides in approaching the Hergeronnes, and sinks to a moderate 



* Piiikerton, j). 077- 



I Chamiiliiiii, cliini. vi. 



COrNTRY EAST OF TIIK SAGIK NAY— POinXR IT. 



'J}):] 



elevation at Portneuf, a trading port cstablislnd witliin tlic ^rant of 
Mille Vadies, and situated about 40 miles below tbe Sauuenav. The 
mountains below tins river recede to the distance of 1- or 5 leagues from 
the inunediate borders of the St. Lawrence, leaving a tract of gradual 
ascciit at tiieir base, which was at first su])])oscd to be cultivable. fron> 
its exhibiting a rich vegetable border: l)Ut it was found U])on pene- 
trating into the interit)r that it consisted of a deej) swamp, covered 
with moss to the depth of nearly ,'j feet, and could therefore present no 
agricultural attractions. East of Portneuf, the shores continue for some 
miles to preserve a moderate and regular elevation, and in various parts, 
offer to the eye white cliffs of sand, chcMjuered by tufts of evergreen. 
Descending towards Pointe des Monts, the altitude of the banks becomes 
greater, and the characteristic boldness of the north shore is again 
resumed; but here the mountains to tlu* southward do not yield in 
height or continuity to those rising to the north, and both shores of the 
gulf are conspicuously remarkable for their lofty, frowning, and for- 
bidding asj)ect. 

The chief rivers discharging themselves in the river and gulf of 
St. Lawrence between the Saguenay and ^Vnce Sablon, are tlse 
(irande and Petite liergeronnes, the Portneuf, Missisitjuinak, lietsia- 
mites, liustard, Manicougan, Ichimanipistick or Seven Islands, St, John, 
St. Austin's and Esquimaux. Xone of these rivers have been explored to 
any extent ; and the interior of the country remains as yet the undis- 
puted haunt of the prowling wolf and savage bear. It has, however, been 
traversed in various directions, by Escpiimaux and Indians of other tribes, 
in the pursuit of the martin, the otter, and the beaver ; but few facts of 
much im])ortance have been gleaned from their narratives ; and although 
it is probable, from the geographical situation of the country, and its 
unpromising ap]>earance, that it is unfit for the purposes of settlement, 
it were still very desirable and satisfactory that a more accurate know- 
ledge of its locality existed. The possibility of its leading to the 
discovery of minerals and mines, that might eventually |)rovc of great 
advantage to the trade of the province, is by no means visionary, as frag- 
ments of coal were found in several rivers of that section of territory, by 
individuals connected with the Indian trade of Labrador. 



'' .1 



w 



m 



h 



294 



LOWKR CANADA. 



. t 



As far as our information of the faci' of the country goes, as derived 
from the natives, it may be described as consisting of rocky dill's, and 
rugged hills of no very considerable elevation, variously dispersed over 
barren plains or thick forests, studded with crooked and stunted ))ine.s, 
birch, firs and cedar. The valleys arc generally coated with a thick moss, 
which usually extends beneath the woods, and is fre(|uently overgrown 
with a variety of .small shrubs. some of which bear (|uantities of berries; 
and the country is che(juered with small lakes, that are sometimes formed 
by the melting of snow, and the accumulations of rain Avater. 

There arc no roads along the coast ; and the only settlement of any 
conscq\ienco to be met with \i])on it, is that of I'ortneuf, which is com- 
posed of a cha])cl, ',i o\. 4 dwelling houses (the most conspicuous of the.sc 
being the agcnVr: hou.se), and several stores. After traversing the gulf, 
and dwelling for some time upon the grand but gloomy range of promi- 
nent hills that bound the shores of the Uiver St. liawrence, the eye is 
agreeably relieved by the as])ect of this .solitary and ])ictures(|uc little 
settlement, wholly uncoimected with the civilized wt)rld excepting by 
water communication. It is one of the trading marts of the King's 
Posts Company, and has been many years established. Below it, at 
considerable intermediate distances, arc the trading j)osts at I^cs Isles 
Jtrc'niie. the Seven Islands and Mingan. At Pointc des Monts, at the 
mouth of the river St. Lawrence, is stationed the light-house mentioned 
in a previous clia])ter describing the St. liawrence. 

Along the coasts of Labrador, extensive fisheries are carried on that 
contribute to the su))plies of the markets of the province, and also to the 
exports of fish and oil from Quebec. Tiic fisheries of the Gulf are ex- 
tremely productive, and it is the policy of the colonics to encourage them, 
as one of the exh lustless feeders of the trade of the coimtry. Their 
importance has been sensibly felt, especially at Halifax, Avhere an asso- 
ciation exists for the avowed ])urpose of ])rotecting and encouraging tne 
fisheries on the coasts of liabrador, the banks of Newfoundland, and the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence; and the Assembly of Nova Scotia, in 1H25, 
voted a sum of 1500/. to be expended in bounties on vessels, that should 
])ass the e(|uator, engaged in the whale fishery. 

Almost the Avhole of this vast section of coimtry, together with a 



130L'M)A1UES OF THE KING'S POSTS. 



'-\9.3 



c'oiisidcrahlo portion of that lyin<^ west of the Safrucnay, is styled the 
Dumaine, and eonipriscd under a lease from the erown, orantinj^ to a 
company by the denomination of the Kinn's I'osts' Company, tiie exelu- 
sive ])rivilege of bartering', lumtin^f, and Hshinnr within the limits assigiied 
to sueh domain, or what was originally called in the ordonnanees of the 
time L(i Trailc de Tadoiistiac. At an early period after the formation 
of l-'reneh settlements in various parts of Canada, the <fovernment of 
France turned the wilderness of the country to account by farming* or 
leasing- extensive waste domains, receiving an annual consideration i'or 
the privilege it granted, of a monopoly of the fur trade and fisheries 
within tbe boundaries of particular traits. 'I'he tract termed the King's 
J)omain, which formed part of the " I'nited Farms of France," was sur- 
veyed between the years IT.'H aiul Ml'.i'.i, and its boundaries arc described 
in an ordonnance of Intendant Ilocquart, bearing date the ii.'Jrd May, 
IT^-'i, as follows, vi/. : — *' IJy the north shore of the river St. liawrence, 
froiu the lower extremity of the seigniory of ' Left KJtoKJi'iiioi.s,'' which 
is o])])osite the north-east jjoint of the /.vA' aiix Condrcfi, as far as Point 
or Cape Cormorant, lieing a front of J).5 leagues, or thereabouts, with the 
I.sh' (iu.vCKkIn, and other adjacent isles, islets, and beaches; on the west 
by a line assmned to be drawn east and west, beginning at the lower 
extremity of the seigniory of \aQs Kboulemens, and thence ])roceeding 
as far as that height of land where the carrying place of I'atitachekoa is 
situate, in latitude 47" 1;V; which Lake I'atitachekoa is the source of 
the river iSIetabetchouanou, which flows into Lake St. .lohn, the outlet 
of which is the Saguenay ; further to the west, by Lakes Spamoskoutin, 
Sagaigan, and Kaouakounabiskat, the height of land in latitude 47" 27', 
the said Lake Kaouakounabiskat forming other lakes, and the river 
Ouiatchouanan, which flows through I^ake St. John into the Saguenay, 
which two lakes shall form the boundar\ of the hunting territorv of the 
rear of Batiscan, and proceeding further westward towards Three Ilivers, 
and in rear by the height of land distant two leagues, or thereabouts, 
from the little Lake Patitaouaganiche, in latitude 48" 18'; which lake 
flows through I^ake Askatichi into the river Nikoubau, which also re- 
ceives the waters of Lake Nikoubau ; all which lakes and rivers flow 
into I-«ake St. John, and thence into the Saguenay, and shall form the 



W 



m 



h 



I.M)<i 



LOWT.R TANADA. 



II 



•H t 



i 



IxMindarv mul division l)c>t\vc-i>ii the laiuls <>(' tlir donuiin and tlu> liuntin^ 
tiriitorv of Three Rivers, and of tiie Jtiver (hi Lievre. Within these 
limits are inchided the posts of Tadoiissae, Malhaye, Hon<h'sir, I'apina- 
chois, tlie Islets of .Fcrcniie, and I'oint of the Hetsianiites, C'lu'koutinii, 
F.ake St. .lohn, Nikouhau, t'iioinonthnane, IMisstassins, and rear of 
Misstassins as far as Ilndson's Hay. Lower down the river, the domain 
shall he hoinided by virtne of onr aforesaid On/o/i nance of the lijth in- 
stant, by Cape Cormorant as far as the heij;ht of land, in whieli traet 
shall he inelnded the river Moisi, Lake of the Kichesti<^anx, the Lake of 
the Naskapis, and other rivers and lakes whieh How into the same." 



'•5* 



■i 'i 



( II APT K II X. 

SOITII SII>K OF TIIK ST. LAWIIKXCK 
j$ l.—Coiitiln/7.-i.'<lo/t/<r IlIVKIl CIIAr 1)1 UU'.. 

Tin; iii<flily valiiahlc trai't of foiiiitrv embraced in tlir present seetion. 
is bounded to the eastward by the Hiver C'haudiere, to the northward, 
in front, by the St. iiawrenee, and in the rear, by tin- iiiyldands of tlic 
Conneetieut. and the ])arallel of tlie l.jth (k'jfree of north hilitiide, wiiieh 
constitute the soutliern and soutii-eastern bouiuhu-y of Lower Canada 
dividing' it, in tliat (juarter, from the American states of Xew Hampshire, 
Vermont and New York. In su])erticial extent tiii-; tract contains about 
1I{,S()4. s(juare miles, and includes 17 counties. — Megantic, Sherbrooke, 
TiOtbinicrc, Xicolet, Yamaska, Drumniond. Uichelieu, St. Myacintlu'. 
ShcHord, Stanstcad, Missiscpii, llouville, i\cadie, Chami)ly. IJeauharnois. 
La Prairie and \'ercheres ; and parts of two others, Dorchester and Heauce. 
It contains one town, numerous villa<;es, and a total population of about 
1 HI, ()()() souls. 

To j^^ivc at once a collective and correct idea of the face and features 
of this extensive tract, it may be said that, receding from the St. Law- 
rence in the direction of east and south-east, after j)assino- the almost 
uninterrupted level of the country, through whii'h How the rivers 
Hichelieu and Yamaska, the land gradually swells into ridges, becomes 
progressively more hilly, and finally assumes a mountainous character 
towards lakes Memphramagog and St. Francis, the country beyond con- 
tinuing to preserve, more or less, that boldness of aspect to the borders of 
the Chaudiere and the height of land at the Connecticut's sources. The 
range of hills traversing Uolton, Orford, iVc. appear to l)e a continuation 
of the (ireen Mountains, that form a conspicuous ridge riuming from 
south to west, through the state of Vermont. The uniform Hatness of 
what might be called the valleys or jdains of the Yamaska and Chanibly 
(Uichelieu), is agreeably relieved by the several isolated mountains that 
ri.se boldly and conspicuously above the surface, their soaring forms 



tt' 



*}| 



W' 






'i!)H 



LOWKll CANADA. 



iK'iiijj: (listiiu'tly seen, ;m«l ^'vin^ by tlic vailous comMnatious of pcr- 



VI' 



th 



as till 



spccti 

and intt'iTst to t 



icwrfl iidiii (lilU'ivMt positions. f<»iisi(U'nil)|f lu-anty 
i'5H""v 'I'licsi" mountains ari' <listin<;nislu-(l hv tlu' 



names of Ilonvilli' .<!• iicltril. N'amaska, noiu-liiTvilli'. C'liainl)ly, HtMi^t'- 
mont. and MouJit Johnston As nnglit l)c' cxiuTtcd in so wido an rxtcnt 
ill' territory, s<»nH' \aritty of soil will oci'ur and occasional s\vamj)y traits 
l)i'fonnd; hut the uniidlivahK' tracts hear no proportion t<t the lands 
snsceptil)le of a hi^li dej^ree of aj;ricidtural improvi'meiit. It is pro- 
fusely watered ])y lakes, rivers, and rivulets windin^f through it in every 
directi(»n. 'I'he principal rivers, hesiiles the C!haudiere. which hounds 
the tract to the eastward, are the Hecanconr, the two hranclu's of the 
Nicolet, the St. Francis, the Vamaska, the Uichelien or C'hainhly, the 
t'hateauiiuav, and tlio Salmon *. All thesi- ha\c' their sources within 
the province, except the three last, whose waters How from the other side 
of the boundary line, the one issuing' from Lake ("hauiplain. the others 
havin<.>' their risi*. as well as several of their branches, on the eonlines of 
tlie State of Xew \'ork. Numerous other rivers and streams of inferior 
maunitude, with an inmunerable class of tributary waters, also contribute 
to fertilize the soil, and are very useful to the farmers for various pur- 
poses of rural ecttnomy. I'lu' chief lakes are Memphramai;()<;' (which 
lies ])artly within om* territory and partly within the dominions of 
the States), Scaswaninipus and Tomefobi. Lakes St. Francis, Nicolet, 
Pitt. William, and Trout, touether with a number of others of inferior 



note, 



Of the rivers, the Richelieu is the only one naviy-able for ste 



tin- 



boats, the minor class of those vessels beinjj; able to ascend from Sorel to 
the b;'si!» at Chand^ly, provided, however, their drauffht of water do not 
exceed foiu' feet, and even then there is a cessation of this description of 
navi<>ation durin<; the low waters about midsunnner. The Chateauj^uay 
is navi«;able for a considerable distance above its confluence, for l)atteaux, 
the smaller sort of keel bouts, and canoes. Large ([uantities of timber, 
from (.iodmanchester and Heauharnois. were fornierly conveyed in rafts 
down this river, but the trade of tins article has nnich diminished since 



* See Tojioyrap/iical Dictiomiiy (if liOwer Citiiadu for ii fiirtlior account oftliusc rivers. 



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the settlements Imve iiu'rciiscd, and it is now eoniparatively iusionificant. 
Salmon river is navi<;al)le for boats to Freneii mills, within the Ame- 
riean line. It was np this river that the American t'oree, under (iciieral 
Wilkinson, retreated after the hatt'e of Chrvstlers Farm, on tin- Jljfh of 
Nov. iSl.'i. The Nieolet Hoats hatteanx, at all seasons, to some distanee 
beyond the village, and nuieh intercourse is in conseciuenee kept up by 
the river with the town of Three Rivers, on the op])osite shore of the St. 



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iawrence. Ahove the \ niai;i', tlic- .Nicole 
through both its branches to its sources, ])rescntinii," nevertheless fre([uent 
intervals of gentle current, which may b(> prai'tised by small Hat boats and 
canoes. The Heeancour is a beautiful river, and. like the Nieolet. is navi- 
gable a few miles u]) for batteaux. beyond which it may be ascended to a 
remote distance by canoes in making a few ])t)rtages, the longest of which, 
called the (Jrand I'ortage, is one league, avoiding the (ireat Falls in front 
of the townshij) of IJlandford. This part of the river is remarkably pic- 
tures(pie, and the cascade scarcely yields in magnitude or b(>auty to the 
Falls of the river Chaudiere, the scenery of which is so nuu-h. and so 
justly, celebrated for its wild magnificence and romantic attractions. The 
"S'amaska -vinds through a fertile country for u])wards of <)() miles. Its 
medimn breadth is about K)() yards, and its inland navigation of some 
importance, though confined to batteaux and rafts that can ascend several 
leagues above its discharge, at the head of I^ake St, I'eter. The navigation 
of the Chaudiere is obstructed .it its entrance by ra])ids, and the impe- 
diments increase further up the river to the l"'alls. about four miles from 
its estuary. Narrowed by salient points extending from each side, the 
precipice over which the waters rush is scarcely more than \'M) yards in 
breadth, and the height from w hich the water descends is about as many 
feet. Huge masses of rock, rising above the surface of the current just 
at the break of the fall, divide the stream into three portions, forming 
j)artial cataracts, that unite liefore they reach the basin which receives 
them below. The continual action of the water has worn the rock into 
deep excavations, which give a globular figure to the revolving bodies 
of brilliant white foam, and greatly increase the beautiful efl'ect of the 
fall. The spray thrown uj), being quickly spread by the wind, jM-oduces 



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ill the sunshine a most splciulid variety of ])rismatie colours. Tljc dark- 
liued foliage of the woods, wjiich on eaeh side press close upon the 
margin of tlie river, forms a striking- contrast with the snow-like efful- 
gence of the falling torrent. Tiie hurried motion of the flood, agitated 
among the rocks and hollows as it forces its way towards the St. Law- 
rence, and the incessant sound occasioned by the cataract itself, form a 
combination that strikes forcibly upon the senses, and amply gratifies 
the curiosity of tlie admiring spectator. The woods on the banks of the 
river, notwithstanding its vicinity to the caj)ital, are so impervious as to 
render it necessary for strangers who visit the falls to ])rovide themselves 
with a com])etent guide. Few falls can be com])ared with this for ])ic- 
turcscpie beauty. The best view is to the left from a ledge of rocks that 
])ro)ect into the basin ; from this s))ot the scene is surprisingly grand. 
The next point of view is from a parallel ledge behind the former. There 
is also another good view from the ledge of rocks above the fall, looking 
down and across ti»e fall and up the river. From the falls, the river may 
still be called rapid up to its source, although sections of it are navigated 
by small boats and canoes. The river St. l''runcis traverses the heart of 
the soutiicrn townships, and opens a communication with them and the 
United States through the Lakes Scaswaninipus and Memphramagog. 
The numerous dilliculties of its navigation arc surmounted by the skill 
and courage of battaliers and canocmen, who avoid the Falls and stronger 
rapids by ])ortages at carrying i)laces, and thus, however lalK)riously, 
rcjuler this Avater communication available. The sources of the St. 
Francis, are to be traced to the large lakes of the same name in Garthby 
and Colraiiie. In the circumjacent country to these lakes, are found the 
sources of the largest rivers falling into the St. I..awrencc, eastward from 
the St. Francis, and those flowing into the Chaudiere. Many of the 
rivers that have n<it yet been ])articulari/,ed. as the river lieaurivage, the 
Duchesne, Jia Tortue, Montreal, livc. are for toe most part capable of 
floating light boats and canoes at certain seasons, the streams, generally 
speaking, on this shore of the St. Lawrence, being far less b'-oken and 
rapid than on the other. 

The tenure of the lands composing* this section of country is two- 



: fSSl H 'ft 



• .^iHi 



NOUVELLK BEAUCK, SEKiMORIKS ABOVE THE CIIArDIERi:. 301 

fold — iViulal and socca^e ; and the lands held by the one, l)ein<4" so si- 
tuated as to be distinctly contrasted with those held by the otiier, we shall 
first <i,ive some account of the settlements of the seigniories and tiefs, 
and afterwards take into consideration those of the townshi])s. 

The feudal grants occu])y a superficies of about .'3,S()() miles, and cir- 
cumscribe at all ])oints, excepting to the southward, the tract known by 
the ap])ellation of the eastern townships, having to the cast and north-east 
the seigniories of Nouvelle IJeaiice, on the Chaudiere, to the north and 
north-west those of the St. Lawrence, and to the westward the seiuniories 
of the Yamaska and the llichelieu, and those composing the fertile tract 
of seignorial lands lying between the Richelieu and the St. Lawrence, to 
St. Regis. 

In glancing at the settlements of the circuit of country thus pre- 
senting itself, those of Jia Jieaucc willl..> found to ])ossess considerable 
interest, whether we view their advanced and iiourishing condition, or 
their advantageous geogra])hical ])osition, enjoying a climate somewhat 
milder than the seigniories on the St. l^awrence below liake St. I'eter, 
and situated on a direct connnunication with Boston, in the l.'^nited 
States, by the Kennebec road, which was effectually completed last 
autunni (1S;.{()), and is already much frequented. Hy this imjiortant route 
tiie distance from Quebec to Hoston is essentially abridged, and the markets 
of the capital consequently thrown more easily open to American ])ro- 
duce. Through this route, large im])ortations of live stock are nuide into 
this province, and the internal trade being otherwise g'eat and increasing, 
a custom-house oilicer was appointed at St. Mary's, which is the largest 
and nuist Hourishing village on the Chaudiere. The general character of 
the land in the seigniories of St. Mary, St. ,Iosej)h, \'audreuil, and Au- 
bert Ciailion, is hilly and broken, but the soil is excellent in the aggre- 
gate, and very fertile, although light, ai.d in some parts stony. The road 
ah)ng the Chaudiere, iq)on the borders of which are the most iin])rove(l 
and oldest .settlements, is remarkably good, and j)r'' .eiits various j)oints 
of view extremely beautiful and ])ictures(jue. 

At the mouth of the Chamliere, the banks of the St. Lawrence still 
retain the characteristic boldness, for which thev are remarkable at Quebec 



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LOWER CANADA. 



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and I'oint Levy; hut proceeding- westward, they gradually suhside to a 
moderate elevation, till they sink into the flats of liaie du Fehvre, and 
form the marshy shores of Lake St. Peter. Hetweeii the St. Francis and 
the Chaudierc, the soil and settlements of the seigniories are of various 
degrees of excellence and prosperity. There arc, generally speaking, 
unich larger ))ortion^ of them yet covered with invptivious forests, than 
mulergoing the operations of tillage ; hut such as are now under ))rocess 
of improvement, yield abundant harvests of every description of grain ; 
and, from the ])revaiiing depth of the soil, would not be unfit for the 
growth of hem]). Flax is already raised in small ([uantities for the use 
of doui'vstic maiuifactures. A number of the villages are peculiarly well 
builf anil prettily situated on tiie river's banks, at intervals of ',i or 4 
leagues, a bright tin-spired church, invar-ubly figm-ing a pleasing and 
'.'onspicuous object in the landsca])e of a Canadian village. 

The villages more wortiiy of note are those of I)e I^otbiniere. 
liecancour, St. Cregoire, Xicolet, St. Antoine, and St. Francis. 

At Xicolet, a college was long since established by the late 
catholic bishop of Quebec, Monseigneur Plessis, which holds the third 
rank in the province among institutions of a similar nature. It has of 
late years been placed under the management of the royal institution, 
but continues under the immediate direction and tutorage of the catholic 
clergy, though with some modifications. 

The foundations of a new ct)llege were laid a few years ago, to the 
eastward of the existing one, exceeding by far the dimensions of the 
present building ; but from the magnitude of its scale, its completion 
is likely to take up several years. Such an institution, in the lieart of 
the province, cannot be too highly appreciated, and must spread its bene- 
ficial influence broadly, and disseminate through an extensive district, the 
advantages of education. 

The rich and luxuriant plain, lying between the Yamaska and the 
St. Lawrence, and traversed centrally by the Richelieu, completes the 
circuit of French grants, described as confining the eastern townships. 
Of this tract, the only lands held in free and common soccage, are those 
of the townships of Hinchinbrooke, Hemmingford, and Godmanchester, 



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most of tlie lands of Sherrlnoton, bchify held en roture by cctmitairi's 
of La Salle. Tlic exiiherance of ^lie crops raised in this fertile traet 
of country, justifies the a|)))ellation it hears as the grajKiry of Lower 
Canada; since it not only afl'ords subsistence to a dense and lar<;i' 
population, but is the |)rincii);d source whence the cxjmrt Avheat is 
derived for the Hritish markets. The most prevalent (piality of soil, is 
a deep ricli mould, consisting- chieHy of day, in some ])1aces combined 
witli a black earth and marl. The lighter soil is <renerallv to be foinid 
alon^- the rivers Chambly and Yamaska, and borderin<>; the St. Lawrence. 
If any dej^rees of fertility, can properly be distinguished in one section 
of this valuable tract, over anoti:-.r, the seigniories in the vicinity of the 
basin at Cluunbly, seem entitled to the superiority : such are Chambly. 
IJlairiindie, and Longueuil, that enjoy a climate several degrees uiilder 
than the seigniories on the St. Lawrence . and even sensibly milder than 
the fruitful country lying below then), on the Hichelieu river. The 
main roads, following the banks of the .several rivers, are very good in 
iicneral ; but the stage routes from St. .lohn's, through Ulairtindie. to 
La I'rairie, or by Chambly to Longueuil, are exceedingly bad, and tlu' 
latter in particular, when traversing the swam - between the villaucs of 
St. .Joseph and Longueuil. \\\ these two roads is kejit up the conununica- 
tion with the I'nited States, the intercourse with which is carried on, 
without cessation, at all seasons, rendering Chanddy, lilairtindie, and La 
Prairie, great thoroughfares; and largely contributing to the encou- 
ragement of trade and business, and a conse(pient increase of the settle- 
ment and po])ulation of those ])laces. and others situated on that route. 
The village of I^a Prairie on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, about 
8 miles from the city of Montreal, has the advantage of anv other village 
of the province, as regards the extent of its trade and population. The 
streets are more defined, the buildings more contiguous, and not unfre- 
(|uently two stories high, and many of them covered in tin ; tradesmen 
of e\ery order, mechanics and shopkee])ers, are to be seen in everv direc- 
tion, and much activity appears to prevail every where. The constant 
arrival and departure of steam boats and stages, contribute to enliven the 
place, and i)roduce an almost ceaseless bustle and noveltv of scene, occa- 



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sionc'd l)y tlio i'()iniu<;' iiiid j^'oiiifj; of striiiit^ors, from tlic States, or from 
(aiiiidii. 

'i'lu' villii}4;c' of St. .Tost-pli is infi'rior to I^ii I'rairic in extent, hut its 
locality is probably superior, situate as it is on the broad and beautiful 
basin of C'liambly, at the head of whieli the impetuous stream of the 
river St. .lohu's makes a last and violent struf^^le to leave its eontraeted 
bed. and dilatiiij;' at the foot of the rajjids, into an expansive reservoir. 
Hows afterwards in a <;entle current. throu<;li an unbroken channel, to 
its junction with the St. l-awrence at Sorel. I'^pon the rapids aboxc the 
basin are situated the lari'e corn-mills built by the late Hon. C'oloni'l di' 
Salabery and Sain\iel Hat, Ks(|., the respei-tive seiu;neurs of \'>'est and 
Kast C'liambly. The excellence of these iiiills, 7 iu number, and workino- 
a total lunnber of ' J !• sets of mill-stones, has induced the inhabitants 
of remote parts of the surround'no- country, to briny; their wheat thither 
\ early for <;rindin!.r. llelow Cluunbly basin, the slu<>'i;islmess of the stream 
j)recludes the i)ossil) lity. with any ])rosj)ect of advanta<i;e. of buildin<;- mills 
of this descri))tion, ;iiid in eonse((uence wind-mills are more fr('(|uent 
and are to be seen in almost every ])arish of the Kichelieu. The ii\er 
Vamaska oilers several excellent sites, where mills have been erecti'd bv 
the sei<4;nors of St. Hyacintbe, St. Ours, and the sei«;niories lower down. 

If the scenery about Quebec connnand our admiration for its bold- 
ness, sublimity, and grandeur, that of the Kichelieu will no less do so for 
its champaign and j)ictures(|uc beauties. The eye here dwells with 
|)eculiar delight, on the frecpient succession of rich and fruitful iields, 
luxuriant meadows, neat and flourishing settlements, and gay villages 
dispersed over this beautifid plain, and .uU)rning the banks of the 
Hicbelieii, the Yanutska, and the St. Lawrence: whiKt the tcnvering 
mountains of Uouville and C'lKoubly. Uougemont, Mount .loinison. and 
ll.>ucherville. are seen soaring inajestically above the eonnnon level. 
the uionarehs i»f the vale. I'he Table IJock. at the sunnnit of the cone, 
or Vin (Jc Sucre of Uouville mountain, has bixii established to be 1.1 00 
fiet above tin* knol of the river. Its acces-^ is extremely tedious and 
ditbeult: but non«' will look back to their fatigui's with regKt. when 
tluy behold fr>)iM its exalted pinimacle, the niiost encbanting ])anoramie 



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MILI.IAM lir.NHY, OR SOIir.l.. 



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view, and tin- most I'Mt'nsivc scope of cnuMtrv, tli.ii iiin ho onihriucil at 
t)nce from any spot in Lower Canada. Hematli the spectator, lies tlie 
ma^nifieeiit valley from wliidi the mountain rise e.i' winding anddst 
its numerous beauties, lie can trace the Hicls it u from its oulkt from 
Lake Champlain, to its eonlluenee with the Si. Lawrence, which is also 
discovered at various ])oints, till its surface is distinctly disclosed opposite 
Montreal. The city a>»d mountain of Montreal arc very clearly seen t(» 
the westward. 'Vo the eastward, the prosjjcct is partially intercepted hy 
one of the hills fornnn/^ the^'roup collectively called the liouville moun- 
tain. With till' aid of a telescope, the town of Tlirei' Hivers ean he 
descried, in clear Wvinivi to the N.J''., and to the southwar<l tlu' settle- 
ments of niirlin«.';to; , "j; ] .vwv Champlain, in the state of N'ermont, at the 
resj)ective distanc •: of iihoe.t (io and 70 miles from the spectator. 

The town of William Henry, or Sorel, is very pleasantly situated 
at the confluence of tiie Hichelieu, Sorel, or Chamhly Hiver (known hy 
each a])pellation.) with the St. Lawrence, on the site of a fort huilt in 
the year KK!."). hy order of Monsieur de Tracy, sinular to those erected 
in the nei'^hhourhood of .Montreal, iVc. as a defence against the incursions 
of till' Indians, and which received its name from Sorel, a ca))tain of 
engineers, who superintcmled its construction; but its modern appellation 
it derives from our august sovereign, in honour of whom it was called 
AVilliam Henry, at the time Ilis Majesty, in early life, visited that 
distant section of his vast em])ire. The ])lan ox it covers about I'JO acres 
of ground, although at ])resent the munhcr of houses does not much 
exceed 'JOO, exclusive of stores, barracks, and government buildings. It 
is laid out with regularity, the streets intersecting each other at right 
angles, and having in the centre a sipiare, 170 yards on each side; the 
dwelling-houses are of wood, substantially and well constructed, but the 
protestant and the catholic churches are both stone buildings ; there are 
eight principal streets, that are named after diflerent branches of the 
roval family; the Avhole ]K>])ulation is about 1;300 souls. ]}efore the 
town, the bank of the Kiehelieu is from ten to twelve feet high, having 
near the point two or three wharfs ; the river is here 250 yards broatl, 
with from two and a half to five and a half fathoms of water. On 
the ojjposite shore there arc convenient places for building vessels, and 

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23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 



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LOWER CANADA. 



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some of large tonnage have been constructed there ; but hitterly this 
branch of trade has not been so nuich attended to here as it used to be, 
notwitlistanding the accommodations for carrying it on, woukl induce a 
belief that great encouragement would be given to it. A small distance 
fi'om a little rivulet to the southward of the place is a blockhouse and an 
hospital, and a little further on a neat cottage or lodge, with out-houses, 
gardens, Ike. called the Government-house, serving as an occasional re- 
sidence for the Governor in summer, and sometimes for the commanding 
officer of the troops stationed here, usually one or two companies of in- 
fantry. The present town of Sorel was begun about the year 1785, when 
some loyalists and disbanded soldiers settled there ; and it still continues 
to be the residence of many old military servants of the crown. Some 
trade is carried on here, but not so much as might be supposed its situation 
at the junction of two navigable rivers would command : the timber 
trade, the export of grain from this part of the country, and tlie inter- 
change between the American, states, might be extended to a considerable 
amount, and apparently with many ad\ antages. 

The seigniories of Sault St. Louis, La Salle, Chateauguay, and 
Beauharnois, and the townships of Sherrington, Hemmingford, Hin- 
chinbrooke, and Godmanchester, together with the Indian lands, occupy 
the westernmost angle of the province on 'die southern shores of the 
St. Lawrence, and form a tract in no respect inferior to the fertile 
country of which we have just spoken, enjoying a climate equally mild 
and salubrious, a soil rich and excellent in the aggregate, whilst the 
land, which is abundantly watered, rises in general from the front in 
gradual swells, clothed with hard timber, to the province line, bounding 
that tract in the rear. These seigniories are remarkably well settled 
and, excepting Beauharnois, have by far the greater proportion of their 
lands improved upon : the great superficial extent of Beauharnois is 
likely to leave it open for some years longer, to the reception of new 
settlers. The village of Beauharnois, on the shores of Lake St. Louis, 
consists of about 40 houses, one third of which are stone, and many 
two stories high. It is well situated, and offers a convenient stopping- 
place for the steam-boat plying between the cascades and I^a Chine, 
which takes in here its daily supply of wood. 



iHlii 



m 



ROADS— EASTERN TOWNSHIPS. 



307 



The townships of HemmingfordjHinchinbrooke, and GodmanchestcT, 
after having, for many years, been left to the despoihng ocenpation of 
unauthorized settlers, were placed under the superintendency of a vigihuit 
and zealous agent *, under whom the settlements have grown into 
strengtli, prosperity, and consequence ; whilst the judicious plan of go- 
vernment location proved the means of effectively providing for a nu- 
merous class of industrious emigrants and others, who are now reaping 
the fruit of tlie bounties of the crown. Hemmingford IVIountain, otherwise 
called Covey's Hill, in the township of Hemmingford, lias about tlie 
same perpendicular elc ntion as the Rouville Cone, and commands also 
an extensive horizon, in which are distinctly discovered the INIontreal 
JNIountain, the Pinnacle and Mansfield ISIountains, and several other 
prominent features of the country. Its northern ascent, though some- 
what abrupt, is rendered easy by the windings of the path, which is the 
only avenue traced to its summit. 

Resuming tlie subject of the eastern townships, it will be found that, 
in the tract of country known by that name, 98 whole townships and 
parts of townships have been at different times laid out and subdivided 
by actual survey, and that about ten more remain to be admeasured and 
erected by letters patent, to complete the internal division of the tract. 
Very few, if any, of the townships thus surveyed, can be said to be 
wholly destitute of settlers, although by far the greater number present 
but unconnected and partial settlements thinly scattered over the country. 
The townships most settled are Ascot, Eaton, Compton, Hatley, Stans- 
stead, Barnston, Barford, Potton, Sutton, Dunham, Stanbridge, Farnham, 
Brome, Bolton, Orford, Stukeley, and Shefford, which form the mass of 
townships on the frontier of the province, about Lake INIemphremagog 
and the forks of the St. Francis. On Craig's Road the townships of 
Ireland, Leeds, and Inverness are the most populous and improved ; and 
on the St. Francis, Shipton, INIelbourne, Wickham, Grantham, and 
Upton. 

The main and, indeed, the only rouds leading from the heart of these 
townships to the older settlements, are Craig's Road, which, from its intcr- 



II. i: 

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* ]Mr. Bowron. 



II n 2 



308 



LOWEU CANADA. 



section of tlie St. Francis at Sliipton, is open to the settlements of St. 
Giles ; the East and ^^'est River lloads of the St. Francis, leading from 
Sherbrooke to the IJaie St. Antoine, on Lake St. Peter; and the road 
throngh Hatley, Stanstead, I'otton, Sutton, St. Annand, Dunham, and 
Stanbridge to the settlements of the llichelieu lliver. IJy this latter road, 
are opened several avenues into the state of Vermont, witlnvhich a constant 
intercourse is kept up. Same parts of Craig's lload are almost impassable, 
owing to swamps and windfalls, and particularly so between the settle- 
ments of l.,ecds and those of Slupton. Of the roads along the St. Francis, 
that on the eastern bank is the best and most generally used in summer, 
the other is practised preferably in winter. The worst section of the 
summer road lies between the seigniory of Courval and the house of a 
farmer, by the name of Spicer, a distance of six miles. Of this distance, 
four miles are called the Sacainu', which during the wet season is dan- 
gerous and frequently impracticable. The bogs in the southern quarter 
of Simj)son are also very bad for about half a league, but they are not of 
a shaking nature, from the firnniess of the substratum. The road through 
Potton and Sutton is very rugged, broken, and otherwise bad. The 
minor public roads connecting the settlements of the townships circum- 
jacent to Ascot are munerous and, generally speaking, much better, as 
having the advantage of receiving more frequent repairs from the sei^^lers, 
to be found in greater numbers on their borders, this quarter of the tract 
being more closely inhabited. 

Jjabouring under the weighty disadvantage of the want of good and 
convenient roads communicating with the principal market-towns of ir.e 
province, the prosperity of the eastern townshi})s can only be attr'.buted 
to the enter])rise, industry, and perseverance of the inhabitants, who, 
considering merely the mildness of the climate, the advantages of the 
soil, and the locality, boldly entered the wilderness originally, and have 
now the gratification of seeing around them, corn-fields of um-ivalled 
luxuriance, thriving fa'-'^s, and flourishing villages. The town of Sher- 
brooke contains about Iwellmg-houses ; it occupies a high position 
on both banks of the lliver jNIagog, at the forks of the St. Francis, and 
its settlements are connected by a bridge ; the old court-house aiul 
jail are on the Ascot side. As the seat of jurisdiction of the district of 



f 



SHERBROOKE— BELVIDERE— STANSTEAD. 



oO[) 



St. Francis, it is a place of general resort; besides bcino-, as it were, the 
emporium of the township trade, or rather (as the head of the present na- 
vigation of the St. Francis), the place of transit through which the chief 
part of the township produce is conveyed to the market-towns, or else- 
where. The chief articles of trade are grain, pot and pearl ashes, and 
likewise horses, horned cattle, sheep, and other live stock. 

At some distance from Sherbrooke, remarkably well situated, is 
Belvedere, the residence of the Honourable ^Y. IJ. Felton, the proprietor 
of large tracts of land in Ascot and other townships, and the original 
promoter of the settlements of that section of the province. The sur- 
rounding positions command a delightful circuit of scenery, in which 
nature and art alternately share the homage of our admiration. The 
bold ridge of Orford and IJolton Mountains, and the high conical hill 
in Potton, called Owl's Head, from its singular formation, are seen in the 
hori/on to the west and south-Avest; and in more remote perspective is 
discovered the conspicuous cone of the Pinnacle IMountain, St. Armand. 
To the eastward the gay spires and flourishing settlements of P^aton, and 
to the north of these the Avoodless front of the Bald Mountain, and to the 
south and south-east thebeautiful and ])icturesquc settlements of Compton, 
beyond which the majestic highlands of the Connecticut bound the a iew. 

Stanstead village is the next in the scale of consequence, althougli 
in point of neatness it takes precedence of Sherbrooke. The buildings 
are generally more regular and tasty, many of them two stories high, 
and several are built of brick. The stvle of building throughout the 
townshi})s, is very different from that followed in the French settle- 
ments of the province, and borders considerably, if it is not absolutely 
similar, to the American style, in the adjoining state of Vermont. 
Indeed, when we come to contrast the system of agriculture, as well 
as the ])lan of building, pursued in the townships, with those adopted 
in the seigniories by Canadian farmers, we find a striking dissimilarity, 
and can easily trace the analogy of appearance that prevails between 
the township settlements and those of the American frontier. That 
the American agricultural system has the advantage of the Canadian, is, 
we believe, generally admitted, and to this the superior produce of the 
township lands seems to bear abundant testimony. The domestic clean- 
liness usually to be met with in the houses of the inhabitants is such as 



) 'I 



1^: 



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i:'. 




310 



LOWEK CANADA. 



. 



to cluirac'tt'risc t hem for that virtue; ^vllil.st domestic mamifacturcs of 
every description, introduced in the country, such as homespun cloths 
and linens, dia|)er, cVc, are evidence of their industry : some of tlu 
clotlis and linens are of a tissue and texture, not nuich inferior to the 
connnon descrii)tion of im])orted IJritish cloths and Irish linens. 

In the otlier townshijjs.wliose names liavc been previously mentioned, 
a number of pretty vilhiges and handets are dispersed, tliat enliven tlie 
as])ect of the country, and form, as it Avcre, so many points uhence tiie 
collective eneroy of the inhabitants, fostered by the aid of society, 
extends its influence to the surrounding coimtry, and encoin'a<i,es a de- 
iiree of industry that, ere manv years, -will convert dense forests into 
fertile fields. 

The route to St. ^Vrmand lies across the townships I'otton and 
Sutton, ;md ))art of the comity of Richmond, in the state (>f A'ermont. 
This tedious route being ])assed, the village of Frelighsburg is seen de- 
lightfully situated at tlie base of the St. ^Vrmand's Mountain, in a fair and 
picturcs(pie valley, the Pinnacle rising boldly behind it to the eastward. 
It consists of a church and 50 dwelling-houses, about a (juarter of which 
nmnber is built of brick, tw^o stories high. The village and the mountain 
end)ellish each other reciprocally ; the ])rospect from the Pinnacle bor- 
rowing nuicli interest from the gay settlemeiits below it, whilst the village 
itself is beautifully set off by the lofty hill, that forms a magnificent 
back-ground to the landscape. From the sunnuit of Pinnacle Mountain 
one peculiarity, in the s])lendid and comprehensive view it presents, is 
remarkable in the ])rospcct southward, where the Vermont hills and 
settlements are traced to their union with the mountains and settlements 
of J iowcr Canada, with which they are blended, as it were, mulcr the eye 
of the observer, being merely divided by an imaginary line of latitude 
that defines the dominion of the respective ])owerH. 

The several roads toPhillipsburgh, on jMissis(jui 15ay, in St. Armand. 
are tolerably good, and exhibit a ])leasing variety of landscape as they 
Avind round the base of lulls, and pass over gentle acclivities. The settle- 
ments are in a flourishing conditioii, and the country agreeably di- 
versified by frequent hillocks and rich swells of land. The village is neat 
and ])leasantly situated upon the eastern shores of the bay. on the public 
communication between Lower Canada and the United States. 




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IRELAND, &c.—DRUMMO\DVILLE—C0UNTRYE. OFCIlAl'DFi: RK. 'M I 

TurniiiL? from this section of tlic eastern townsliips to the more 
northerly parts, the settlements of Ireland, Leeds, and Inverness Avill 
he considered •with some interest, from the rapid ])ro<;ress they have made 
within the last few years. Those of Drummondville, on the St. Franeis, 
will prohably be found to elicit still more our surprise, from their i)resent 
state of advancement. The lands comijosinj? them were granted to oflieers, 
non-connnissioned oHicers and ])rivates of disbanded corps of royal ve- 
terans, Avho commenced their settlements, under the direction and su])er- 
intendence of Ijieutenant-Colonel Hcrriott, C. 11., an oflicer no less di- 
stinguished for his services during the late American war, than for his 
zeal in forwarding the interests and prosperity of this veteran colony. 
The small village of Drunnnondville is situated in the township of CJran- 
tham, on the banks of the river St. Francis. 

In dismissing the consideration of this part of the country, we wonhl 
remark the broad and conspicuous distinction existing between two classes 
of the people of the same province, in a small comparative extent of 
territory, as betwixt the inhabitants of the seigneurial settlements and those 
of the townships, differing as they do in their language, their religion, 
their habits, their systems of agriculture, the temu'e of their lands, and 
partially in their laws. The prevalent hmguage in the townships is F'nglish, 
the tenure of the lands, free and common soccage, and the laws by which 
lands descend by inheritance, are English. The French idiom is imiversal 
in the seigniories, the tenure of the lands, feudal, and the law of descent 
by which property is governed, is prescribed by the custom of Paris. 



SOUTH SIDE q '■'::• St. LAWUFAXK.-g II. Couutrii cast of the Rivi-it CirAe- 
nii-n to the iccst houmts of the Distuict of OasiM'.. 

This section of Ijower Canada is bounded to the north-west by the 
St. Lawrence, which forms an extensive front of 2.57 miles, and to the 
south-east by the highlands dividing the British from the American ter- 
ritories in that quarter. These highlands are situated, at their nearest 
l)oint, ()2 miles, perpendicular distance from the St. Lawrence ; but, in 
approaching the river Chaudiei'e, they diverge southerly, to the soiu'ces 
of the Connecticut. The superficial extent of this tract of country is 



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3V2 



LOWER CANADA. 



V I 



about lft.H0!2 square statute miles, aiul its ])<)])ulati()n about (l.i.'HO souls, 
chiefly oeeupx inn- the borders of the St. liawreuce to the lateral depth of 
}) uiiles, aud the banks of the river Chaudiere. 

Of the above-nieutioued HU])ertieies, lu)U'ever, a considerable section 
lies in a sort of temporary abeyance, arisinj;- from the claim set up by the 
government of the Tnited States of ^Vmerica, to the dominion of a tract 
exceeding (),()()(),()()() of acres. The merits of this claim were succinctly 
taken into consideration in the first cha])ter of the present volume; but 
the recent decision of the um])ire to whom this im})ortant international 
question was referred, having since come to light, we feel called u])ou to 
take notice of it in this place, although it is miderstood that neither power 
interested in the reference, has ac<|uiesced in the award. 

The line of boundary ])rescribed by the King of Holland, as ad- 
justing the claims of (ireat Hritain and the United States in this part of 
the i\merican continent, appears to be, as far as wc are infornu-d, a con- 
tinuation of the meridiomd line from JMars Hill (uj) to which ])oint 
both nations are agreed) until it strikes the river St. ,To!m: thence up the 
middle of that river to the mouth of the St. Francis, a river falling into 
the St. .Tolm from the northward ; thence up the St. Francis, about 
18 miles; thence on a line due north or west to the table-land along 
which the Americans claim the boundary; and finally along that table- 
country to the highlands of the Connecticut. IJy this irregular line 
of boundary a tract of territory of about 1,.5,'J0,000 acres is cut off from 
IiOwerCanada,and the river St. .Fohn exhibits the strange and inconvenient 
characters, of belonging in part to one jjower exclusively, and in ]>art to 
another exclusively, whilst another section of the same stream is imder 
the common dominion of both powers. The boundary is also liable to 
the momentous objection of approaching too near the banks of the St. 
Lawrence, and even the capital of British North America ; and the sepa- 
ration, that the American claim evidently tended to effect, between the 
Canadas and the seaboard provinces, is not only as substantially })roduced 
by the awarded boundary, but the " -wedge," besides being driven in 
between New IJrunswick and Lower Canada, is calcidated also to sever 
the eastern section of the latter province from the western, andthusbecome 
equally dangerous, as affecting the integrity and safety of the colonies. 



m',i 



BOCXDARV— AWAIU) OF Till: K[N(i ()V IIOII.AM). 



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The award of tlii' iimijirc — dictatid, iiodoiiht, h\ asiiuvrr dcsiir (if doiiio 
impartial justitv to tlu- liij^li ])artic's t'oiuvnu'd — is in fact a comprniiiific ; 
and \\v a])))ri'lu'n(l that the (|ui\sti()n of ivfcrcncr did not contcniijlatc a 
decision upon that [)rineipK', hut was confined to the mere declaration of 
tchat wan the honiiddrif intciidcd ami meant hij the trcatif o/'lTS.'J. It was 
in thc« spiiit of tliat treaty ahme that the rule of decision was to he sou<>lit 
for, and not in ahstract theories of equity; although the matter, if decided 
even upon the latter principles, ])roperly understood, nuist have led to a 
diflerent determination, from the obvious advantaj^e the award pro- 
noimced would, if acceded to, give to the American over the Hritish 
interests. It were idle to enter here into a re])etition of arguments that 
have been so often urged ami exhausted ; but the justice of the Jh-itish 
claim, and its ])aramount importance as connected with the ])reservation 
of the liritish North iVmerican colonies, caimot be too often or too em- 
phatically enforced; and we vainly endeavour to view the ])ossil)le sur- 
render of the tract in (jiiestion, to a foreign state, in any other light than 
that of the first ste]) towards the loss of those fine provinces. 

Putting aside the assumptions of the vVmerican govermnent. and 
viewing that tract of country as it now actually stands, forming ])art of 
the ])rovincc of Lower Canada, we shall consider the Mars Hill high- 
lands as constituting its bounds to the southward, and describe its geo- 
gra))hy accordingly. 

The face of the country, though abounding with extensive valleys 
and flats, is decidedly hilly ; but it is neither so boldn or so mountainous 
as the coimtry on the opposite banks of the St. Lawrence. The land 
generally rises in irregular ridges from the borders of the river, towards 
the rear, and attains, in general, a considerable elevation at the distance 
of K), 1.5, and 20 miles from the front, forming at its height the verge of 
a broad and extended tract of table-land of gentle descent towards the 
lliver St. John, beyoid which it reascends again, and acquires a superior 
degree of altitude, towards the sources of the AUegash, merging in the 
range of highlands that are a continuation of the Connecticut range, 
stretching eastwardly, and w'inding round the sources of the rivers falling 
into the Atlantic, and those flowing into the St. Lawrence, and the St. 
John, in the opposite direction. 

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l.OWKH ( AXADA. 



Thi^ vast trarl ol' tiriitun is mtv will watrivd by minuToiis i-Imts 
and laki's, and tlu'ir tril)iitarv uatirs. that ll«»\v tluoii^li the soil in nnilti- 
raiious niiiiiru-atioiis. Of the rivers, the largest are the St. .lohii and its 
priiieipal hninehes. the Madawaska, Ktihemin, l)ii Siid, Le Unis (ahraiuh 
of the I)ii Slid), Ste. Aiiiie. OiU'Ue, l)ii Loilp. the (Jreeii Hiver, Trois 
IMstolles, Kimoiiski, and tlu'(ireat Mills and Mataiie rivers. The ehief 
lakes are those of Metapediae, Mitis, Tiiniseoiiata, liOii^' Laki', and the 
Ka^le Lakes; l)nt othi-rs of infi'rior magnitude are fre(|uent, and these 
in I'lMural. as well as the laruer lakes, ahoujul with a varietv of exeellent 

iish. 

I-'roni the hij;h <;-rounds of lian/on. opposite Cape Diamond, a 
general and j^radual deelivity eastward is ])ereeptil)le alony; tlu* St. 
Lawrenee as far as tlie Uiver du Sud, heyoiid whieh the innnediate haidvs 
of the river are moderatelv elevated for a considerable distanei> down. 



the hills to theS.W 



d 



The Kiver du Sud takes Us soinve in the lulls to the rs. \\ ., iuui w nuiuii;' 
in a general north-easterly eourse for about IJO miles, throuiih a level, 
rieh, and iVuitfid phiin, disehar;j;es itself into the St. Lawrence .'J.5 miles 
below (Quebec. The richness of the harvests in the luxuriant valley it 
traverses had long ac(juired to it a re])utation as the granary of I^owcr 
Canada, but it is now supposed to yield in fertility to the lands on the 
Richelieu river. Its scenery is soft and beautiful in the extreme. 'I'lu- 
village of St. Thomas stands on the N.W. shore of the Uiver du Sud, 
near its junction with the St. Lawrence. \'iewed from Chapel Hill, 
which lies about U miles to the S.AV., it a|)pears to great advantage, a 
conspicuous object in one of the most enchanting prospects to be seen 
in the j)rovince. From the insulated altitude of the rock, the spectatiir 
connnands ii beautiful ])anoramic view of the surrounding cham))aign 
country, which is in a high state of cultivation, and chequered witb 
fre(juent farndiouses ami extensive barns, whose dazzling whiteness is 
agreeably contrasted with tlie rich verdure or niatnrer hue of the field, 
and the luxuriant foliage of the elm. To the N. and X.K. tlie broad 
stream of the St. Ijawrence is displayed in all its grandeur, the eye being 
able from this one point to survey its expanded surface above and below 
ft)r a total distance of nearly 40 miles. The villages above St. Thomas, 
and particularly St. JMichel and St. Vallier, are remarkably picturesque, 



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STE, ANXE DU SUD. 



315 



m 



and tliciv locality peculiarly advantageous, as tlioy are seated on tlio 
banks of the St. Lawrence, upon some agreeable eminence, and on the 
borders of an excellent road. 

At Stc. Anne's, 121 leagues l)elow Quebec, are first to be met with 
those insulated difls Avhich ciiaracterize the scenery about Kamouraska. 
They are composed of granite, and generally rise in abrupt slo])es, ])re- 
senting rugged faces, thinly clad Avitii dwarf trees. The highest of 
these liills is IMontagne Ste. ^Vmie, which from its towering elevati«)n, 
not much uidikethat of llouville Mountain, peers above the fine country 
at its base. The access to its sunnnit is precipitous and craggy, but the 
toils of the explorer are am))ly rewarded by the varied beauty of the 
prospect. Like Chapel Hill, near St. Thomas, it rises amidst fertile 
fields ; but the features of the circumjacent country exhibit rather more 
of the varieties of hill and dale, swelling into gentle slopes, or occasion- 
ally springing up into conical hills of the same description as the Ste. 
Anne's Momitain, though much inferior in altitude. To the eastward the 
spectator views the ')eautiful village and settlements of l?iver Ouelle, 
towards the west those of St. Hoch des Annais : to the southward 
runs a bold but not very high ridge, skirting the most luxuriant fields ; 
whilst to the northward the St. Lawrence, ever a cons])icuous object in 
Canadian scenery, is seen ))roudly rolling its broad stream to the ocean, 
alo!ig the base of the stu])endous range of mountains on the o])])osite 
shore. 

At the eastern base of the mountain, very agreeably situated u))on 
an eminence, are the small village of Ste. Anne's, the parish church, the 
parsonage-house, and a large stone college, .'3 stories high, occupying an 
elevated, romantic, and very salubrious spot. 1<) the zeal of the Hev. 
Mcssire Painchaud, the curate of the parish, in ])romoting the benefits of 
education, is entirely due the foundation of this interesting institution ; 
and the liberal principles by which it is to be governed are in accordance 
with the enlightened spirit of the age, and such as to extend its advan- 
tajres to the youth of all denominations *. 

The populousness of the seigniories upon the southern bank of the 



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* \"u\c Tnpogrnphiail Dictlonari/, " Ste. Annfi." 



.s s 2 



I I 



316 



LOWER CANADA. 



vSt. Lawrence, lielow Point I^evi, had for some years pointed out the 
necessity of such a college; but some want of unanimity relative to the 
spot most eligible for its construction, — wliether it should be Ivamou- 
raska, Kiver Quelle, or Ste. Anne, — and a deficiency of funds, retarded the 
execution of the project, until the vigorous measures pursued by ^Nlessire 
Painchaud led to the judicious selection of tlie beautiful site the college 
now occu])ies, and to its immediate construction subsequently. 

Tlie ])arishes on the borders of the St. Lawrence, below Ste. Anne's, 
are lliver Ouelle, Kamouraska, St. Andrew's, River du I^oiip, Cacona, 
Isle A'crte, Kimouski, aiul ^Matane. Mitis, which intervenes between 
Kimouski and ]Matane, constitutes no parish of itself, but is attached 
to the one or the other of these. The parishes above IJic, or from Cacona 
inclusive, are very po])ulous, the farms in a good state of cultivation, the 
soil generally excellent in its varieties, and the inhabitants in every 
respect easy and comfortable. One principal road, running along the 
river's bank, connects the whole line of flourishing settlements; whilst 
others, called roiitefi, lead to the interior concessions and parishes, and are 
intersected by other front roads running parallel to the main road on the 
St. Lawrence's border. The roads are in general kept in good repair, and 
the bridges thrown over the rivers and streams are neat and substantial. 
At River Ouelle and River du Loup, tolls are exacted for the passage 
of the bridges, which are moderate enough at the latter place, but con- 
sidered too high at the former. 

River Ouelle and Kamouraska are the most populous villages below 
Ste. Anne's; and of these two Kamouraska enjoys a superiority in point 
of magnitiule as well as situation. Roth villages contain several very 
neat dwelling-houses, the residences of the principal inhabitants of the 
res])ective places ; a few shops, and two or three good taverns. At River 
Ouelle is established at the mouth of the river a very productive porpoise 
fishery, held by several individuals in shares. Kamouraska, f)0 miles 
distant from Quebec, is celebrated in the province for the remarkable 
salubrity of its atmosphere, Avhich enjoys all the invigorating ])i-operties 
of sea air, arising from the breadth of the St. Lawrence, which is here up- 
wards of G leagues, and the jierfect sea salt of the waters. Kamom-aska is 
now the chief watering-])lace in Lower Canada ; and, as such, is the resort 



N'f*'- 



KAMOURASKA— TEMISCOUATA PORTACilv 



317 



of numerous visiters, of the first rank and respectability, duriiirr the summer 
months. The seignior of tliis highly valuable estate, Pashal Tasehe, Kfn\., 
occupies the manor-house, which is very ])leasantly situated at a short 
distance cast of the village, near the borders of the St. Lawrence, at the 
foot of a well wooded ridge that shelters it from X.E. Avinds, and en- 
hances the beauties of the situation. 

The seigniory is wholly settled, and indeed th'- redundant population 
occupies part of the waste lands in its depth. The front, which is gene- 
rally low, abounds in those rich natural meadows to be met with in some 
of the parishes above, affording abundant wholesome ))asturage, and 
enabling the farmer to produce large quantities of butter, nuu'h esteemed 
for its excellence in the Quebec market. The islands in front, besides 
embellishing the landscape, are used as the sites of extensive tisheries, 
the chief of which is that of the herring. Between these islands and the 
main shore, schooners find a safe strand at low water. 

East of Kamouraska, the country contimics for some distance singu- 
larly diversified, by abrupt and insidated hills, whose craggy and almost 
barren faces are usually contrasted with well cultiAated fields. The 
clnu-ch of St. Andrew's is first seen from the westward to emerge very 
])rettily fron\ behind two of these cliffs. T\\ o leagues below St, Andrew's, 
Temiscouata portage strikes the main road ; and about a quarter of a 
mile west of it stands an inn, kept by ISIadame Perron. The land 
rises here very near the river in a steep ascent to an elevation of 
from 150 to 200 feet, the road running by the houses at the foot of the 
bank, although the fields and enclosures are upon the hill, the access to 
the summit of which is difficult, and subjects the farmers to some incon- 
venience when driving their cattle to the grazing-grounds. 

The portage of Temiscouata is 12 leagues long, and traverses the 
country from the shores of the St. Lawrence to Lake Temiscouata. 
Throuii'h this conununication lies the mail route to Frederickton, St. 
John's, and Halifax ; and hence may be formed an opinion of its im- 
portance, and of the consequent ex])ediency of improving it, to render 
the intercourse more easy and expeditious between the eastern and the 
western parts of the British colonies. It was first opened in 1783, but 
has since undergone, from time to time, considerable repairs; and more 



uh 



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318 



LOWER CANADA. 



k 



recently a sum of 500/. was expended in its amelioration, under the 
direction of commissioners and the immediate superintendence of oNIr. 
AN'ofle, adjutant h. p. of the (JOth regiment. The road penetrates a 
wilderness, and is irregular and winding in its course, in order to avoid, 
as often as practicable, the hills that present themselves on the direct 
route. There is a good bridge across lliver du Loup, and small bridges 
over the minor streams, so that waggons may now pass through without 
interruption. 

About {) miles from the entrance of the portage, and half a mile 
aboAo the mouth of the lliver du I^oup, is the saw-mill and extensive 
timber establishment of Henry Caldwell, Esq., where that branch of 
Canadian trade is carried on u])on a large scale. The mill is connected 
with the estuary of the river by a (/aile or aqueduct, through w^hich deals 
are transported from the mill to the basin, where schooners are laden 
with them. Se\eral S(piare-riggcd vessels have also taken in cargoes of 
timber here ; but the oi)cration of loading can only be ])erformed by 
means of scows or flat boats, the shallowness of the water rendering it ne- 
cessary that sliips shoiddlie out at a considerable distance, where they are 
much exposed to the winds, although the anchoring-ground is sufficiently 
good. 

The parishes of Cacona, Isle Verte, and Trois Pistolles present them- 
selves next in order after lliver du Loiqx Their settlements do not 
extend far beyond the river or front range, which exhibits neat farm- 
houses, large barns, and extensive enclosures that bear evidence of a good 
soil and industrious cultivation. After traversing these seigniories, we 
come to that part of the road called the lliinouski or Nine-league 
Portage. It is but partially settled, and the rugged aspect of the rocky 
ridges to the north and south of it render it a gloomy section of the road. 
These ridges form a valley whose breadth at its western entrance is 
nearly 2 miles ; but tapering towards its eastern extremity, its width is 
contracted to not more than 800 yards. It is 27 miles long, and comes 
out over the bold and broken mountains of liic, wliere it becomes 
excessively hilly, presents a series of abrupt cliffs and craggy hills, from 
the aspect of which, the eye is much relieved by dwelling on the mel- 
knved landscape that offers itself in the well-dispersed settlements of 



ROADS— MITIS—LARRIVe'S IMILL. 



319 



Rimouskl. After passing the steep and broken liigli grounds of Bic, 
tlie baiiks of the St. IjaAvrcnce become of a moderate varying elevation, 
excepting at Grand Mitis, where they rise abruptly about ^iu.<ic aiuv 
Suellcs'. The public road is not open beyond Athse an Coq, a distance 
of 4 leagues below the church of Kimouski, and follows in its bearings 
the sinuosities of the river, having on its borders comfortable farm- 
houses and well-cultivated fields. It ])asses at Father Point, a s])ot of much 
beauty, remarkable as the place of residence of most of the pilots of the 
St. Ijawrence, several of whom are in affluent circumstances. Below 
Anfie an Cuq no jjroper road exists ; but the beach is frcf|uentcd as sucli, 
and the communication kept up with IMitis and jNIatane by that medium. 
The locality admits of the opening of an excellent road at trifling 
expense ; and there is no doubt that the making of such a road would 
be an imi)ortant encouragement to the settlements of that section of the 
province. 

The grand river IMitis discharges itself 24 miles below Rimouski 
into Aiise aii.v SiwUes, an exj)ansive estuary, which is easily forded at 
low water. ISlr. Larrivc's dwelling-house and establishment stand at 
the mouth of the river, across which hoows are extended to reti'.in the 
deals turned off from the saw-mill, situated about two miles and a half 
higher up, occupying a most advantageous site. ^Vt the foot of the falls 
that are used in working the mill, the river forms an almost circular 
basin, bounded by a perpendicular rock of about 200 feet, excepting to 
the eastward, where the ground is woody but of equal elevation. The 
mill itself is awfully situated on the deep inclination of the falls, and the 
uproar of its rapid machinery, the loudness and beauty of the cascade, 
combine with the peculiar wildness of the scenery, to render the spot 
extremely romantic. The proprietor of this mill is generally a large 
timber contractor ; and vessels visually receive their cargoes at jNIitis, 
where they may lie at anchor off Ause au.r SneJles — somcAvhat exposed, 
hoAvever, to the force of the tides and stress of weather. 

From Grand to Little Mitis, the distance is only 6 miles ; but there 
is no regular road coimecting both places, the communication being kept 
open merely over the beach, along which a proper road might easily be 
traced. The banks of the river are of a moderate elevation, rising in 



ii 



^^V. 






SI 

"I. 



tt«1 



Wl 



:v20 



LOWER CANADA. 






slopes by no means too pi'ecii)itous for tillage, and possessing a ligjit but 
fertile soil. Tiie chief settlements of tlie seigniory of Mitis are situated 
at Little INIitis IJay, n]nm a rocky ])()int, having to the N.^^^ the St. 
I^awrence, and to the S.K. the deep bay which receives the waters of 
Little Mitis lUver. The lands in the vicinity of the bay consist of a 
light but good soil, wiiose properties are improved by the sea-weed 
which abounds along the shores, and is profitably used as manure. 
Extensive salmon and herring fisheries are set up in the bay S. K. of the 
point, which yield an abundance of both articles for the Quebec market, 
Avherc they generally meet with ready sale. Halibut and cod are also 
taken off and in the bay, where seals ar(> to be seen in great numbers at 
ebb tide, basking on rocks in all directions. From the deptli and breadth 
of Mitis Hay, its position and soundings, it will probably be found to 
offer essential advantages as a roadstead for vessels bound up or down 
the river, whether to take in a pilot or to discharge one. The o])ening 
of Kempt Uoad from Grand Mitis tt) Lake Metapediac, and thence to 
Kistigouche, was an undertaking of great moment to that part of the 
province ; and at the same time that it will add to the means of com- 
mimicating with New IJrunswick and Gaspe, it will give an additional 
impulse to the settlements in the lower section of the district of Quebec. 
The parish of iSIatane lies about 30 miles below JNIitis, from which it 
is separated by a total wilderness. The interconrse between both places is 
ke])t by water only, or sometimes, but with considerable difficulty, by the 
beach. The banks o( the river are almost imiformly low, and the surface 
of the country so level, as to offer combined facilities in making a road to 
connect the settlements. The timber, consisting chiefly of evergreen 
Avoods, is generally diminutive upon the skirts of the forest ; but, re- 
ceding from the river, the trees increase in magnitude, and the rising 
grounds are clothed with a more stnrdy growth of hard woods. The 
tract of country lying between JNIitis and Matane possesses all the 
advantages necessary to render it fit for the reception of a large colony 
of emigrants, and from its situation is peculiarly adapted to that purpose. 
The soil is sandy towards the front, but it becomes richer in the interior, 
if the quality of the timber be a faithful indication of the character of the 
land. The rivers Blanche and Turtigoo and other inferior streams flow 



MATA>.'E— COUNTRY OX THE ST. .lOIIN.S. 



sm 



tlirough it, and diseliarfvc tlienist'lvcs in the St. Tvawroncc. At the mouth 
of the river lUanehe an ''xcellent mill-site presents itself, and several 
others are to be met with on the rivers and rivulets by which this tract 
is so amply watered. 

The chief settlements of Matanc occupy botli banks of Matane 
Iliver, and extend about one mile above its mouth. They may be said 
to cover a superficies not exceeding ()00 acres of cultivated land, and to 
contain a po])ulation of about .'>()() souls. A wooden church stands a few 
perches to the east of Mrs. M'Ciibbon's manor-house, and at some di- 
stance below it is built the seigneurial mill, on a small creek. The settle- 
ments of JNlatane are but ])artially seen from the river, as they are 
situated rather inland, and in some mcasiu'c concealed by a siimularlv 
bluff point or mound that rises abru])t and isolated to the westward of 
the river's entrance. A sand-bar across the mouth of the river obstructs 
its navifvation at lo / water, but schooners ascend as far as the manor at 
high tide, a distance of eight or ten rods : further up are the rapids, 
which offer a propitious situation for mills, and also contribute to adorn 
the scenery, which is picturesque and intei'esting. These rapids are 
statxl by Indians to be the only impediments to the navigation of 
the river, the course of which is miinterruptcd beyond them. The soil 
of JNlatane is composed of a thin light bed of sand iipon a rich sub- 
stratum of marl, which produces excellent crops. There being no regular 
road along the front of the seigniory, the beach, a beautiful firm sand, is 
used as the highway at low water, the accumulation of drifted timber 
above high-water mark, rendering the communication by land im])racti- 
cable at any other time. A few wretciied habitations are scattered along 
the beach as far as the eastern extremity of the seigniory, below which arc 
the settlements of Cape Chat and St. Aime"s. at the respective distances 
of 27 and 36 miles from Matane. 

Of the country in the rear of the settlements on the southern shore 
of the St. Lawrence, below Quebec, much has been said, as offering an 
extensive field for colonization. The River St. John, flowing from its 
source to its confluence with the Madawaska, in a course nearly parallel 
to the St. Lawrence, traverses the tract longitudinally, a distance of about 
132 miles, presenting an almost uninterrupted boat navigation the whole 

T T 



'^.* 






32 



oo 



LOWER CANADA. 



IIU} .- 



of this distance, aiul thus f'orniiii"'' a f^-raiid base for the erection of a 
double ran<'e of townships, for the reception of tlie redundant population 
of the old Frencli grants, and the extensive emigration that takes ])lace 
ainnially from the mother country to these provinces. The proximity 
aiul relative situation of these lauds, with the Hourishing settlements of 
the St. liawrence. would greatly tend to accelerate the advancement of 
their settlement, inasmuch as roads of comnnmication migiit very easily 
beopenedat \arious points between (Quebec and Uiverdu Loup, it being 
well ascertained that a i'a\()ura])le locality presents itself for this purpose 
fiom I. Islet, Ste. Anni's, ;ind other places, wlienci' a good road might be 
constructed across the country to connect the St. Lawrence and the St. 
.lohiis. besides the route in actual existence, by Temiscouata. 

Tile settlements of the liei'.s Madawask;i and Temiscouata at the 
south-eastern extremity ol' the portage have made much progress since 
IMSi.'j. when .Vlexander Frascr, Es(juire. the chief ])roprietor of these tiefs, 
first evtablished his i)Iace of residence at tlie \ illage of Kent and Stratheru. 
on the borders of Lake Temiscouata. The lake is about !2.'j miles in 
length, \arying in breadth from half a mile to two and a half miles, with 
a considerable depth of water. Its landscapes are remarkably romantic, 
bounded a.s it is to the eastward bv a bold shore, rising to the elevation 
of mountains, the liighest of which are Mounts Lenox and Aubigny. 
On the slope anc. at the base of the former, large (luantities of excellent 
lime-stone are found, tliat su))ply the settlements of >Lulawaska, below 
the lake, with that useful material, which is also to be found m abundance, 
though inferior in quality. on the western shore, in the vicinity of the settle- 
ments. There is no doubt that the coiulition of tiie Temiscouata portage, 
aiul of the post-route U) Frederickton and St. .John's, must in a great 
measure depend on the progressive advancement of the settlements at 
the lake, by which the thoroughfare would be increased, the comnnmi- 
cation famiiiari/ed, aiul the roads kept in better repair. On a stream 
near the village. Colonel Fraser has erected corn and saw mills that are of 
great moment to the mhabitants. The lake and the rivers al)ound with 
a variety of excellent fish, the largest aiul most abundant species being 
called the Toledo, taken in the river to which it has given its name, and 
also in various parts of the lake. The settlement at the junction of the 




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DISTRK T or fJAS|»i:. 



32'.i 



Miuhiwaskii and tlic St. .Tolin's is liir^vly supplied with it from 'IVinis- 
I'ouata. wliitliiT tlu- iidiahitants I'onic up to kill it with the lino and 
hook. 

Hosidi's tlio scttloiuents that arc scattered ah>nfjf tlie ])orta<;(< and otiii'r 
parts of the New Hriuiswick connnunication, and those to he found in 
some of the townsliips, the tract of coinitry in t' ..' rear of the French 
grants beh)W the Hiver IMiaudiire is an ahsohite wihU-rness. Only a 
small portion of it has, comparatively speakino-, been admeasured and 
sululividcd into townships ; and of siu-h townships as have been laid out 
in whole or in part, namely, Cranbourne, l''rami)t()n, Huckland, Ashford, 
and Ixworth, the most forward in improvements and population is 
Frampton, whose settlements are rapidly increasiug, and are now in a 
very flourishing state: the others have generally a few scattered settle- 
ments in the front ranges skirting the older grants. 



i 



.SOUTH SIDK OF TIIK ST. LAWREXCK. 



i} III. — DisTiiKTor CiAsi'i;. 



The district of Gaspr is the only section of Lower Canada of which 
a general descri])tion remains to be given. The peninsulated tract of 
country so called lies between the parallels of 47" IH' and 49" 12' north 
latitude, and between (i4" 12' and ()7" .^.'J' west longitiule. It is boimded 
by the Hiver St. liawrence to the north, by the (iulf to the cast, south 
by the IJay of Chaleiu's, and by the district line dividing it from Quebec 
to the westAvard. It therefore enjoys the advantage of an extensive 
coast, which, including the shores of the numerous bays that indent it, 
may be about ,'};>() miles, extending from Cape Chat round to the head 
of Uistigouche Bay. Its greatest width, from north to south, is about 
90 miles. 

The imperfect knowledge of the natural divisions of this district 
existing some years antecedently to the present period had led to the 
belief that it was traversed centrally by a ridge of mountains terminating 
at Cape Rosier ; but it would appear, upon further and more accurate 
observation, that the central parts of the peninsula exhibit the aspect of 

T T 2 



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3'J4 



I.ONVUR CANADA. 



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hh (^ 



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an tU'vati'd valk'V, liavii)<j; to the luntli a raii^'i- o( hills skirtinj^ the St. 
Law relict*, and another to thr south, at no very remote distanee from the 
shores of tlie Uisti;;(>ueiie Uiver and the Hay of C'haleurs. In this valley 
is found a series of lakes, from ^vhenee most of the rivers tl<)\vin^' 
northward into the St. Lawrenee, and southward into the Hay of 
C'haleurs, take their sources. 

The face of the country is, generally speakin^-, uneven ; in some 
parts it is deeidi-dly mountainous, and the valleys, which are often irre- 
gular and hroken. are occasionally intersected hy deep ravines; hut the 
mass of the lands is nevertheless perfectly adapted to agriculture. With 
the exception of some of the higher hills, that are thinly clad with a di- 
minutive growth of tindxr, the country is very well wooded, the forests 
chieHy consisting of maple, bee<h, birch, pine, larch, white cedar, s])ruce, 
and hendock ; but there is a scarcity of oak, and what there is of it is 
inferior in size and (piality. 

From Port Daniel to Maria, a distance exceeding hfty miles, along 
the Jlay of C'haleurs, the land, to the depth of about ten miles from the 
siiorcs, is c()m])osed of a friable red clay soil, covered with a thick coating 
of vegetable mould, easy of cultivation, and producing the linest crops. 
This deseription of soil appears, as far as observation goes, to predominate 
in the ilistrict ; excepting on the Uiver Histigouche, where the lands arc 
marked by a superior degree of richness. There are on the Histigouche 
many valuable spots of excellent meadow and interval land, and several 
good tracts on the shores of the Ciulf, at Pabos, Cirand and Little Uiver, 
L'Anse au Ueautils, Mai IJay, Douglas Town, and Cias])c Uay. 

The soil in many parts of the district is considered particularly 
suitable to the culture of hemp, but the infant state of agriculture, the 
want of mills and machinery for preparing the plant after it has been 
reaped, and the inability of the grower to bring forward a sufficient 
quantity to form an objett of speculation and of export, have hitherto 
prevented the trial being fairly made. Flax is successfully cultivated, 
and raised in a proportion adequate to the Avants of the inhabitants in 
their domestic manufactures. 

'I'he district of Gaspc is divided into two counties, Gaspe and Uon- 
aventure, and nominally subdivided into ten townships and seven sei- 



lli !l 



(i.\Sl>r;— lUVIJlN— I.AKKS-UOADS. 



.TJ.') 



gnioriosand Hi'fs; hut tlic townsliips liavc imt yi't bt'on accurately defined, 
and serve merely to describe situation. Tliere are also tu«) other classes 
of descriptive names; the one derived from the rivers or havs on which 
tlillerent settlements have heen I'ormetl, the other from distinctive ap- 
jullition.s attached to particular places hy the Homan C'atliolii- clerj;y. 
No part of the district has yet lu-en regularly erected into parishes. 

The chief rivers hy which the district is watered an- the llisti^ouche, 
that partly homuls it on the south, the I'scudy, (iounnnit/, (iuailam- 
gonichoue, Mistoue, and Matapcdiac, which fall into the Histi^oiiche : 
theCirand and Little Nouvelle. (Jrand and Little t'ascapediac, Claplin. 
Honaventure, Kast Novel, and I'ort Daniel, that discharffc themselves 
into the Hay of Chaleurs; (irand and Little I'ahos, Grand and Litth- 
Kiver, and Mai Hay Hiver, flowing- into the (iulf of St. Lawrence; the 
Hiver St. .John, and N.K. and S.W. branches, that fall into (Jasj)c Hay. 

There are numerous lakes in the interior; hut that i)art of the 
eoimtry bein^:;' only very sui)ertlcially explored, their exact jiosition is 
not known. It is ascertained, however, that they, as well as the rivers, 
abound Avith a variety offish, and that salmon, at one ])eriod very ahun- 
daiit in the rivers, has ince several years become almost extinct. 

The roads in the district of Ciaspc are few and very bad, and iiulet'd 
the various settlements would be wholly without the means of inter- 
connnunication but for htidli' roads — that is, such as may be travelled on 
liorseback — or the beach, which is in many places used as the hi«>hway. 
From Hiver Novel to Port Daniel, where the country is most thickly 
settled, a tolerably good road of that description is opened, that may be 
travelled part of the way by wheel-carriages. IJeyond Port Daniel the 
road has been traced and o])ened to Perec, and, although traversing a 
thinly settled country, is, together with other roads of the district, about 
being materially imi)roved out of the funds appropriated for that object 
by the legislature of the province. The road acts * have hitherto been 
so much disregarded as to create a just degree of dissatisfaction ; and the 
restriction, on the other hand, of the duties of the (irand \'oyer to certain 
sections of the district, to the exclusion of others, such as Ciaspe IJay, is 



V'li 



3(5 Geo. III. cli;»i). I) j 4» Geo. III. ciwp. 2o. 



ry26 



LOW Ell CANADA. 



r 

ii ' 



II' 



a considtM-ablo drawback iii)oii the iinprovcnicnt of its internal commu- 
nications. 

The deserted state of the country from Cape Chat round to Gaspc 
liay has exposinl the victims of sliipwreck, so fretpient ah»n<>- that in- 
liospitable coast, to the greatest suirerings and distress ; and tlie Gasp(f' 
commissioners in IS'iO wisely suggested in tlieir report, the ex])ediency 
of opening roads and establisliing ])ost-houses at ])id)lie ex])ense aUmg 
that shore of tlie river and gulf of St. Lawrence, by which the unfortu- 
nate might find some relief. The sum of .jOOO/., including 1 ()()()/. already 
ap))ro))riated for the ])urpose by the legislature, was considered by them 
suHicient to accomplish so lunnane an object, on granting the lands on 
the road to actual settlers as soon as it would be opened. 

" The roads which would be of the most immediate use are as 
follow ; that is to say, from Gaspe Riy across the ])eninsula to Grifliirs 
Cove, on the St. liawrence, about ten miles; from Lake Matapediac 
to Cirand Mitis, on the St. Lawrence, twenty-four miles*; from the 
source of the Ilistigouche to the l?iver St. .Tohn, about thirteen miles ; 
a road from the IJasin of Gasj)i'' to Perce, over inigranted lands, about 
twenty-four miles ; from I'erce to New Carlisle, over the intervening 
ungrantcd lands, about twenty-four miles ; from New Carlisle to Carle- 
ton, about nine miles, over ungranted lands ; from Carleton to llisti- 
gouche, twelve miles, over ungrantcd lands; from Mitis to Cape Chat, 
sixty-six miles ; from Cape Chat to Fox river, one hundred and five 
miles ; and from thence to Griiliu's Cove, about six miles. It is to be 
observed, that, from Ca])e Chat downwards, there are several places where 
it would be necessary that the road should pass behind the mountains, 
and in some places there may be interruptions from ravines and gidlies. 
These roads it woidd, at first, only be necessary to open in a rough manner; 
that is to say, about 22 feet wide, 12 feet of which to be clear of im- 
pediments (which might cost about 10/. per mile, as paid by the com- 
missioners of internal connnunications in the district of Quebec for 
work of a similar descrii)tion), leaving them to be hereafter im])roved by 



• Tliis road has since been properly opciu-d uiitler tlie authority of an act passed by the 
provincial legislature, and is now one of the most important communications in that quarter. 
It is called the Kempt Road. 



n 11 



GASPE— SETTLEMENTS— POPULATIOX. 



327 



the grantees occupying tlie adjacent land, as ])rovided by the act 36t\\ 
Cieo. III. clia]). })■ Those roads upon which it niiglit be expedient to 
establish post-houses at an early period might be done with nu)re par- 
ticular care. A line of posts from that district to Quebec nuist, for the 
above as well as other manifest reasons, be of essential advantage to tra- 
vellers, as well from (iaspe and Chaleurs liay, as to tliose arriving from 
parts beyoiul the sea, who, on making the coast, might find it preferable 
to proceed by land to Quebec. From CJrand Mitis to Quebec the road 
is already opened; and for that part of it which is near Mitis, the coinitry 
is indebted to the public s])irit of ,Iohn INI acnider, Esepiire, of (Quebec, 
who, at his own private expense, has cut several ])racticable parts of tlie 
road over ])oints of land between IJimouski and JNlitis, by wliich means 
the counnunication with the latter ])lace is not only opened, but ma- 
terially shortened. This road is comiected with that opened from Ri- 
mouski to Trois Pistoles, in virtue of an act for im])roving the internal 
comnnmications *," 

There are three seigniories, INIagnache, I'abos, and (iraiul IJiver, the 
first and last of which are partially settled, the second not at all. The 
residue of the lands in the district is held in free ami couuuon soccage. 
The front ranges of the soccage lands are in several ])laces settled, or in 
progress of amelioration, aU)ng the whole of the 15ay of Chaleurs, a con- 
siderable distance westward up the river Uistigouche, and eastward as 
far as Gaspe : a few settlers have commenced improvements in the second 
raimes on the IJav of Chaleurs. 

The ])0])ulation of the district, by tlie census of 1K2.5, was given at 
about .">()()0 souls; and it may at present be computed, from correct 
data of increase, at 7,()77. This population is chiefly situated between 
Point Mackarel and Itistigouche, and on the borders of Ciaspc Hay. There 
are besides about 400 Indians of the Micmac tribe domiciliated at Kisti- 
gouche and Cascapediac, who are not included in tlie above statement. 

The principal and indeed tlie only villages are those of Carlisle 

• Coinmisisioners' Ki'piirt, 1020. Tin- IldiKmnilik' I\Ir. Jiistico Tasclit'roiiu and Coloiiol 
■luchoroiiu Duchcsiiiiy woro the coimnissidiuTs in (|ui'sti(>ii, nnili'i- tlu' riiltli Cioo. III. chap. IJ. 
Thi- si'cTutary to thi" cnuiniissidii was Huhcrt Christit', I''.s(|uiiv, ami tlic laiul-.survc-yor Joseph 
Bonchctte, junior, Ksqiiire, 1). S. (r. 



m 



m 



'i 



% 



I 



J28 



LOWl'll CANADA. 



¥ : 



.1 



i 



ami Perec, at each of a\ liicli tliere is a jail and a court-house, where the 
provincial courts and courts of general sessions of the peace are held. 
The courts ai*e also held at Carleton and at Douglas Town. 

The inhabitants of this district, during the earlier period of its settle- 
ments, chiefly derived their subsistence by fishing and hunting ; but 
these resources liaving in some measure failed, they have more generally 
turned their attention to agriculture, and liuve succeeded so well, that 
they now stand in little need of those supplies they Avere accustomed to 
import. Their lands yield good harvests of wheat, barley, pease, oats, and 
potatoes; excellent green crops, such as turnips, carrots, kc; and the 
meadows produce hay in great abundance. The usual time for sowing is 
May, and the rcaping-season September. The Canadian breed of cattle 
is that most generally raised by the farmers, but its condition had for a 
long time been neglected, in tJie pursuit of other objects foreign to rural 
economy, and the various species had degenerated. Some enterprising 
individuals have, however, imported superior kinds from the United 
States, New Brunswick, and even from Europe, and a stimulus has thus 
been given that has since produced a very perceptible improvement in the 
department of stock-farming. 

" The district abounds with lime, particularly Gaspc Bay, the ncu'th 
shore of which is from its entrance, including Cape Gaspe upwards, a 
series of capes and precipices of the best limestone. In the Bay of Cha- 
leurs it is not so abundant, the coast in tliat part of the district exhibiting 
a chain of low capes of a red sandy stone, similar to that description of 
stone called pudding, which by the action of the sea and weather falls 
and crumbles into fine gravel and sand. At and near Perce, in certain 
spots, the capes appear to be partly of variegated marble, and are composed 
of marine petrifactions. In New Carlisle, at the distance of three or 
four miles from the sea-side, at a small lake, is a bed of shell marl, said 
to be of a superior kind *." 

Indubitable indications of coal-mines have been traced in the vicinity 
of Gaspe Bay, on the shores of which, and at Paspebiac in the Bay of 
Chaleurs, are found a variety of valuable pebbles, such as cornelian, 



* Evidence of Robert Christie, Esq. before the committee on the crown lands, Lower Canada. 



^ 



GASPE— CLIMATE— STAPLES. 



329 



agate, and jasper, susceptible of the highest polish, and rivalling in beauty 
the precious stones of the same description from India. 

The climate of Gaspe, although the situation of the district is up- 
wards of one degree north of Quebec, is not much, if at all, more rigorous 
than that of the other parts of Lower Canada bordering the St. Lawrence. 
The thermometer ranges from .'V in winter, to 80 in summer, in tlie 
shade, the severity of the cold being generally tempered by the waters 
of the expansive bay, and the heat of summer moderated by a regular 
sea breeze in the morning and land wind at night. The skies of the 
bay of Chaleurs are serene, and its atmosphere is pure and clear, the 
fogs, so prevalent on the coasts of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, 
being almost unknown in the bay, past the entrance of which they arc 
seen rolling in dense volumes, but they very rarely impair the bright- 
ness of the heavens. 

The staples of the trade of the district are fish, oil, timber and furs ; 
and of these the two former are by far the most abundant articles of 
export. Of the fisheries the cod is the most extensive. It commences 
in ]May, and terminates in October, and is chiefly carried on in open 
barges of 18 feet keel, manned by two fishermen, who daily put out 
about 3 or 4 miles from shore to cast their lines. The cod fishery like- 
wise em])loys small craft that venture out to greater distances than the 
barges, and fish for several days together on the neighbouring banks. 
There are about 15 vessels of tliis description belonging to the district 
managed by a complement of from 6 to 10 men each, thus employed for 
about 2 months in the summer season. Of the first-mentioned class of 
fishing boats or barges, there were in 1820, 680 ; but this number is now 
much augmented. The cod fisheries of Gasp6 employ about 1800 * per- 
sons of both sexes, of whom about 500 are men who go thither for the 
season, from the parishes in the neighbourhood and below Quebec. The 
whole product of the cod fisliory may be estimated at about 50,000 quin- 
tals of dried, and 10,000 quintals of green fish, with about 20,000 gallons of 
cod oil, which are exported to Quebec. The herring and salmon fisheries 
are the next in degree of importance, or at least produce. About 4,000 1 
barrels of the former, smoked as well as pickled, are annually shipped to 

* Commissioners' Report, 1020. t Idem. 

U U 



I 



Mi 



m 



330 



LOWER CANADA. 



if! 



t'lff^ ': 



■! *^ 



Quebec, and about 2,000 * of the latter, wliich is a considerable diminu- 
tion upon the produce of former years, attributable to the deficiency of 
proper regulations, restricting the time of fishing to certain seasons, and 
otherwise regulating the mode of taking the salmon. This fishery is 
carried on by persons practically unconnected with the cod fishery, and 
its supplies are ex])orted to Quebec, Halifax, and the AVest Indies. 

The whale fishery gives employment to 5 or 6 large schooners, 
manned by from 8 to 10 men each, who are extensively engaged in this 
branch of the fisheries during the summer months. The produce is from 
18,000 to 20,000 gallons of oil, Avhich are chiefly exported to Quebec; 
and the total number of persons occupied in the fishery, whether in 
taking the whales or preparing the oil, amounts to nearly 200. The 
whale fishery particularly merits the attention of the legislature. By 
encouraging bounties to secure the adventurer against the serious loss 
consequent upon an unsuccessful voyage, the mimbcr of vessels employed 
would soon be considerably increased, and this important branch of trade 
so effectually carried on by the hardy inhabitants of Gaspe district as to 
compete, in some degree at least, if not rival, that of our American 
neighbours, who are now almost in the exclusive enjoyment of it, and 
carry on their enterprising fisheries at the very mouths of our bays and 
harbours. 

Upwards of sixteen scjuare-rigged vessels are annually emjiloyed in 
the export of dried fish to the south of Europe. Most of these vessels 
arc built in the district, and are of the first class of merchants' ships. 
Upwards of fifty small vessels are constantly, during the summer months, 
employed in the coasting trade, and from thence to Quebec, Halifax, and 
the West Indies. 

The lumber trade of the district has only commenced since 1815 or 
1816. In 1818, four vessels sailed from thence, laden with timber. In 
1819 and 1820 this number had much increased; and in the years 1825 
and 1826, about 60 sail of vessels were engaged in the trade, and carried 
away about 750,000 feet of pine timber f . The vast quantities of pine 



i*., 



til 






* Commissioners' Rtpdrt, lf}20. 

t J. Crawford, Esq. From tills gentleman's al)le answers to a series of qneries, proposed 
by me; relative to the district of Cfuspc, I have derived considerable information. 



TIMBER TRADE— JURISDICTIOX— LANDS. 



331 



timber <^rowiiig in certain parts of 'he district render this branch of trade 
susceptible of great augmentation. It is carried on to a far greater 
extent on the opposite shore of the bay of Chaleurs that lies within the 
province of New Brunswick ; and indeed frequent instances are found 
of inhabitants of that province coasting over to the Gaspc side, and car- 
rying away, in defiance of the authorities of the district, large quantities 
of pine of great value. The prosecution of the timber trade is attended 
with a variety of advantages to a certain class of the people of the district, 
inasmuch as it gives them employment during the suspension of the 
fisheries in winter, at which season the Chantiers are always opened, and 
the timber prepared for market the following spring. The provisions of 
the lumber act did not extend to the bay of Chaleurs and Gasp6 in 1821, 
and we are not aware whether its operation has yet been extended to 
that district. 

There is a resident judge at Gaspc, whose jurisdiction is limited to 
suits involving a demand of 20/. ; and this jurisdiction is reduced to one 
half in cases of process against real property ; nor can the provincial 
judge legally issue writs of capias or attachment against the body of 
debtors. This very circumscribed jurisdiction of the court of king's 
bench at Gaspc has for some time been a subject of complaint by the 
inhabitants of the district, from the remote distance of the siqierior 
courts of the district of Quebec, to which they are compelled to resort 
to prosecute claims exceeding 20/. in amount. The administration of 
the criminal law of the district is more satisfactory, courts of quarter 
sessions being regularly holden in four different places in the district. 

*' The bay of Gaspc, and particularly the liaj/ des Chaleurs, are 
susceptible of the most improved agriculture, and have in this respect a 
decided superiority over the island of Newfoundland and the islands in 
the Gulf. The improvement of the district will principally depend o») 
the attention which its inhabitants bestow on the culture of the soil and 
the encouragement they may find in its pursuit. The fisheries may 
occasionally fail, and the consequent decline of trade would materially 
prejudice the district, urdess it contain within itself sufficient resources 
for its own subsistence. For the establishment of emigrants, no part in 

u u fJ 









332 



LOWER CANADA. 



i! 



14 5' 



Canada offers such immediate resources of livelihood as may be derived 
from the fisheries. It is a fact worthy of notice, that in the year 1816, 
when tlie lower parts of the province were afflicted with a famine from 
the destruction of the harvest with frost, no such inconvenience was 
experienced at Paspehiac, nor at any other place within the level tract 
above-mentioned *." 

The Magdalen islands f , in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, are annexed to 
the district and county of Gasp^. They contain a population of nearly 
1,000 souls, chiefly French Accadians and Catholics. Eleven English 
and live Irish families are settled among them, all of whom derive their 
principal subsistence from the fisheries. Beyond the cultivation of po- 
tatoe gardens, agriculture seems wholly unknown on the islands ; but 
natural meadows and pasturing grounds are common, and afford whole- 
some sustenance to a tolerable proportion of live stock. The inhabitants 
are in general remarkably hale and healthy, light in complexion, with 
flaxen hair. They are cheerful in character, and the females remarkably 
modest and ingenuous. The highest range of Fahrenheit's thermometer 
has been marked at 76°. It has been also observed that the islands are 
devoid of reptiles of any description ; and that besides the fox, already 
noticed as inhabiting the islands, rabbits are likewise to be found +. 
There are two churches on the islands and a parsonage-house for the 
resident missionary. 

The fisheries of these islands are of considerable importance, but 
they could no doubt be rendered of much greater moment by judicious 
encouragement, inasmuch as their situation and locality materially favour 
their increase. An extensive description of fishery formerly carried on 
was that of the sea cow, an unwieldy lish, resembling the toad in form 
and colour, with a head something like an ox. They were generally 
taken in great numbers, sometimes 300 at a time, in large echouries or 
strands, ».here they used to collect on the various islands ; but they have 



* Commissioners' Report, 1821. 

t For their number and geographical position, &c. vide Topographical Dictionary. 
X For these interesting particulars we are indelited to the Reverend IMessire Belaud, a 

."ssionary for some time. 



gentleman of the Roman catholic clergV; who has resided there 



a'h, 



SEA COW FISHERY. 



333 



deserted these places of resort, owing, as is supposed, from tlie well- 
known timidity of the animal, to the ineautiousness of unskilful fisher- 
men, the too frequent approach of boats, or the indiscreet use of fire- 
arms in shooting them in their strands, where they were generally 
surprised whilst asleep. The immense produce of the sea cow fishery 
rendered it an object of considerable interest and profit ; and it is nuich 
to be lamented that so valuable a branch of the St. Lawrence fisheries 
should have been neglected and discontinued. 



i 

t 



lij 



I\ 



(ITArTEU XI. 



Climate cl' the Caniulas. 



fV' 



111 






k ■ 



AMr.niCA possesses a climate peculiar to itself. Tlie teinperature 
of its atniospliere, under the diflerent tiegrees of latitiule, from the 
equator towards the poles, is not to be deduced from the atmosplicric 
temperatvnv of ])laces situated under the analagous circles of latitude on 
the ancient continent ; and it would, tlierefore, be very fallacious to judi;e 
of the climate of Quebec or that of York, the capitals of Lower and Upper 
Canada, by those of Poictiers and Florence, although the latter places 
are situated in the same average latitude as the former. IJut what are 
the immediate or remote causes of the peculiarities of the American 
climate has not yet, we believe, been very satisfactorily demonstrated, 
tliough the subject lias led to much philosophical speculation, and formed 
the ground-work of certain meteorological theories. 

Hence it is supposed *, that the poles of the globe and the isotliermal 
])olesf are by no means coincident, and that, on the contrary, there exist 
two different points, within a few degrees of the poles, where the cokl is 
greatest in both hemis])heres. These points are believed by Dr. Brewster 
to be situated about the 80th parallel of latitude, and in the meridians of 
\)5 east and 100' west longitude. The meridians of these isoth'n'mal 
poles he considers as lying nearly at right angles to the parallels of what 
might be called the meteorological latitudes, which, according to his 
theory, appear to have an obli(juity of direction, as regards the ecpiator, 



* Dr. Bro\\stcr. 

t Tlicsc jio'ics appear to approxiniatv- very near to the iiiaKnctie ])ole.s of the cartli, iiiid tliis 
near coincidence led Dr. Brewster to snjjpose tliat tlieyniiglit have some other connexion besides 
their accidental locality. "If so — if the centres of greatest cold be also precisely tlie centres 
of magnetic attraction, and if, from some unknown bnt necessary connexion, they are always 
coincident, then ivc derive, from the known motion of the magnetic poles, an explanauon of some 
of the most remarkal)le revolutions that have taken place on the surface of the earth." — Eilin- 
litirnh Enci/clopadia, article Polar Rcgiom. 



CLIMATE OF THE CAXADAS. 



335 



sometliiiif? like tlio zodiac. Thus the cold circle of latitude that passes 
through Siberia would be the same tliat traverses the frigid atin()sj)here 
of Canada. This theory, which a])pears to us extremely rational and 
strongly supported facts, would go some length towards ex])laining 
the causes of the gradual decrease of the severity of cold in the south of 
Europe, and lead us to the conclusion, that eventually the cold meridian 
of Canada may work its way westward, and leave that part of America 
to an enjoyment of the same temperature as those European countries 
situated in c'orres))onding latitudes. 

That the temj)erature of the air is modified by agricultural operations 
cannot be denied, but that these operations should of themselves be ca- 
pable of producing the changes that are known to have taken ])lace in tlie 
coiu'se of ages in Europe, — where formerly the Tyber used to be often 
frozen, and snow was by no means imcomnion at Home; when the Euxine 
Sea, the Rhone, and the Rhine were almost every year covered with ice, of 
sufficient thickness to bear considerable burthens, — it is scarcely possible 
rationally to admit: and, indeed, the meteorological observations, as 
far as they go in Canada, serve rather to disprove than to establish the 
fact. 

The rigour of the cold in North America has also been ascribed to 
the vast extent of the continent towards the arctic pole, to the superior 
elevation of the land, to the inmiense height and continuity of its moun- 
tains, the vastness of its forests, c*s:c. ; but we believe, that although these 
causes, admitting the fsicts to be all true*, might teiid to augment the 
frigor of the atmosi)here, they seem insufficient of themselves to ])roduce 
the wide discrepancy that marks the temperature of corresponding lati- 
tudes in Europe and in America. 

The inhabited parts of the two Canadas lie between the 42d and 
48th degrees of north latitude, and if not influenced by other consider- 
ations than their distance fn)m the equator and the pole, should enjoy 
the climate of central and southern Europe. But it is otherwise : and 

* The stated fact, however, that the American continent stretches farther north tlian 
Europe and Asia is incorrect ; Ca])tain Franklin, in his polar expedition, having coasted the 
arctic seas upwards of fiOO miles, and established that continental America does not much over- 
reach the 70th degree of north latitude. 



(I; 



336 



CLIMATE OF THE CAN A DAS. 



however the beautiful skies of that ])ortion of Aineriea uiay be salubrious, 
the atin()s|)here is iinpreguated with a eo.isiderable dej^ree of eold in 
winter, and its frigidity is of inueh longer ])revalenec than would na- 
turally be inferred from the geographieal position of the country. The 
summers are likewise warmer ; and it is ])crhaps correct to say, that 
generally, the maximum of heat, and the maximum of cold, arc both 
greater than in European countries in the same latitude. The range of 
tempcratiu'c is, nevertheless, very sensibly felt betAvcen the two i)oints 
we have mentioned ; for, in proceeding up the St. Lawrence, whose 
course is nearly N.E. and S.W., the climate becomes consideral-ly milder, 
and adapted by degrees to the growth of fruits that thrive but in warmer 
atmospheres. For instance, at Quebec, in latitude 46° 48' 49" north, 
apples arc produced in ])lenty, but the peach and the grape are not 
cultivated with any success; at Montreal, latitude 43" 30' north, the 
orchards yield fipplcs and pears of very superiv>r flavour; grapes are ma- 
tured to great excellence, and ])eachcs with care ,dso arrive at perfection : 
at York, latitude 43" 43' north, and in the Niag.ira and western districts 
of U))])er Canada, still further south, all these fruits are found in the 
greatest luxuriance, and attain the highest perfection : the peach, the 
nectarine, and the grape seem here to have found their native soil, and 
are ])roduced in the richest profusion. ^Micat, barley, rye, maize, oats, 
and in fact almost every species of grain are cultivated in both Canadas 
with every possible success, the climate beijig Avell calculated to bring 
them to maturity. In cold countries vegetation is necessarily rapid, 
and in Lower Canada it is not inuisual to see the fervor of a vernal sun 
unfold the foliage of the forest in great luxuriance, in the short space of 
a fortnight : indeed 24 hours arc known to have })roduced astonishing 
changes in the appearance of the woods. In Upper Canada, where the 
suddenness of the transition from winter to sunmier is not so great, the 
budding and blowing are rather more gradual than in the lower province, 
and the summers are there several weeks longer, and the winters con- 
seciuently shorter. The relative temperatures of both provinces will best 
be seen by the following table, which is calculated from meteorological 
observations, taken simultaneously in Lower and Upper Canada, nearly 
at the most southern points of either province. 



N.W ill 



f 
fi 



<CLIMATE OF THE CAN AD AS 



337 



No t. 

Ta/t/c x/wwiti^' the JIi^7u;sf. Lou and }^ ut Tdnjterafurc of each 
Month, in Upper and Ijotirr ( V/, dttrin thv year 1S2(). Ijdt'itiidc 

about 42" north in Upper Canada^ I'tid hiiituh io" north, or thcreahontfi, 
in Loicer Canada. 





tiii;um()aii;ti:h. 


-K.MIKKNIIKIT. 


WK.VTlIKIt. 1 


U\2{). 


(ITFII CaXAKA. 


Low Kll ('.\SA11A. 


IiM'Kit Canada. 


Lowi. 


i( Canada. 


Alaxi. 


.Allhi. 




-Muxi. .Miiii- 




Kain 


_>, 


1 
1 


"«I1()W 


>. 




nmiii. 


mum. 


Mean. 


.Muaii. 
I1UIII]. iiuini. 


(Icir. 


(ir 


3 


Clcur.l 

1 


or 
Ituin. 


J 
ilavs 










1 


(lay.s 


ilavs 


iliiys 


ilays 


(lavs 


Jamiiirv 


4M 


-20 


18.17 


33 -23 1 11.14 


13 


8 





23 


•1 


4 


Ft'liruarv • 


no 


H 


2.3.87 


40 —2!) 1 lO.OO 


11 


10 


/ 


21 


3 


5 


IMurcli . . 


;V2 





2(i.!)4 


47 -2(i , 


12.1.3 


21 


8 





25 


3 


3 


A])ril . . 


lilS 


40 


50.70 


81 


i) 


48.!>1 


23 


3 


4 


25 


3 


3 


.Alay . . 


!I2 


40 


(i7.32 


SI2 


30 


(i7.84 


22 


5 


4 


23 


4 


4 


JlllK! . . 


07 


57 


77.51 


!)5 


!).'> 


70.34 


22 


8 




20 








July . . . 


KKl 


(JO 


81,37 


103 


()2 


82,23 


25 


3 


3 


20 


3 





Auj^ust . . 


U!) 


55 


73.24 


100 


58 


74.7 


21 


5 


.) 


l(i 


12 





Soptt'inhor . 


!)2 


33 


(54.45 


!)0 


30 


5!».l(i 


21 


5 


4 


18 


8 


5 


Octiiber 


74 


28 


48. 


i)i) 





32.24 


1.3 


8 


1) 


10 


;> 


8 


Novombrr . 


54 


10 


34.5.3 


40 -13 


17.44 


11 


14 


/ 


14 


7 


10 


December . 


41 


-2 


25.43 


43 -21 


11.04 


11 
214 


12 

80 


8 


23 





.5 


For the yenr 


73.8 


25 72 


48.37 


(J8.25 


11.75 


42.1 


02 


250 


50 


53 


P'orthesuin- i 


























mer nionths, f 
June, July, ^ 


9i).(i() 


5733 


77.37 


09.33 


58,33 


77..''»4 




34 

snow 






21 

sno\\ 




Aujjust 3 




1 












r,,-. 






35 
rain 




W'intermoutlis 


40.33 


|-4.(i7 


22.41) 


38.G(I 


-24.33 


11.25 




rain 









From the pretedii)^- table a tolerably correct idea may be formed 
of the comparative merits of both climates, but it is to be regretted that 
we are not in po,ssession of a complete series of similar observations an- 
terior to 1820. and from that period up to the present time. Whether 
such observations exist we are not aware, but of their importance, in an 
agricultural as well as philosophical point of view, there can be no doubt, 
since the labours of the husbandman are in a great measure governed by 
aerial phenomena, whilst the inquiries of the meteorologist proceed upon 
the authority of recorded facts ; and inasmuch as there are peculiarities 
in the climate of America, whose causes are not fully investigated, the 
great utility of accurate meteorological journals becomes manifest. 

X X 



338 



CLIM.\TK OF TIIK CAXADAS.. 



Wc nrp not, liowcvcr, AvIioUy witliout data, relative to the cliinatc 
of till" Caiiadas, for a pciiod of ii|)\var(ls of .'JO years hack, and ahhough 
they are furnished from ])aitial ohseivations, tliey serve to show, that 
the ])ro^i'essive o|)i.Min<;- of the country has not so ])o\verful an iiiHuenee 
u])on the tem])erature of the atniospliere as is j^eiierally suj)posed, hut 
that its chief tencUiicy i** to h'n^tiien the suninier, and thus ahiid^e the 
dm-ation of winter. That the {gradual removal i)f the forests, to make 
room for open fields, contrihutcs to au<fment the summer tem])eraturc is 
undeniahly true, since it is well known, that the atmosphere itself is not 
heated hy the direct rays of the sun, hut that its warmth sprin<rs from 
the earth, and that the decree of this warmth is entirely governed by 
the quantum of heat absorbed through the earth's surface. The pro- 
gressive settlement of the country may then be expected to benefit the 
climate, by its throwing open to the direct action of the sun a more 
extended surface of territory ; and this benefit, it may be ob.served, will 
be the more sensibly felt at night, from the earth's having imbibed a 
sufficient quantity of caloric to temper the coolness of the air between 
the setting and rising of the sun. In an agricultural point of view, 
such an improvement in the climate of Canada will be of great moment, 
as the coldness of the nights is generally the cause of blight in tender 
fruits and plants; and from its ecpializing the temperature, ])robably 
render the climate capable of maturing fruits that are indigenous to 
warm countries. 



'1'! 

1 ,11 



m 



No. II. 






Mca)i of the Thermomch'r at 8 A. M.Jhr tin' month of July, during twenty 
yearfi,from 1799 to 1818, us observed by the late lie v. A. Sparh, D.I). 



)m 



fii i,i- 



\'iL 



1M 






July 


I7n!) 


(i().87 


July, 


1)!()4 


72.1!) 


' Julv 


, 180!) (iO.(K) 


Julv, 1814 


00 45 


— 


IfiOO 


(i(5.70 




I!iO.-. 


()7.!»;{ 


— 


1810 .'■.!). Ki 


— 1815 


05 .87 


— 


UiOl 


0(5.5 1 


— 


IHOd 


(;.'..«.)() 





1811 Cm.:V2 


— 1810 


58.05 


— 


in()2 


(i!!.35 





1«(»7 


7.V18 





18 2 (i2 1(i 


— 1817 


02.19 


— 


lfiU3 


(i<).3H 


— 


1808 


73.3') 


1 


1(,(3 51. 41 


— 1818 

1 


04.00 


Hence the warmest of these 


years, during tl 


le mon 


th of July, was 1807, the coldest 1813. 






CLI.MATK OF THE CANADAS. 



No. III. 



03!) 



.7 i'ii'ic of tin' cxfrcincfi of Heat and Cold at Qitc/K'c,J'ur ten i/cars, /u'i>'lii- 

uhi}!' nitli the year 1 SOO *. 



I 





Kxtri'iiic 


Cold. 




1000- 


-Jnnuarv 


20 .... 


u 

(1 




~— 


;io ... 


4 


inoi- 


-.laiiiiiirv 


J ... 


.. 10 




l''i'l)rii;irv 


i:» ... 


.. 10 


1H02- 


-J:lllll;irv 


2:{ ... 


.. J.-. 




Fcliniiiry 


(i .... 


,. 20 


ioo:i- 


-.Fiinuiiry 


1 ... 


.. 18 




Foliriiarv 


1 ... 


.. H 


1H()4- 


-Jaiumrv 


20 ... 


.. 17 




— 


21 ... 


.. 22 


inof)- 


-Jiimiurv 


:» ... 


,. 18 







."j ... 


., 20 


\\m\- 


-Janimry 


17 ... 


8 




Ffliriiurv 


(1 ... 


.. 8 


1007- 


-January 


22 


.. 1.1 




__ 


2(1 ... 


.. 20 


IflOO- 


-January 


[\ ... 


.. 12 







k; ... 


.. i:i 


180!)- 


-January 


11 ... 


.. 2(i 




Ffhniarv 


1 ... 


.. 2:i 


1810- 


-Januarv 


20 ... 


.. 2(i 




February 


10 ... 


22 



Kxlri'iiiv ili'Ut. 



.Tuly fl im 

— 8 m 

July :M 80 

.Vu^'ust 80 

July 27 8(5 

Au;;ust 1(1 8.1 

July 8 »:i 

Juno 22 1(0 

— 2'? 00 

Ju' ■ ' . 80 

— ■ 01 

ji. '1 81 

., 8.-) 

J • " .. !KJ 

.. o.-» 

lun: 2:» 01 

.hil> l(i 0(J 

June 27 02 

July 00 

June 18 00 

— 10 0(» 



n 



These observations Avould evidently tend to show, that no amelio- 
ration has taken plaee in the rigour of the elimate ; but It appears, on 
the contrary, that in the later years (Xo. III.), 1809 and ISIO, the 
mercury fell lower than in any of the preceding- years, as far back as 
1800, and even more, for we find that, in that year, the degree of eokl 
was the least of any of the following, up to 1810 inclusive. We also 
find that, in 1810, the temperature of the sunnner was rather less than 
in several years preceding, and that the thermometer did not rise, by six 
degrees, so high as it did ten years previously. Notwithstanding these 
facts, we have the assertion of some of the oldest inhabitants of the 
coinitry, that the climate of Canada has become perceptibly milder within 



m 



* Taken from tlie Observation.s of Dr. Sparks. 



X X L> 



r 



I 



340 



CLIMATE OF THE CAXADAS. 



:iH 



m: 



i m< 



tlicir recollection ; and we arc thus left to conciliate this traditional re- 
cord Avith contradictory facts, and the only mode of doint;* so, ap])ears to 
be the application of their remarks, more to the duration of the mild 
seasons than the degrees of cold, that Avere indicated by the thennometer 
in the coiuvse of the year. 

In giving the following meteorological tables for Jaimary and .Fuly, 
1828, it should be observed, that they ought not to be taken as a fair 
criterion of the dimate of Quebec duriiig those months, inasnmch as the 
weather Avas unusually bad and boisterous during most of that year: 
but from the scientific acciu'acy with Avhich they Avere compiled on Cape 
Diamond, the most elevated point of the ''Quebec rock, they will show 
the meteoric phenomena that sometimes affect the skies of LoAver Canada, 
and of the capital in particular ; and for this purpose they are laid before 
the reader. 



CLIMATE OF THE CANADAS. 



341 



No. IV. 
.Taxuauv, 1828. 







Hauosikteh. 


TnEHJIOMETEn. 1 








8 


Days or r 


UK 











M'ISD. 


WEATHEn. 




^ 


il 


^ 


C .X 


>i 


• 


<-, 








^J 


11 


r3 


[5: 


Direction ami Force. 




Meteohs. 1 


^ 


HIONTIl 






(1 








o 
>-< 








O 


Noon. 


NOOM. 


Tucsiluv 


1 


20 80 


20 78 


-10 


n 

11 




13 




None 


elear 




15 


Wodiu'sda 


y2 


;"»7 


.3-2 


20 


31 


3(i 




N.K. fair 


ditto 


1 


Hi 


Tliursdiiy 


:? 


28 7;") 


20 


34 


32 


30 




s.\v . by w. moderate 


ditto 




17 


Friday 


4 


20 (ij 


02 


7 


22 


22 




None 


gloomy 




18 


Saturday 


.") 


30 


l(i 


2(i 


32 


35 




N.K. nuiderate 


snowing 




10 


Sunday 


(> 


45 


47 


24 


28 


32 




\y. zephyr 


c'hnidy 


set for a storm 


20 


IMouday 


7 28 07 


28 04 


8 


15 


10 




N.K. by K. a uale 


stormy 


snowing 


21 


Tuesday 


!! 2\) (il 


20 80 


-12 


-0 


-0 


>v.s.w. almost ditto 


clear 




22 


Wednesday <) | :U) 00 


30 21 


-5 


(J 


10 


\v. by s. moderate 


ditto 




23 


Tlmrsdav 


10 20 02 


20 8.-) 


5 


10 


14 




N.K. a ^aie abnost 


ditto 




24 


Friday 


11 


03 


8(i 


13 


23 


24 




ditto, moderate 


dim clear 




25 


Saturday 


12 


7.'-. 


7'> 


31 


35 


3(i 




None 


gloomy 


a thick fog 


•jo 


Sunday 


i;] 


2.-) 


28 


3() 


34 


34 


1 ^v. moderate 


drizzling 


ditto 


27 


Alonday 


14 


04 


;")."> 


-0 


11 


13 




K. breeze 


gloomy 


snowing 


28 


Tuesday 


1.-) 


03 


41 


12 


10 


15 




s.w. by w, a gale 


stormy 




20 


^Vc'dni'sd. 


1() 


30 Of) 


00 


-12 


1 







>v.s.\v. moderate 


dim clear 




1 


Thursday 


17 


28 8r» 


28 05 


10 


11 


18 




ditto, stron{;er 


clear 




2 


Friday 


in 


20 72 


20 52 


-5 


4 


10 




ditto, moderate 


ditto 


aurora borealis 


3 


Saturday 


10 


")"> 


31 


2 


11 


11 




N.K. by K. a j;ale 


clouded 


(wind s.w. a 


4 


Sunday 


20 


28 7i"> 


28 0(i 


1(5 


2 


10 




s.\v. strong breeze 


elear 


[gale in the air 


•"> 


Monday 


21 


20 00 


20 21 


-20 


15 


12 




ditto, ditto 


ditto 


clouding little. 


(i 


Tuesday 


oo 


70 


83 


-24 


-4 


-4 


ditto, moderate 


ditto 


halo, sun 4" 4a 


7 


Wedneid. 


2,"? 


8") 


87 


-Ui 


4 


4 


: ditto, ditto 


ditto 


[ilia, halo ]) of 


8 


Thursday 


2-1 


30 11 


30 31 


-12 


(i 


(! 


' ditto, ditto 


very clear 


[47"dia. stin i. 





Friday 


2;-) 


20 00 


20 48 


-3 


22 


25 


i N.E. ditto 


clear 


sun,halo4()"(lia. 


10 


Saturday 


2(i 


24 


45 


31 


30 


37 




w.s.w. ditto 


clearing 


from fogs 


11 


Sunday 


27 


30 00 


85 





o 


8 




E.N.K. stronger 


gloomy 


set for a storm 


12 


Jlonday 


2)t 


28 42 


28 37 


-10 


20 


22 




None 


snowing 


(inglobed ditto. 


13 


Tuesday 


20 


2i) 2;") 


20 (i2 


1 


-4 


1 




Vf. moderate 


very clear 




14 


Wedncsd. 


■M) 


30 00 


01 


-20 


4 


7 




w.s.\y. ditto 


ditto 




15 


Tiiursday 


31 


20 20 


42 





21 


21 




S.U-. by \y. ditto 


gloom}- 




If! 



\0. 



t 



li 



1^ 



, ,,,, 



i 



a & 



Iff' 4 

m 



I t 






I*'. 



?« 



i 



342 



X 

X 



o 



CLIMATE OF THE CA>ADAS. 



n, * 



■oSy 8^uooi\[ 


c — 1 'Ti r: t'?: to «-^ s: =-. s -^ (M M -^ '."^ to tx 5D Oi 3 -H (M ec -rifj to I', s: c; c 
01 oi cj ?i Cl !M ?t oj (N 5t r: ^ ^ „ ^ _ _ „ _ ^ ,^ ci 


o 

H 


cloudy, black 

gloomy 

chiudy 

fogs and gloomy to noon, clear after 

set for thunder,anr. bor. show. far off 

tliund. & rain came on soon af. noon 

cloudv, showery 

showery and black after noon 

cloudy and showery 

black till noon nearly 

s([ually, iS:c. 

thundering and showery 

a few chiuds in the horizon 

slionery 

a turbulent .sky 

fogs, gloomy, showery 

ditto, showery, thunder 

cloudy black at 6 o'clock, p.m. 

unsettled, gloomy, showers, &c. 

gloomy morning, aur. bor. at night 

thunder shower, far away, n.n.w. 

.squally, with thunder and rain 

thunder and showery 

halo on sun and moon 

thunder and showery 

fog and rain in the morning 

cloudy 

sliowery far off N.w. 

ditto 

ditto 

thunder and squally, &c. 


ij 

< 


s 


.showery 

ditto 

heavy rain 

clearing 

clear 

ditto but 

raining 

cloudy 

drizzling rain 

clearing from 

a turbulent sky & rain 

clear lately 

cl"<r only 

! lack, dry 

snowcrv 

raining 

clearing 

clear 

clearing 

clear 

dim-clear 

clear, but soon 

Jitto 

showery, with dist. thu. 

clear, unsettled 

ditto ditto 

showery 

thu. cloud over a cl. .sky 

ditto 

clear 

showery, unsettled 


Wind. 

Direction and Force. 


1 
<5 


s.w. gale, N.E. moderate 
w.K. both a gale almost 
s.w. bv w., N. by E. gale 
various 
None 
w. by N. a gale 
w. by s. faint 
K.N.K. almost a gale 
ditto, a strong gale 
s.w. by >v'. a breeze 
S.S.W., N.K., moderate 
w.N.w. il gale 
s.w. stiff breeze 
s.higli,niod.N.E.byE.gale 
ditto, both ditto ' 
s.w. by s. clouds, mod. 
w. ditto 
s.w. a gale 
ditto, moderate 
s.w. by s. a breeze 
s. moderate 
N.K. breeze 
w. by s. moderate 
w.s.w. ditto 
s. ditto 
s.w. by s. ditto 
s.w. by w., N.E. by e. do. 
s.w. by w. moderate 
ditto, ■ ditto 
s.s.^v. faint 
s. by w. moderate 


if 
o 

u 

H 
U 

1 


•UlSiu )S3A\oq 




-.{up )sr)nSi[i 


-to 5C r: -r to to i^i* s; c x r^ c -f c: ci n to f :: — i-to t>.to — -i- to p -f i^ 
-to '.-: '.-; to i^i-.-o to '.": to to to i^to >-•: to to i^i^i^s: i^i^i^i-.i>.i>.to i%.i>.to 


•5|,iop,o }; m 
IIO01I1.51J y 


,i^to Cl c c Cl r: c r. o: Cl c-i i> c: s: Cl c; to c o: -^ to to to >;? — rt< i.~ c: c ■^ 
^i-c L.-^ o to i-.i-.'.o '.o L.-: i-T to to to >r. in to to i>.i--i^o: i^ v-^ t-. i>. i>. i^ to to Rto 


•5|.in[.\o !) IK 
Suiuiojt 


or: -^ — ( Cl Cl to re to r: ■-: i^ r. o^ cd to •-; c; to cj oc to ci to i< ci ci 'c ic -k ci © 

>.C <.C I-- 1.- I.-: 1- -.0 <-. 1.- 1.- 1.- -T r}. i.i i~ uc 1.-; i.'^ to 4-^ »-C -.O to to to to to LC "C u- to 

Cl -Ti c i^ to — < 1^ ~ o: ~. to to Cl i^i.t to r: — -^ to o; -^ Cl ■^ i--tc -^ to c ci f 

rt -H Cl -^ ^ w — ' -r X <-! r-i Cl TT Cl cc 1" ct Cl 0-. c c^ -^ — 1 C5 cc o; Ci -^ i-c L-: Cl 

o: Cl i->.i.e i~ to Cl to Cl cc — CO i^x ci-- — citocctocetto'oec t^i- i^o ..-j 

— "— ir:'";'--^r:cixr:"C':r:r:Tt<'T"r:cccici-^oc3r; =;cr:Sft 

Cl c5 ci Cl ci 


uooiu.iijv' 


•3(301.1.0 J" 
SUKUOJ^ 


u 


--< Cl r: T)< i.c to i>» sc c; c "-^ Cl ec -ri 'c to i-^ s; c. c; f^ ci ct -t ".^ to i^ ;; c. o — < 




Days or tii 
.Month. 




l|lllllt|i|i|il|1|ilii|1ii|iiJl 



.4 









CLIMATE OF THE CANADAS. 



O -1 <> 






3 « 

. O t! > 
3-22 



e g 







• .- C-. o -n* 



c^ 








1- 


I-' 


» 


'"5 


^ 






c: 


_^ 
















(M 








~. 


— 


o 


^ 


5^1 


(N e^ 




• rt 


>■ 


-3 

r. 




p 




-^ 














H 


:s 


H 



The prevailing Avinds, both in Upper and Ijowcr Canada, are tlie 
nortli-east, north-west, and south-west, which all have a considerable in- 
fluence on the temperature of the atmosphere, and the state of the 
weather. The south-Avest wind is the most prevalent, but it is generally 
moderate, and accompanied by clear skies ; and the north-east and easterly 
winds usually bring with them continued rain in summer and snoAv 
in winter ; the north-west is remarkable for its dryness and elasticity, and 
from its gathering an intense degree of frigor, as it sweeps over the frozen 
plains and ice-bound hills in that quarter of the continent, invariably 
brings with it a perceptible degree of cold. Winds from due-north, 
south, or west are not frequent. At Quebec, the direction of the wind 
often changes with the tide, which is felt for nearly (50 miles higher up 
the stream of the St. Ijawrence. 

The azure of Canadian skies is beautifully transparent and pure, and 
the starry constellations are remarkably luminous and bright. The 
northern region of the heavens is very frecpiently glowing with the 
vivid coruscations of the evanescent aurora borealis, whose vertical 
irradiations are often of sufficient brilliancy to disjiel the darker shades 
of night. This aerial ])henomenon is sometimes so beautiful and sublime 
at Quebec, that it not unfrequently attracts considerable croAvds on the 
ramparts and elevated pid)lic walks, to admire its waving and shooting 
splendours. 

Fogs are almost unknown in Canada, but the morning dew some- 
times rises in a light va])oury cloud, which is almost suddenly dispelled 
by the first solar rays that gild the horizon. In winter, however, when 
the cold is intense, a thick vapour is frequently seen on the unfrozen 
surface of the St. liawrence, driving heavily before the wind, amidst 
masses of floating ice. In Lower Canada the winter commences about 
the 2.5th of November, in the regions about Quebec, and it may be said 
to last until the 2.5th of April, when agricultural operations are resumed. 
In the district of Montreal the permanent cold sets in generally a fort- 
night or three weeks later, and the spring is probably as luuch earlier, 
although these advantages are subject to frequent vicissitudes. It may 
therefore be said, that the field laboiu's of husbandry are interrupted in 
the lower province for five months in the year, during which period the 



v^ 



^^ : n 



mp 



m 



.^^ 



344 



CLIMATE OF THE CANADAS. 



farmer is employed in thresliing his corn, manufacturing his domestic 
woollens and linens, cutting and drawing his Avood for fuel, preparing 
materials for repairing fences, &c. In Up])cr Canada, the winter is con- 
siderably shorter, and the sledge or .sleig/iin^i^ season, which, in Lower 
Canada, generally continues for five months together, scarcely lasts two in 
the upper province. The average depth of snow that falls in the course of 
the winter is about 30 inches ; but it is frequently accumulated to far 
greater depths during snow storms and drifts that sweep the minute 
particles onward in violent tornados, luitil they are repelled by some 
op})osing object, and there collect into high banks. The month of Fe- 
bruary is in general the most boisterous of the season, and most liable to 
these drifts. 

In summer the electric phenomena of the atmosphere, as displayed 
in the vividness of lightning and the burst of loud tluuiders, are some- 
times ajjpalling in the extreme, and have in numerous instances been 
attended with very serious consequences. The destruction of extensive 
barns and hay stacks, and in several cases the loss of human life, are 
among the disasters that on some occasions result from the violence of 
thunder-storms in Canada, and particularly in the neighbourhood of 
Quebec, where it is probable the electric matter is more powerfully 
attracted by the elevation of the mountains, and the magnetic ])roperties 
it is likely they possess. 

In point of salubrity no climate in the world can perhaps be found 
to exceed that of Canada, which "i lot only a stranger naturally to 
contagious disorders or fatal epidemics, but extremely conducive to 
longevity. In the early periods of the settlement of the upper province, 
the fever and ague were indeed very prevalent ; but as the cause of this 
local affection was gradually removed by the draining of marshes in the 
progress of cultivation, it has almost entirely disappeared. It is impos- 
sible, however, to guard on all occasions against the introduction of 
infectious diseases into the towns ; and we therefore find that malignant 
fevers have in some cases crept into hospitals ; but these cannot affect 
the general character of the climate, and the healthfulness and invigo- 
rating elasticity of the atmosphere. 

As regards the relative temperature of different parts of Lo\ver 



Mt: ;;| 



CLIMATE OF THE CAXADAS. 



34.5 



Canada, we find from tbcrmonietrical observations taken by us in various 
])arts of the province, and a comparison of tbese with remarks abiiost 
sinuiltaneously made at Quebec, that the degree of beat during tbe 
months of August and September is pretty equable tlu'oughout tlie 
settlements along tlie St. liawrence, making allowances for the soutiiern 
ex])osure of particular spots and the local elevation of others. J}ut these 
meteorological remarks being in themselves too desultory and incomplete 
to form a satisfactory tabular exhibit of comparative temperatures, \\e 
have merely noticed tlie general result to which they seem to lead. 

In thus adverting to the distribution of heat and cold in various 
parts of Ijower Canada, it may not be uninteresting to know the tempe- 
rature of the air in the more northern sections of the IJritish dominions 
in America, and we therefore insert the following table, framed from the 
thermometrical notes of Captain Franklin, R. N. 

Tiihlc of the Atmospheric Temperature (lar'nig' the /nntermenfioiied moiifh.s; 
at Fort Eiiterprifie, latitude O'-l" 28' .v., longitude 11.'}' !>' 3{)" u\ 



:\ioiuiis. 

mum. nuuii. 

1 *!•-'<>. „ , „ , 

Soptc'iiibpr ^t',\ l(i 

October 37 — *5 

Xdvi'inber 2") — .Tl 

Dt'ceinljer (5 — .")7 

1821. 

.Tiimirtry ' 20 -49 

Kebnmrv 1 — .") 1 

March..". 24 -4!) 

April 40 ~M2 

May (i8 « 

Mean (.fl> mdiitlis .'JO ?> -2/ 8 

* —5° below zero. 



."Mean. 


n 




:<:? 


7 


23 1 


— 


7 


-21) 


7 


-15 


(5 


-2.1 


3 


-11 


ii 


4 


(5 


32 








The temperature of the waters in the northern latitudes appears in- 
variably to be higher than that of the air, and Sir .lohn Franklin thus 
finds that the extremes of temperature of the polar sea. observed by him 
in August, are 53" and 3.5"; the general temperature 4.3"; whilst that of 
the atmosphere did not exceed an average of 37^. 

Y V 



liil 



II 



J4G 



LOWER CANADA. 



It is worthy of remark that the great hikes of Upper Canada are 
liable to the formation of the ])rester or water-spout, and that several 
instances are recorded of the occurrence of that truly extraordinary 
meteoric i)henomenon, the theory of which, however, is well known. 
Whether electricity be a cause or a consequence of this formidable 
meteor, appears nevertheless to be a question of some doubt among 
natural |)hilosophers, Gassendi being disposed to favour the former 
opinion, u liilst Cavallo es])ouses the latter. 



r \'i 



m 

■ i 'j 

' !'i 






fiT 






#1 



CHAPTER XII. 

Statistics of Lower Canada — Poinilation, &c. 

As far as partial enumerations go, as taken from time to time since 
the first settlement of the country, we find that the population of the 
province has gone on increasing in a various ratio, cknibling itself at 
some periods every 25 years, and at others every 29 and 31 years, but 
more recently in a far greater ratio. In 1622, which is the earliest date 
at which any computation api^ears to have been made of the number of 
inhabitants in any section of Canada, we find that Quebec was then but 
a small village, and did not contain more than 50 persons * altogether : 
and in 1720, this number had increased to 7,000, and must therefore 
have doubled itself about every 14 years, admitting the augmentation to 
have been regular. The population of the town of Montreal in the latter 
year Avas 3,000. 

The first general ca])itation that Ave find recorded is one taken in 
16761; and the following table is calculated to shoAV the population as 
it was subsequently deterniincd at different periods, and also the increase 
betAveen those periods. 

PopHlat'ion of Lower Canada, at rarious t'niicfi,fro})i the year 1676 to 1825 inclusive, a.s falien from 
the aitthoritif of Char/eroi.x\ La Potheroj/e, and of pnhlic doenments. 






•/* 



\\;ir. 


Hl/C 


UifDt 


Iiu-rensc 
ill 12 yr^. 


1700 


Incrcasf 
in 12 yrs. 


170(i 


liicnasc 
in fl vrs 


171-1 


llUTCiiSC 

in ('. yrs. 


17,'>!l 


Increase 
in 4.") yrs. 


17il4 


I iH-rease 
in2ri yrs. 


1!!2.-. 


1 nerease in 
11 via>>' 


Souls. 


8,415 


11,249 


2,fi;u 


lo,0()() 


:!,7.-.l 


2(),(»(I0 


:i,ll(lo 


2(i.i)04 


f;,!M»4 


()."),0(>() :«i.O!i(i 


i]:i,oo(» 


4fi.0(UI 


4.')(»,(MH»J 


:i;!7.(MMI 



* Cliarlovoix, vol. i. p. 158. 1 Idom. 

I The census shows only 423,030, Imt it is ohviously low; and the committee of the assembly 
in 1820 considered the population of Lower C^auada to be 5(tO,000 souls. This again, we believe, 
was rather high for the time, and have therefore taken what appears to us as being a correct mean. 

V V 2 



If' 
It 



! i i'l 



I ■' 







348 



LOWER CANADA. 



Thus wc have a total increase in the space of a century and a quarter 
(comi)Utin<r only from the year 1700) of 4:J.5,000 souls, growiufr out of a 
])0])ulation of 15,000, which, (livi(lin<? the whole period into four ])arts, 
^ives an increase every yearchn-ing tiie first It years, nearly in the ratio 
of j.G() per cent.; durin«; the ensuino- 1.5 years, from 1714 to 17')*), of 
ahout JAo per cent.; from 1759 to 17S4, 25 years, rather less than 3 
]ter ceiit. ; and in the last period, from 17H4 to 1825, a term of 41 years, 
in the proportion of 71 P^^i' t'ent. annually. The augmented ratio of 
increase during the last e])ocli is ascribahle to the accession of inha- 
bitants arising- from emigration to the country, or to use a convenient 
modern word, immigration, which commenced about the year 1820, and 
has since that date progressively added considerable nund)ers to the 
po])idation of the province. 

The progress of the colony was decidedly languid under the French 
government, and the destructive n-arfare that was for many years waged 
b}^ the ^Vborigines against the cohmi/ed Europeans was such as to 
impair its advancement in an eminent degree and check the increase of 
its j)o])idation : and hence we derive some explanation why the usual 
periodical du])lication of the population, as fixed by statists at 12 and 
14 years for early colonies, did not take place in Canada anteriorly to 
the conciuest. Subseciuently to that event, the ratio of increase ap))ears 
to hi'.ve become gradually greater, imtil it rose at once to a very high 
degree, by the annual accession of large families emigrating to the 
country from England, Scotland, and Ireland, and also from the United 
States of America : Ireland, however, being that part of the United 
Kingdom whence they chiefly proceeded. The continuance of this emi- 
gration, and its tendency to increase rather than diminish, must, in a 
comparatively few years, give the Canadas a population of several 
millions, and inconceivably augment their importance as appendages to 
the British empire. 

A collective and general view of the statistics of Lower Canada is 
exhibited in the following tabular statement ; wherein the population, 
churches, mills, kc. in the jjrovince, are particularly enumerated, by 
counties and districts. From the extent of the country over which the 
population is spread, and the multitude and variety of the objects em- 






POIM'LATION— STATISTICS. 



34J) 



braced in the table, it is very possible that some omissions may occa- 
sionally be found to have taken place in some one or other of the 
colunnis ; but we have reason to believe, from the high respectability 
and authority of the soin-ces * whence we have derived the materials for 
its composition, and the assiduity, laboriousncss, and attention with which 
they were reduced to their tabular form, that these omissions are not of 
sullicient moment to impair the general accuracy of the statement; and 
we are sustained in this conviction by a personal knowledge of its cor- 
rectness in numerous instances. 

^ TIk; seigneurs and curates of the province, by the general readiness and intelligence ot' 
their reiilies to jjrinted (jueries submitted to their consideration, have atlorded a considerable 
portion of the information that has enabled mo to compile the statistical table. The answers of 
tlic curates to tiic circulars of the assembly have also aided in the compilation, as regards the 
seigniories ; whilst the jjrincipal landholders and intelligent inhabitants of the townships have 
been the sources (>f much information relative to the statistics of the soccage settlements of the 
province. To these were added the advantage of access to authentic documents of importance, and 
lastly the extensive personal knowledge of facts, relative to the statistical and agricultural state 
of the province, I had the means of acquiring in the course of several tours, end)racing the 
extremities of tlie province, and jjerformed in the discharge of otlicial duties, avowedly whh a 
view of ascertaining the resources of the colony. 



«W 



.'350 



I,()\\ Kll CANADA. 



■!» ;*-^ 



s 'ii 



IH 



■I ! 

.hi'-; 



Stiifi-st'icnl Statement of the province of Lower Canada, calculated for Decemher, 1 S!>7, ami 
a/td Conntie.'i, /mrsnaiit to an Jet (ftlie Pronneiat Le^ais/atitre, dated \\t/t <f ^fareh, IHJii, 
niat'ion of Ills KxceUenoj Lieiitenanl-General Sir James Kempt, K.Ci.C, Administrutw 



Cnimiics. 



Ai'iidic 
IJi'aiiluinuiis 



Hi JJlTtllilT 

4: flminbly 
")i \jA ("lii'iiuyo 
<>! L;i Pniiric 
7j F^'.\s,s(nii])tiim 
}>: .Mis,sis(|ui 
it .Aloiitrciil 

10 Ottinvd 
11' Hidu'lieu 
12 Hduville 
.'i St. IIvuciiitlii> 
14| Slu'tl'oVd 
1.") St;llistr;ul 
Hi. Tfrrclioiuu' 
17' T\V(i^I(;;iiit..iiis 

II) \'iiU(liL'uil 
l!) \'('rchi'rcs 



1!) 



Totiils 



1 

4 

") 

(i 

7 
\\ 

!) 

~ 10 
11 



UcllocIiiiK.sf 

Dorclioster 

Islet 

KuiiKiiiiaskii 

lutbiiiiere 

.Mi'n;iiitic 

?^Ioiiti)ioronci 

( >rl(\;ii,s 

I'drtiiciif 

QuL'llL'C 



Hiiiioiiski 
Saiiuc'iiav 



11.170 
14,2(i4 



17, 
1:.' 
14, 

1(1. 
1(1, 

7' 



7i>:. 
!i7:. 

(JL'l 
■2M\ 
71 id 
.■.->1 






L',4f!8 
!lf!7 
1:.!) 
!!4() 
4(17 

-rri 

iM).") 
L>4,-. I 

!li)7 

Oil.*! 



o 

10 

10 

12 

4, 

f! 

10, 
1(1, 

v.v 

12 



20i!,0){l 2M 



1(»,70.') 
1"),(»0.1 



11.2.".!! 
12.777 
l;UI44 

7,702 

(i20 

3.7>»! 

4.12){ 

10,:.42 . 

ao.it.vi 



8,410' 



13 



Totals '143,7'il 



:{ 



Clmriliot'Hoiiif. 



Ir 



SI i 



C ' s 



4 

(i... 

(i 1 

4'... 
.■) 2 



'i 



i ■; i 



1^ 

1 e _ 
S ;3 









00 
31!)'. 

i 
22.T 

H20. 

lOiij. 

2"mI. 

2 litoj. 

10(L 



lol .") 3 ij » o,i:iO^ 1 

i 



]' 



4... 
"». 1 



31. . 

V 

;> , ., 
0... 



1 

...! 1 3 

3' 

3 
4 

m 

/, 

4 
4 



I .. 



30. 

3i):); 

110. 

150. 
53, 
i)it. 

345. 

3!»2. 

;'!(!'. 
130. 



7ilO!!i71ilO (i 30iilO23o; 2 



5I I ... 



1 



4...i... 1 3 
0....J... 3 
41 1 1 
4'...|... 



.1. 



3!) 
KiO 

H)0 
125 

7a 

27 



II I 



5| 1|......| 

(>: 1 ...l...i 4 14!)'... 

(ii 4 2 1 3 2.420! 1 



3 0... 

,i ,1' ,.i 
(1 4 0... 



7357;(;4| !) 3 



4 
3 



105!. 

I 

l»7i. 



/ 
3 
5 
3 

7 

m 

I 

33 

3 

n 

15 
4 

17 

32 

5 

12 

4 

7 

173 





3 

5 

3 

o 

2 
II 

25 

1 
1 



223 3,200, 11 70 



.MilU 



2 
3 

(i 

15 

G 

7 

4 

12 

(i 

5 
23 
11 

(> 



21 



3 

7 

2(i 



! 7 

: 17 




|2 



!l 
4 
5 
20 
2 

11 

7 

(} 

12 

17 
33 
12 
13 

(i 

n 



a, c K 



2 1 
4... 



:!i- >i 2 



1'... 
1 I 
3 3 
1 4 

J 



135 200 5!! 



3 

7 



/ 

2 
3 
4 
14 
7 

!) 
11 



39 



3! I 
30 

7 

2!) 

22 

T2 

(i 

4 

3 

43 

15 

13 
(iO 



233 



Ill 1 



3, 

4 

2 

o 



3... ...I 

1 



51 









.. 1 

1 2 



2 1 J, 






2 i:ii 

■|:"i 

r ;i! 



0, 

7 • 



22(il4 240 l!;iit 




1 

3| 2. .J.""... 
4 2... 2 4 

' I 



3 4 



! I 



23 13. ..I 2 4 

MM 



3 1 



11! 



■1 



'fl 



POPl'LATFOX, STATISTICS, &c. 



3.) I 



her, 1 S<>7, (i)i(i 
''March, 1HJ!I, 
t(l mi nisi rutin- 











/ 


— I 








1 


i 


^ 


i.i, 


.St 


i. C .1 i 


t 3 j; 


1 £ ".'5 


5" ~ e 


i § si 


1 


' 1 1 


.. L' 1 


.. '^ '^ 


.. 4... 


- ,', i 


1 


..',',:, 


.. 1 "■' 


1 " 1^ 


1 




.. r... 


0' 




. 1 1 


...; 1 ... 1 


.. :\ M 


...I 2 1 i.' 


••: ^1 ^ 


,..j 4;...' 7 


■ - ^ 


J 2...I -2 


■ 1 


! ]'i 






..'... 


.J :$' J -2 


..,.}... 


..: ii...i... 


.: .i.. 




1 "1 


1 :j 1 a 


.. 2 i 


..., 4...L 


1 L'... 


1 1 




... (1 


L'L'(ill 


-'4(i mill 




■i 


"i""Y" 


... :ij.: 

! ! 




' '' i 








...; r...i 1! 


.J 

1 i 




iii 1 2 

i 
1 




... . • 

2 4 

i 


— 


1 1 



xuhscqnoit/i/ rrori>-foiixc(f to meet tin- Xcic Ctrl/ Diri.sion and Suhdiris'mi tlicrvof, into J)i.strivt.s 
uiiil uliicli nrrircff hi.s Majc.stif.s assent the Vith nf'An^i^u.stJiilloicin^i,^, i)romul<>at,-(l hij tlw procla- 
ul'llw Gorvrnnient, on flic Citli Octolwr, 1S2!>. 



i 



W I .'I 



14 



4 
4 

1.'. 



7 
7 



II 



4 

'^ 

7 

/ 

2 

;{ 
2 

7 
.'} 

(i 
21 

4 
11 



•3 



2;] i) 



Mil l(»(i 



a. 



11 



22 
1*1 
17 

l;j 

2;i 

210 

f) 
27 

11 

(i 

17 
22 
2T 

2!) 
If) 



4 
10 

22 
, 2.'. 

! H< 

22 

! 21 

: ].-. 
2:}:i 

,. 

/ 
22 
20 
l.-> 



i;{ 

2.3 

:m 

20 
11 



:«■)., 
(>;{.., 

I 

!.")(!... 
l!H»i 2 
100... 

7.^; 1 
.-.4.. 

i,:«».-.| . 

(!()!•. 

KM.. 

;■)!) 

.'{(i 

JtO 
101 
2;i2 

!).'! 



1! 



■2 



UKMARKS. 



Oil 17a 



21! 



;{.")0 ]■ 



■)0 

1.-. 



4 


2 





!■ • 


i 


2 



'/ 



'.KiMO .141 2,!)l(ilO 



171 



14 

2;t 

12 

11 
(> 
2 
5 
j> 
27 

21(i 

J) 
11 



11 
2J 

l.T 

25 

12 

(J 

1 

4 

}{ 

2.1 

176 



130 

H7 

107 

!).1 



1 

20 



Iji 



490 -M 



2 4 



47 

147 

1,210 



I 



1;1 



!!7 



(!0:«I2 |;?22 |2,229 



12 

14 

11 

2 

.1 

2 

1() 

40 



!) 
21 



141 





11 


i<»:j 


no 


a77 


21 


2(MI 


13 


27 


2 


<)!) 


7 


2M 


13 


.104 


;1 


2,020 


m 


1113 


41 


690 


59 


i,r»7o 


277 



( inii|irilii'iiil- l-lciux \nt\, ii niilii.irv pu»l, iiml I'lirtilWatioiUi iiUn tlu' »ltc .iiitl ri'iimiiik 
iMlii' \iiii riiati I'nrt ,il Umi-i'-, |»ninl. 

^■l)nll.rl■lll■rlIl.^ tlic IiuInmi \ ilLi^i- uC st. Hiyln,7J| hiiuN, nf which flnil witp vUhln the HtUe 
it \v\\ \ mk, l.v Mu' m|,i iiiu-, lull arc imw ciiin|irUw| wlihin the Iliiills ot'lhf iiniviiuu b> 
rhr inns Hill-, l,iiiiuiU-4.i*' Mnrth. 
KxlciihUi! \lll,t^;l•. |iu))iil,tlinn ll.'io smils. 

('i)iTi|iuhi'inls the Ci.Tt mill \ill.if;i' nrchiimlily nii.l towriol" DorchrstiT, a porf nf t-nirv. 
rhcAini-iifiin sti'ain-l)oatH|.ly hclwrni tlii>|)lai'i- ami W hitchall. Uiirliii^ton.aml l•|lll^^nlr^^l|, 
rriitnl .^laliH, 

( Miitiirt'hniiiH thf nott'd vill.iKf iil' thai name; twd stt'am-lxjals plyhfiwirn ttud place aiiil 
MtMiIrcal. 

.'••c\ cral whulinillH. 

Cinnprchcn.U thiM-ity nl* M.iiKrcal ami f.irtirtcil hlaniliifSt. Mi-Ions. The pn|nil.i(iim of 
ihccity 1* av.uuii MPiil-.; it 1^ the la.sl sea-port Inwri nil the St. Lavvrciieci cnmprehciuis al.H) 
ihc I. a I lime (aiiiil. I 

( oinpreheiiils the fiiiini limine iieMHs the Ottawa at Hull aixl Hy-Town. 

IticliuU'. ttie t(»wn (if Wilh.im lleiiry, sltn.iled al the entraiiee uf the lUehchcu, uT '-ore! 
Uivti ; pi)|twlattoii 7,000 MHilit. Tlirre are in thi-; e* unity a nnnilur nf wj ml ■mill,-. 
1 iniipiihcnil.s the eini-.pieiimiri inntintahi^i of \Un\\ ille'und Mmint JuIiiimmi. 
Inelu'lcs the iiolcil village of that name, and motmtams Vam,i>ka and UoU(;cneMit. 

Comprehend!! the h.mdsomc vilLij^c of that name near the province Ime. 
Includes the lar^^c village of that name ; pttpulation MOti sonls. 

fomprehenUlhi' (In-nville Military Canal atnl the Indi.ui \ dlatje of the I.akoof tlie Twi 
Moniil 11ns. Si'vcr.il l)<>at> ply on the Ottawa, bet ween Hull, lly-'l'owii, and (•ri-n\ illc. 

Comprehends the military canal at tlic Cascades, several lucks above, also the locks and 
mrt of entry at Cote.ui du laie. 
Hiu aUtiit twenty uindniilU. 



I'ort of cnliyat St. Mary's. 

The t^Tcater number of Ilie iT.ilh in tills county stop working hi the jiummpr, owinff to a 
lelieii'ncy of water. This ohsLTvaliou appllc> to si'vcral part!) of the ^^oulh side of the St. 
Lawreiire. 

Comprehends the town of .VubiRny, opposite to Quebec. 

Ki^ht \sind-mills. 

Village uf Kamoiiaska, noted for scu-batliing. 



The pncsts, farnri, and establishment at L'Joachim, calculated for the reception of the sc- 

inarv ipf (Quebec students, durliif; the summer vacations. 

The' spot, (tr ship-yard, in the parish of St. Laurent, uhere the two larj'e timber ships, the 

i.hiinbus ami the Ilaron of Hcnfrew, were built and launched. 

The Uichelieu Unpul, opposite to the church of I)esehand)ault, 

The capital of Lower Canada, chief sea-port, and fortilieil t(»wu : contains a population of 
an .000 souls, including the llaulieue residence of the Koveriair-pcncral. Steam-boats ply 
fr4im this place to M<»ntreal ; there are two steam-boats and several team-boats plying across 
the river to Point Levy. 

Comprehends Temi^'eouata portage, the route to New Hrunswiek, C>rcen Island and tight- 
house, and the Island of Hie. This county is the chief residence of pilots. 

Comprehends the Saguenay Hiver and the eonsnieuoiis. high, and diversilied country of 
Day St, I'aut and Murray Uay, and the vilhigeti of that name. 



i 



■mm 



'if 



, .. 



^^■■' 



111 



■^4 



:,r,'2 



I.OU r.n ( ANADA. 



I '^ 



('iiiiiitiLa. 






1 ('li:iiii|ilain 

2 Dniiiiiiiiiiiil 

4 St. iMiiiiricc 

o Sliciliniiikc 



i 



(i, 



Totals 



1 Hoiiiivfiitiiri' 
:> (ia>iii 



i.iMi; 

i;.,:init 
.-..171 
Ji,)ii7 

rii,H:)7 






( luinli lit' Kiiinc. 



J> 



'j; 



. Z T § 



Totals 



10 



.Vl<!(» 

7,777 i 'l| 



I J 



6 ft 

.8 =5 



.t I. . 

r. 1 

1 '.. 

M I.. 



i\ 


17 


IS) 


1 1 


10 
!> 


1 
1 




. • . . 



IT 

is 
1 = 

1'^ 



Mllh. 



1 
ilT 



2 70 I.. 

1 2r> .. 

2 I (t!) 

(i ! (;-J7 1 



111 



no 



it:.7 



2 



4 [) 

I :' 

"i 

1 (i 11 17 

l| {) 1(1 MO 

n :» ! 4 



I 



i:i)t 

(iO 
l!)li 



23 ; 44 



1 1 

1 I 1 



1 



o; i» o 



(naiid totals 171. !'.7(; :i!t ill :. lid 111 i:i4 L'o 1(1, (} 1 14 111,77:. 7, »t-'7:t 



(I I a 

I 

L'l s".(i:. l!H 



1 1 
1 1 

4,4 
I 4 



10 



10 



i 




."{ 



1 1 
2.. 



:j 1 



■i, 






17 



:n 10. 4 74j 0.1' 



The District of St. l-'raiiois ciuiiiircluiKl.sllH' ^^ll(l!l•of' tlu- city of Slii'rl.rooke, ami u great partof the count ics of Staiistcad ami 

ill till- statciiu'iit.s iif 



<nisi;u\".\Tio.\s. 

Ipt. The I'liluiniis wliieli liavc duclly occMi|)ii'il mir attfiitioii ami time, as Iiciiiij a most important lirandi of tlic 
statistics (if llu' pnnini'c, arc tliusc of ]Mi|mlati(iii, the clcrjiy cstalilislimciils, ciirii and Nnw-mills, factories and villages. Tlic 
other eiilnnins are ealenlated ]iartl\ from personal Nnowledge and ]iartly from varimis sources of information that may he 
depeniled upon, and iiiav lie fairly considered as fiivini: a correct general iipcii^ii of the nundier of river craft, Im .ts, artisans, 
\c. in the province 

'Jd. Of the nil protestant churches ennnu rated not above 2.". are attaclu'd to parishes. The parishes that niav hereafter he 
attached to the remainder are not at jireseiit laid out or detined. 

Md. Of the liM Human Catholic churches 4 are missionary churches; to which m.iy he added 7 Jireslivteries used as 
chapels in as nian\ jiarishes, and making nj) the complement of parishes in the province ecjind to I'.Hi, hesides a few other pra- 
jected Jiarishes within the seigniories, ami the site of churches (i\ed upon. 

4th. Of the 20 convi'Uts, only are extensi\-e nunmr\ eslahlisliments in the towns. The remaining 14 are dispersed 
over the pro\ince for the education of females, and are generally governed hy 2 or 'A nuns of the congregation. 

■|th. In the 1(1 enumerateil colh ges are coni|)rised tin- extensive seunnarii's of (juchec, ^Montreal, Xiodet, M'Gill college, 
St. Ilvacinthe, Chandilv, and St. Auiu^'n in the county of Kanionraska. 

(ith. With the exception of '.\ hreweries and 1 distillery in Qnchec, 4 breweries ami 1 di.stillerv in Montreal, and a 
brewery at Lii Prairie, the others are minor establishments. The distilleries are chietly for whi.skey, and are most frecpient in 
the townships. 

7lh. Th • nnndier of shiji vards will not appear surprising, when it is recollected that 3S),!)(K) tons of shij.ping were huilt 
in 11(27. 

Jith. About (».". of the enumerated river craft navigate between Quebec and ^Montreal, 50 between jMataiie and Quehec, 
and ab^'Uf IKl are employed in the St. I.a« renee and (iulf (islieries Of the keel-boats, about 71'* niay be employed in the 
fisheries of the ri\er and gulf; l.'iO are pilot boats. The i nd.er of Hat boats, batteaiix and canoes, is not estimated, bi^t it 
is known to be considerable. 

Otb. K.xclnsive of the ]iot and jiearhe h factories enumerated, many of the inhabitants of the town.ships keep potash 
I;, itlcs for making salts : their ninnber may averagi- l."»0. 

10th. \\'ith fe\\- exceptions, the I'oman catholic parish churches are built of stone, averaging in length from 100 to 140 feit 
b\- ."lOtotiO fci't in breadth. The roofs are generally covered uith tin, and surmounted by spires, many of them 2 ami several 11. 
The new cathedral church of .Alontreal measures Sri.') feet in length by i:i I in width within the walls. Its estimated cost exceeds 
iKI.OOO/. 'Ihe jiresbyteries are chiefly stone, and generally large and couunodious. Two chapels, called Chapelles du Keposoir, 
are fre(|iniitlv appendages to the churches in the country. About one half of them are built of stone. Their total nundier 
exceeds ;]( HI." 

lltli. Of the immber of schools enumerated, 7^ arc supported under the act of the 41st Geo. III., and 50 are parish 
schools under the sn])erintendeiice of the cures. 

' 2t]i. llranch pilots for and belo\v the harbour of Quebec. 12(i. Branch pilots fo- and above the; harbour of Quebec, ;'!), 



POPULATION— STATISTICS, &o. 



jyj 



si 



1 1 

2 



:» 1 

. i. 



^1^ 



(I . 

'»i ■ 
iL 

•II.. 



»7 



ii's of StiinstiMil ami 
n tlic stitti'iiu'iits lit' 



il linnicli of till' 
tul villii^L's, Till' 
tiim tliiit iiKiv III' 
It, 1)11 its, iirti.Miii.->, 

; nii\y lit-roaftcr lir 

slivtcriivs Used us 
s 11 few nlliir prn- 

^ 14 are disiiiTM'd 

I. 

.'t, ^I'Gill coll('},'i.', 

Miintroal, and u 
ino>st frt'(itK'iit ill 



iijijiing were liiiilt 



taiie and Qtiflu'c, 
oinployt'd in tin' 
ostimati'd, hut it 

ships kc'i'p potash 

im KM I to 140fi(t 
in 2 and several H. 
mated cost exceeds 
u'lles dti Keposdir, 
Mieir total nuinher 

and ")0 are parish 

mr of Quebec, I'D. 



I 



i 



I!) 



i::t 



i 


1 




i 

6. 


■S 
•« 

n 


j 

•a 


1 






4 






3 






II 







I 



10 



1-'/ 



o 

u 

41) 
J) 
2 



17 I HO ill! m 



14.') 4(ii \m\ 



10 

J) 

2J{ 



DnniiinoiKl, eontaiiiin<; in 
the superior districts. 



1,0 l(i 
all 3! 







o 

(i 

•) 



01 



11 



I.-. 

!ll 

00 

110 

)t:t 
r>\ 



401 



7 



41 



i 

12 



12 



40 
1.". 






7:1 

i:. 

2UM 



201 



1 



14 



:«.<!7.''| 207 

l,i2.V441 



HK.>r.\UK!H. 



I >iiii|>r< lii'iiiU lilt ml aliil N'l'W ( ulli'iit' til' Mnili't. 

( iiiiipri'hiihl. Ihi' tiiwiKif Tliriv IIUiKi |«i|iiil«linii .iiiiU, .il<u lli> 

M.iuilri'. .Sliiiiii.|ai,il<, |<I>>|||! nil llii' >l. l.iiv.ri'IK'i', slii|i .It lllia |il.M t'. 
( iHii|iriliiiiiMlii.' Mll.iMi'iil MicrUiHikc. Iliv ilUKU't lixtii nl'*.!. rr.iiuK. 

Im.Imii vill.iiti.i., .1. Kmik'I^, 



ll'ilh ilii'Hi. (.niiiiiu'H lire nirttil fur tlu' tUhrrii'i. 

The M.i);il.iU'ii Muiul It iuiiu'xil In till' I'uuiily ul (. i>|.c. 



rnr,:. 



7 01 4,0(10 7:m 



"l,r»07iril|2H7 llOjirdll ,()0">i Tlii« iiilimin nfKr.in.. .iitnU In I'nii'iiliilnl up to Divinilit't, IHj; 



OH". 
) towiisliips, and a part of the townsiiip of Bolton, The statistics of this district are emnpiiseii, 



HKCAIMTILATION (M' TOl'l L.VTION, \c. 

i'.ipuhition of tJie province, as stated above ........ 

MaLidalen Islands . .......... 

Number of men employed in the kinff's posts and Aliiifian within the province 
\'iivageur.s employed in the Indian trade, sometimes sojonrniii;^ in the Indian conntries 

AveraiTO nnmber of eniijirants remaining in the province, nut of the total cmij;ration to tlu; Canadas in the 
vars llii>7. 11:20, 1020, lli:{(), and UCU ........ 

Natural increase, since 1027, about ........ 



(Jraiid Total 



K\cliisive of the military forces of the country and the aborigines wandering in the interior. 



171.070 

0(1(1 
jOII 
MOO 

47.1,170 

L'IMMKt 

.V.i..".7.1 



/ ^ 



f1 



-it 

A 



.^'■m' 



354 



LOWER CANADA. 



4'- 

r,: 



From the foregoing table the statist will be able to form a com- 
petent idea of the religions and moral state of tlie inhabitants of the 
jirovinee, at least as far as inferences can be drawn from the existence of 
nnmerous honses of pnblic worship, and of schools for the education of 
youth, lie will also have, in some degree, the means of discovering the 
channels into Avhich the industry of the people is chiefly directed, and 
will be enabled to form some estimate of the resources and domestic trade 
of the colony. 

AN'ith res])cct to the relative proportions of the Koman catholic and 
the protestant ])oi)ulation, the colunms of churches do not afford a very 
correct criterion to judge by, inasmuch as the number of protestant 
churches, including presbyterian and AN'esleyan, is in a far higher ratio 
with regard to tlie nund)er of Roman catholic churches, than the whole 
protestant population of the province bears to the catholic ; the former 
being about as one to three, when the latter is scarcely in the ratio of one 
to eigiit. Xor does it appear that any just inference can be drawn from 
the colunms distinguishing the church of England from that of Scotland, 
as to what proportion of the ])rotestants belongs to the one persuasion 
and what to the other. From documents of very respectable authority *, 
we are enabled to arrive at something like accuracy on this subject, and 
find that, although the mnnber of episcopal churches much exceeds that 
of the Scottish church, the members of the latter are at least as numerous, 
if indeed they are not more so, than those of the former. Taking an 
a])proximate view of the proportion Avhich the catholic, the episcopalian, 
the presbyterian, and dissenting popidation respectively bear to the 
whole popidation of the province, we shall have nearly the following 
result : it is, however, proper to remark, that, out of the catholic po- 
pulation, about 20,000 may be said to be Irish emigrants, whilst 470,917 
are native Canadians : — 



• JMS. statement of facts in regard to religious matters in Canada, by the Reverend Dr. 
Harkness. 1828. 



POPULATION— STATISTICS, &c.. 



553 



I 

1 
1 

I'oiniliitioii, 


Proportion of the whole Popiiliition. 


ans. 




s 1 


Anno 10:11. 




t 


S 


y .5 


1 





"E, 
C4 


1 


?! c 

5 a 


5(51,0") 1 1 

t 


7 
» 


1 
21 


1 
21 


1 



To ascertain what mnuerical proportion the males bear to the females 
in Lower Canada, and what portion of the inhabitants is aged, Avhereby 
some light may be thrown upon the health and salubrity of the climate, 
wc are left to resort, in the absence of any better source of information, 
to the imperfect census of liSi>;>, and below will be found a recapitulation 
of its grand totals. It can, however, only be considered as a mere ap- 
proximation to the truth, sufliciently accurate for all general ])ur))oses, 
though perhaps not fully satisfactory to the statist. 



Totals of the Coisiis of Ijowcr Canada, IS'i.j. 



ITolM. 





t 




-? -S 






c 


rt 






^ 


3 CUi 


?s 


"^1 

c t- 
'53 1 


"^ 


S --M 


a 




al 














'** ^ 


^ 


■0 a 


-^- 


s >> 




3 t:z 


'S 


y* 5 




a 


H 


^ 






V2:^^m) 


l,l.JO 




Tlie following statement, taken from returns of baptisms, marriages, 
and deaths, made to the house of assembly in IS'J.j, will show the na- 
tural amnial increase of the ])opulation in the districts of (Quebec and 
Three Kivers, during a j)eriod, in the one district, of i.'S years, and in the 
other of \Vl years. 



i 



I 



f'= 



<i' 






'ii: 



\ ■. 



'rr 



I 



i'f 




Ifi. 



56 



LOWER CANADA. 



DISTRICT OF QUEBFX'. 

lliiitrns of liaptiswa, Marriages, and 
liiir'ialu III the Citif and the different 



DISTRICT OF TIIREli RIVERS 

lietiinifi of' liaptl.sins, Marriages, and 
liiiriaLs in the District of Three 



Parishes of the District of (Quebec . Rivers from the year 1791 to 1822. 
from the year 179-i /o 1821. 



\'i'ars. 


Itaptisms. 


.^larriiiges. 


IJvirKils. 


Increase '. 


Vt-'urs. 


IJaptisms. 


.Alarri.iges. 


IJurials. 


Increase*. 


17!»i 


2,7!)2 


024 


l,2i)l 


1/,01 


17i»l 


835 


151 


43(i 


39!) 


17!).-; 


2,!):{;i 


r,4i 


1,438 


1 ,4!).-. 


1702 


887 


170 


40!) 


478 


1 7i>G 


3.1.-)(» 


-,28 


1,400 


l,7.-)0 


1703 


8(i(i 


151 


4(i8 


3! 18 


17!>7 


2,a!»2 


-,43 


1,472 


1,120 


1704 


020 


20!) 


381 


548 


170!} 


2,38!) 


-,2!) 


l,4.-,2 


037 


17i>.-> 


!)(>() 


173 


401 


5{i5 


]7ilD 


3,0()i) 


47i2 


1,305) 


l,7<i() 


1700 


054 


153 


435 


519 


IHdO 


3,2i)2 


;-.(i2 


1,438 


1 .8.-)4 


1707 


0(14 


180 


.54J5 


410 


RiOl 


3,287 


(i47 


1,72.-. 


1,.^,(>2 


I7O8 


1,018 


182 


457 


.-.(il 


IJi02 


3,.").")-l 


(I.-,.-, 


l,()i)7 


l,8.->7 


1700 


1,0(14 


175 


431 


(i33 


1«()3 


3,4.3.-) 


1V2 


1 ,830 


1,00.-, 


1800 


1,121 


100 


4(i!! 


(!53 


]!!(»4 


.3, -.31 


(i81 


1,082 


1,840 


1801 


1,083 


208 


540 


543 


1 «(>.'. 


.3,(i27 


(iO.3 


1,544 


2,083 


1802 


1,170 


25(i 


(iOO 


570 


1H(K) 


3,()48 


(!8(> 


1,428 


2.220 


1803 


1,211 


238 


597 


(iI4 


1}{(»7 


3,8.-.() 


744 


l..-,3() 


2.320 


1804 


1,311 


201 


()2(i 


()85 


l}i(»!{ 


4,4.3.-, 


771 


1 .«!)-. 


2,.-.40 


180.-. 


1.357 


1!)7 


512 


845 


IHOD 


4,(»r.4 


!)42 


2,208 


1,84(1 


180(i 


1,342 


2.32 


575 


707 


1}!1() 


4,!»l(i 


7-.:) 


l,!l(i4 


2,!t.-,2 


1807 


1 ,485 


252 


002 


8f)3 


1«11 


4,337 


7(i(i 


2,200 


2,128 


1808 


1,541 


274 


515 


l,02(i 


im-_> 


4,-)!l,-| 


1,<)(»3 


2.348 


2,247 


1800 


l,4.-,(i 


230 


()05 


851 


l!{i;5 


4,4(!.-, 


7(i2 


2,222 


2,243 


1810 


1,540 


22(5 


1,072 


■177 


IHM 


4,42i) 


73i) 


2,m) 


2.340 


1811 


l,4(il 


272 


021 


840 


I81.1 


4,.'-,,-.4 


8.-,2 


2,322 


2.232 


1812 


1.55(1 


311 


552 


1,004 


](!](> 


4,824 


741 


l'!)28 


2,8il(i 


1813 


1,030 


258 


7.31 


!I08 


]ni7 


4,4(i(i 


784 


2,418 


2.048 


1814 


1 ,507 


253 


043 


(i24 


1818 


;-.,()-) 1 


81.-, 


2.310 


2.741 


181.-. 


l,(i(l3 


314 


772 


891 


1811) 


.-,,188 


1,002 


2.(13.-. 


2,.-,.-,3 


1810 


l,(!4(i 


285 


(.30 


1,010 


1820 


r,,37I 


!»!)4 


3.488 


1 ,803 


1817 


1,(>75 


301 


781 


894 


1821 


.-),{i75 


1,081 


.3,102 


2,0 13 


1818 


1,827 


352 


(i23 


1,204 












181!) 


1,0.3(1 


35!) 


770 


1,105 




Aniuiiil ii 


vcruge of 


28 voars. 




1820 


1,051 


.3!{8 


1 ,0(i5 


880 


Brt 


litisins . 




. ■ l!t44 




1821 


2,1 (Hi 


370 


8!)}{ 


1 .208 


lii 

Iiu 


rials 
.TL-aso 


• 


. 3ili»3] 


8 


1822 


2,100 
\niiiiul av 


401 

eragc of 3$ 


884 
J years. 


1,225 


. 204!)1 


8 




( 


ir al)out 5 


1,31 per C( 


•nt. 




Ba 
Bu 

I.U 


ptisnis 
rials 

reasp 


. . . 


.' 1,.382 
023 




759 














( 


ir near it^ 


per cent. 







* Being the diHerence between the baptisms and burials for each year. 






POPULATION. 



n.-jy 



OO t 



In the district of ISIoiitrcal, for which no returns were yet received, 
the average number of birtlis over deaths may be about the same as in 
the other districts. 

Viewing the vast superficial extent of the province, and its com- 
paratively small [)opulation Avlien considered with I'elation to its capa- 
bilities of supporting nund)ers infinitely greater, we shall perceive that 
the number of souls to each square mile scarcely amounts to two and 
a half, whilst it exceeds 1021 souls when viewed with reference to eacli 
square mile of cultivated land ; thus showing, on the one hand, the density 
of the population compared with the lands imder tillage, and, on the other, 
the susceptibility of the country to sustain hereafter a very considerable 
augmentation of inhabitants. In the following table, the contrast that 
is exhibited between the density of the population in the district of 
Three Kivers and that of the district of Gaspe stands explained by the 
fact that in the former arc principally situated the township lands of 
the province, which in general are laid imder cultivation in a greater ratio 
of increase than the po])ulation. The farms are seldom less than 100 
acres, they are usually 200, and pro])rietors of 500 acres are common. 
Hence large tracts are brought under agricultural improvement by indi- 
viduals, and the relative proportion of inhabitants to the square mile, 
becomes less than in the other districts. The remarkable density of po- 
j)ulation represented in the district of Gasp6 is ascribable to the pursuits 
of the inhabitants, most of whom derive their sidisistence less from the 
produce of the soil than the products of the fisheries. Some there are, 
however, who consider agriculture a primary object, and have good farms; 
but by far the greater number confine themselves to the cidtivation of a 
few acres, chiefly devoted to the growth of roots and vegetables. 



358 



LOWER CANADA. 



2\ihh' showing the Density of the Population ofhower Canada in the Four 
Districts, both with relation to the total Siqyerjicies of each District, and 
to the Quantum of Lands under Cultivation. 18127. 



\% 



n 







d 




11 


ards 
re. 










tc M 


a 3 




i 


a. 




rf 3 


>- 3 




s 


s 




■7. -3 




Un 






c s 


c c 














Districts. 


s. 


H 




O 


a - 




Square 


Sciiiart' 


Souls per 


Souls per 




Souls. 


miles. 


miles. 


squ.mile. 


squ, niile. 


Quebec 


143, 701 


125,717 


1,412 


1,14 


101, fU 


IMoiitreiil . 


2()8,(W1 


4!). 709 


2,r.!)7 


.'■),:{!) 


1(»3,4(> 


Three Rivers 


r)i,(i:)7 


ir.,Hll 


cr,\\ 


:{,;{3 


!{!),2() 


Gaspc . . 


lull 


7,:«i!) 


1"jV 


1,0") 


501,74 


T..tal 


471, R7« 


wmfim 


4,(io;ji. 


2,3!) 


102,50 



i;'* 



Ijowcr Canada is not only the most important of the British North 
xVmerican provinces, from its situation and extent, but tlie most ])o- 
pulous, its inliabitants being to those of the sister provinces of Up])er 
Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, in the respective ratio of S.ll 
and 19 to 3, or, in otiier terms, nearly in the proportion of the num- 
bers 32, 11, 8, 5 ; whereby we see that the population of I^ower Canada 
alone constitutes about 4-7ths of the total po])idation of the four provinces, 
and about 2-5tiis of that of the whole of the dominions of (ireat Britain 
in North America. 

"We have not the means of establishing with precision how much 
of the increase of the population of the j)rovince arises from births, and 
how much is to be attributed to emigration. The number of families, 
and even the number of souls, landed at tlie various ports of the colonies, 
are indeed easily ascertained from the custom-house returns ; but what 
is tliC distribution of these emigrants subsequently to their arrival, wliat 
part of them remains in tlie ])rovince, and what ])art merely j)asses 
through it, to settle eventually in I'^pper Canada, or in the Ignited States, 
is not so satisfactorily known. That the adjunction which annually 



i^l: 



POPULATIOX. 



350 



takes place by the influx of emigration is eonsiderable, there can be no 
doubt, admitting even that one-third only of the emigrants landed on 
the Avharfs at Quebec ])ermanent]y settle in Lower Canada. 

Taking as data for the natural increase of the population the re- 
turns contahied in the letters of the curates in reply to the circular 
queries of the house of assembly, it appears that the average of this 
increase is about 3 per cent., and that in this proportion the population 
of the province would double itself in about 26 V years ; but if the ad- 
ventitious increase arising from emigration, and also the natural increase 
growing out of it, be taken into consideration, and if we suppose the 
latter to be in the same ratio of 3 per cent., though it is probably more, 
we shall then fiiul that the population of the province doubles itself in 
almost a double ratio, that is, in 14 or 15 years instead of 26 or 27. It 
may therefore be said, taking a mean of the increase represented in all 
the province, that the popuhition of the British dominions in North 
America increases in a geometrical ratio every 16 years; and hence, 
supposing emigration from tlie mother country to the colonies to con- 
tinue to its present extent, the number of inhabitants in that section of 
the empire would in 1847 exceed '2,400,000 souls. It is sometimes 
useful thus to look prospectively at the iv.crease of po])ulation, from its ex- 
tending our views not only to the bare contemplation of the numerical 
strength of the country hereafter, but to its physical capabilities ; and 
viewing as we now do at a glance the vast superficies of the liritish trans- 
atlantic possessions, their surface, soil, and climate, and the great and 
important advantages they enjoy from grand internal communication 
by navigable waters, we are forcibly struck with a conviction of the im- 
mense resources of British America to maintain millions of inhabitants 
from the produce of the soil, and to become eventually distinguished for 
the sco])e of its commerce. 

The geographical position and the superficies of each county and 
district of the province are exhibited in the following table, with which 
we shall conclude this chapter. 



iW 



i 



:]()() 



LOWER CAXADA. 



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SHHAIH ■i:'[HIIJJ"(l 



3 A 






lii 



ClIArTKH XIII. 

Au;riciiltiirc — Manut'iH-tmTs — T/nuls in Ciiliivaiiini. 

That aj^riculture is tlie primary source of jmblic wealth has beeoine 
an axiom in ])olitieal eeonomy, and the history of civilization serves 
to illustrate its truth, by showino- that in all countries, first agriculture 
flourished, and then manufactures and connnerce ; but that these 
shoidd be as permanent a benefit to the connnunity api)ears to be 
doubtful, since they arc considered as indicative of the decline of a 
state*. The agricultural age of a country may probably be considered, 
therefore, the most hajjpy period of its history, and that age seems 
to be that of Canada just now. In stating so, we do not mean to refer 
to the degree of ])erfection attained in the agricultural arts in the colony, 
but to the extent and broad diffusion of husbaiulry, the nund)er of in- 
habitants that are agriculturists, that draw from the bosom of the earth 
every thing necessary to supply their wants, food, raiment, and shelter, 
and, in fact, the absolute reliance of 7-Hths of the whole poj)ulation for 
their sustenance and comfort upon the produce of the soil, which they 
industriously cultivate. The improvements that have been introduced 
in the European systems of agricidture are \ud<nown in Canada, or 
at least have never been adopted, and the Canadian farmer is still seen 
guiding the old-fashioned plough used by his forefathers, miconscious or 
heedless of the " march of intellect" abroad, which has not only led to 
the invention of novel and improved implements of husbandry, but to 
considerable and beneficial changes in the process of cultivating the 
earth. The improvements in agriculture in England aiui elsewhere are 
to be ascribed to an increased density of ])opulation, which rendered 
it necessary to eidiance, by artificial means, the fertility of the soil, that 



* " In tlio youtli of a state (irms do (lourisli ; in tlio middle aijo of a state, lc(iniiii<; ; and 
then both of tlicni tofjetlier for a tinu' : in the declining aj;e of a state, mir/i<inicnl (irlt- nnd 
mervhnndise." — H.vcoN. 



iil*: 



ACIincri.TlHK. 






its produce mij^lit be ii(lc'(|iiatc' to the suhsistoiu'c of au^^nu'Dtcd mimhcrs ; 
but in Canada, whcir lands air abundant and farms <i,t'nfi'ally lar«4V, this 
necessity does ni^t exist, and the a<i,i-iculturist is satisfied with a process 
of tilhij^e rude, when coni|)ared with its ,■ eliorated c()nditi()n in ohler 
countries, yet suilicii'utly ])erfect tt) correspond with his views, and ca- 
pable of <>;ratifyin<^ his wants. 

The first strikiiifj; peculiarity that ])resents itself in Canadian farms 
is their cloiij^ated shape, each farm or land called, in the lan^ua^e of the 
country, fcrrc, bein;j;, in nine cases out of ten, ',i ar])ents Avide by 
.'iO arpents in depth. This width is often a<;ain sidxlivided into two 
or three and sometimes more sections, the divisions always running lon- 
gitudinally, and forming so many elongated parallelograms, one ex- 
tremity of whicb, called the front, gi'uerally abuts upon the public road, 
whilst the other terminal s at what is termed the cordon, or division- 
line between one range oi' co>ic('.s'.sion,t or farms, and another. The farmers. 
— ccii.fitdirc.f (for we are now speaking of the feudal lands of tiie pro- 
vince), usually build their houses at 100 or 1200 yards distance from 
the road, and sometimes nearer; and as the farms are, as we have just 
stated, very narrow, the settlements are close, and in most ])arts have 
the a])])earance of a continued village. The origin of this injudicious 
distribution of the land is no doubt t«) be traced to the social ebaracter 
of the Canadian peasant, who is singularly fondof neighbourliood, tbougb 
it is also referrible to the expediency which formerly existed of concen- 
trating iis much as i)ossil)le the moral and ])hysical energies of the colony. 
not only with a view of mutual aid in the formation of settlements, but 
in order the better to be able to repel the attacks of the aborigines, who 
are avcU known to have waged a severe war against the first European 
settlers tliat established themselves in Canada. Long after the cause of 
the adojjtion of such a plan had ceased to exist, the lands continued to 
be parceled out in the same inconvenient manner, and a considerable 
degree of otherwise unnecessary labour was thus thrown upon tlie bands 
of the agriculturist, llis bouse being in the front i)art of his farm, and 
his land all longitude, he is not only inca])able, in most instances, of 
commanding over it that constant su])ervision, which is so desirable in 
rural economy, but is obliged to devote more of his time to its tillage, 
owing to the remoteness of some of his fields from his dwelling, and to 



.'3 A 12 



3()t 



LOWl'R CANADA. 



i' 



[I »l!' 



I.Mi 



employ imic'li labour aiul more materials in fcncin<jf his farm and cii- 
c'losuns. It is not imcommon to iiu'ct with lands in the si-i^iorios, 
whose dimensions are lialf an arjjent in front by thirty in depth, forming- 
a reetan^idar farm, whose breadth is t(» its lenu,th in the relative proportion 
of 1 to ()0. Neverthek'ss tlie Canadian husbandman toils with eheer- 
fulness, and, when eultivatinn- the renu)tcr parts of his land, carries with 
him his homely fare, and only retiuns to his roof, after the close of his 
labours, at ni<;lit-fall. 

The scientific rotation of crops is unknown to the Canadian agri- 
culturist ; he steadily ])ursues the systems handed down t«) him by his 
aiiccstors, and nothing but the influence of example, very generally dif- 
fused, will gradually remove prejudices that are too natural not to meet 
with a])ologists, and alter usages that have been sanctioned by generations. 
The consecpienee of this desidtory mode of tillage, unguided by those 
rules of art that renovate the vigour of the soil, has been, in some cases, 
a considerable diminution, and an exhaustion of the ])roductive jjroperties 
of the land. The returns of jiroduce are nevertheless am])ly ade(,uate to 
the wants of the inhabitants, that which is deficient in fertility being 
frequently made up by superficies; thus the Canadian farmer cultivates 
two acres, and probably three, to obtain the same amount of corn, \:c. 
that one acre of a good Knglish farm would be expected to yield. Hut 
this should by no means be assumed as a criterion nf the productive 
ability of lands in Canada, the returns being in the ratio of the labour 
and not of the improvable fertility of the soil, it being ■well known, from 
exjjerience, that any given quantum of land in England and in Canada, 
if cultivated to an ecpially high degree, will yield returns nearly similar. 

The most usual period for sowing iu spring is the end of ^\])ril, in 
the district of Quebec, and the middle of that month in the district of 
Montreal ; the harvesting season connnenccs about the middle of August, 
and continues initil the begiiming of Sc])tember, but these periods are 
liable to fluctuation, both later and earlier. Much ploughing is generally 
done in the autunm ; its extent, however, being governed by the rigour 
of the weather, the operation having been sometimes arrested from that 
cause, early in October, tvhen, at others, it has continued until the middle, 
and even to the end oi" Xovend)er. Haymaking usually begins between 
the 10th and 12th of July, and lasts till the comniencement of August. 






.\f;nici'i;n'RK 



.'](); 



The afTjrrcffato aiiioimt of the ])r()(lu('e of tlio province will hv scon 
by the foll()»viii<f tabic, calculated from data, wliicli may be rdicd upon, 
as Icadinj^ at least to a very near approximation of tlic truth, if not to 
results unimpeai'hably correct, 'i'he mode adoj)tcd in obt->inin«>; the in- 
formation necessary for the construction of such a statemei t, was not 
unlike that followed by Mr. (iourlay in the statistics of l'])pcr Canada : 
but it should be remarked, tiiat facilities exist in Lower Canada in the 
means of collectin<^ authentic facts, which the nature of thin<fs in the 
upper province does not allow. In the lower province, the seij^norial 
lands cv)mpos(} the mass of the settled ])arts of the country, and iti each 
seigniory are to be fouiul two or three heads or sources, where centres 
every requisite information relative to the agricultural and statistical re- 
sources of the feudal settlements ; these heads being usually the seigneur, 
the curate, and the notary, or some of the more intelligent inhabitants 
of the different seigniories, or ])arishes, who form so many different 
pu'nitfi (rappi/t, upon which much reliance may obviously be placed, from 
the close and innnediate relation that n(>cessarily subsists between the 
seigneur and his vassals, the curate and his j arishioners, and the notary 
(who is generally considered one of the notables of the place) and tlu" 
inhabitants, who very frc(piently resort to him. Captains of militia, and 
other intelligent individuals in the country, have also been consulted as to 
the agricultural state of the ])rovincc, and we !iave not unfmpicntly, in 
thccourse of uj)wards of ;j,()00 miles of travel, in all partsof LowerCanada, 
entered the labourer's humble dwelling, when his family were engaged at 
the spiiming-whcel and the h)om, to ascertain the exact state of the do- 
mestic manufactures of the country. Such of the seigniories as we did 
not personally traverse, and these are few in nund)er, we became almost 
equally Avell acquainted with, through the circumstantial and intelligent 
replies of the seigneurs and reverend curates, to circular queries trans- 
mitted to them, embracing in their purport all the objects mentioned in 
the agricultural statement, and also many of those ci)mprised in the 
columns of the statistical table. As regards the townships, the same 
means, modified by circumstances, wore resorted to for information, 
much was obtained by jjcrsonal inspection in the progress of official 
tours, whilst the official returns of township agents, made quarterly to 
us, were likewise sources of the most correct and circmnstantial facts, 
relative to the state of the new settlements of the colonv. 



\\ 



M^ 



-•TAI I.MI:N'I. iiv DIMinCTS AMI ( OIN riKs,,,!- nil. ACiUIt ri/llUAI. I'llODICl",, LIM'- STOCK. I»(). 



!' 



\v<- 



fi ' 






hM 







1 

1 


PKiini 


< »; OF i: 


A( II «<>(' 


\TV UI'ON AN AVKKAIJK OF TIIHKK 


YEA Hit. 














I 


Itiu'k 


liiiliun 


.Mlxi'il 


.Maple 


1 


1 








Wliuit. 


(llilv 


Hurl V. 


I'nis. 


Hyi'. 1 










rmaiiHit. I 


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Tun. . 


y 


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( 111 N 1 ll'*. 1 


l<ii-.|>tN. 
(i-J.OIHl 


niifiii.N. 
ri!i,(Miii 


ItiioluU. 


H>l»ll.l». 

2.'».020 


lliislu'N. 1 


\\ Ik'uI. 
2 (HIO 


ttirn, 
IIuhIkU. 

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(■ruin. 

lIllHJU'N. 


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Cwli.. 


iiii.iuN. ; 




" 1 AlM.li.' . . . 


7.!»i»o 


7.211' 


M.IKMI 


1 ,0(12 


1 (!!»,.".( M( 


20.1(1(1 




'J lti';UjlL.il'ilii|> 


i>l,i;o."i 


Ki.iM'O 


1 1,000 


ll.lioo 


ii.;mo 


.'•,100 


20.! col 


.■J:i7l 


l,:»2d 


10."..4(I0 


2.'i,;iHi 




:tliriilii,r . . 


n7(i:ii; 


l.'.!»,i::!j 


1 l.!"!!l 


:«)i!i,'i!i 


:..;»7.-., 


2,.".(M» 


;i,2!)(i 


'1()H.-| 


l,()d|i I7o.oi;» 


dl 111 




ICliinnl.lv . . 


l:iii.|i)(i 


•Ml 110 


12 010 


2H(MI.'» 


1 1 .-.oiti 


2..'iOO 


1.01 Ij 


•1,11.'. 


10.-. 


2 17,1. -.7 


iiii.-jjii 


• 


i") \,\\ ( lirlKlVr 


III. Mill 


I; ;.; !.■.(» 


'■ 1 to 


21..".li!l 


:i.!tio 


700 


11.000 


1 i)()0 


101 


201, .".7!) 


:t:i. 1(111 


«; 


<• l.:l I'luirif . . 


I.M.IIOI 


lll.liOO 


00i< . 


.■.K.20O 


21.1100 


1,0(10 


20.1)10 


l.iilo 


l.o.-.j 


l.".:»,.".oo 


.■.i„-,i;: 


a 


7 ' 'A»Milii]iliiiii . 


.■i(i.7j;( 


:i!i.;t:!o 


1,117 


I.-.;:!.". 


K.OOO 


,-.00 


.■.,(iOO 


."1,200 


:t(i2 


Idl.OOO 


2.-..!iiiii 


?, 


il ,Mis>ist[iii 


H(iii:t;i 


ii;t,7(io 


l-_',000 


;i.'(,7(M> 


dot 10 


2o.:«io 


:»(!,70(i 


1,000 


r.ni 


2.'i2,o(io 


211'J(iii 


: 


'.tAlcl.ll-.-.ll . . 


I'Jti.llOl) 


•Kt.HCO 


111.120 


17. 01 it! 




2 „■.(»() 


l.l.-.d 


l.-.,l.'.o 


0)1 


4!t.".,H.'.7 


l-'.'j;.-, 


,"• .J 


lOOitau.i . . . 


l'-J,.'ll( 


l!l,7<iO 


1,2,'.0 


i;,i;lo 


li.ldd 


7,000 


;u,fi:t:» 


1,200 


.'.00 


42,110.". 


d.-.:i; 




II l!irl>rlirll . . 


!ij.;i(Mi 


li.-lll!) 


l,:tn 


21.<l(Mt 


.". 100 


:<,oo(i 


:».2(io 


r.,)too 


'..".li l.".d.7oo 


i:;.-j(i(i 


1 U 


IJltuuvilif . . 


i(;7.-'i( 


1!!I710 


2i!,20( 


:i!l.!»(>0 


11,220 


:i,(i2() 


1(!,07.". 


>1.010 


042 


i4();i(io 


1,'.. Ill III 


- 


l.'i'^l. ll\iicillllh' . 


111771 


!i.'i.lO(» 


i:t,7<»< 


17.072 


.'{.220 


.".,107 


Mill 


r.,2.".(» 


(110 


do.i 10 


.■|() mill 




1 1 sii.ir,;iii . . 


;i(;."i(;i 


.■.l,.vi:i 


1 ;.<».")( 


2i.)iot; 


2.200 


!t.7!ld 


17 ill.'. 


2, .".00 


:uil 


7())!00 


1.-. .-,11; 


0^ 


l."iSt;iii>ti",nl . . 


iHI,(tJ( 


l!.'.,700 


1 1 1)01 


i;i,)i.".o 


1,11 11 


2 7)io 


2."..:;: 52 


2,d(IO 


:.:ii 


i:id,lo() 


;i 1,1(111 




lli'I'circliiilillf 


7.v7'i 


(KMI-J 


1.77- 


22.17t> 


2.:«12 


li.OOO 


1 :<.21!l 


:<,!)! )0 


:»12 


1 :io.".,7o2 


.".:{. Id!! 




I7'''\M' .\liiiilif;iilis 


it 1 ;;.".( 


1 7,"),!!i:o 


lii.27." 


:!;i.ioo 


2i»,7."»o 


ll.OlHI 


;".:{. 7(10 


:{,7.".o 


JLw 


107,000 


:t7.;iiiii 




111 \';lllilli'llil . . 


(ili.lMIO <;i)-J(ll) 


.■..!;:i( 


20.tt(iO 




l(f,0(M) 


' .'i,(H)0 


•.,0(MI 


(170 


:i2d,7oi 


:il.:;iii' 


i 


lit\'(ri!nn',s . . 
Tot;, I . 
C 1 lilMllCl' . 


M.-),..;n 

l,7.'>i».:i!!( 
."id, l.'{( 


11 1,000 

. i,;i7!Mi.")<» 


2;».2!): 


.".(1. 100 


0,020 


2. ".00 


<l,)t)IO 


.".,(ilO 


11(7 


;r>o,:.o7 


:tiii.'.(i 


1 
1 


2i:(.(i7- 


.vii;.7fi:{ 


IMIIIOO 


!)-i,(i(»;) 


272,2«i(l 


S)j,l.".2 


11,4110 


4,121,721 


d! 12.111 ;ii 




) MIMOO 


2;»,.".o( 


22:i(;i 


.".10 


(!(I0 


' 2,010 


l,o.".o 


ido 


iii.:t(Ki 


i.'2.:;(i(i 


1 


•JIll'll.'dlMSM- . . 


1(10.11 1) 


iL»,:too 


ll.72( 


l7."<:fo 


2..M1.-. 


2,.'.0(t 


!ilO 


:t,io.". 


.".dJi 


2:t.'...'.:«4 


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I-- 


;i Diiii'iu'stiT , 


."."•, (>('( 


» |:t..")(io 


(i,|.-.( 


lilOOO 


1,0.-.;! 


11.-. 


7.010 


."..".00 


i,ni( 


i);»,ioo 


•JO led 


s 


■iM.i .... 


il.'l.tlOl 


> 7:t,.")00 


.-..711 


l;".,lt2l 


ll.dd!) 


2,100 


•J,."..".o 


(!,".dii 


}l(t2 


1 2171.37 


ll(i;;:i 


\t 


,') KiiiiiiitiiM>k:i 


lOtl.liU 


11,100 


:)2.(i7." 


22,1110 


10.27.^ 


1,200 


.".,(idO 


12.100 


1,211 


2ll,o.-.o 


:;-j,:hi 


C 


(i f<<itliiiii< re , 


:)!t7(i( 


1 4l'.L'."«0 


l.O'tl 


' 11.000 


2.III0 


1.0(l( 


1.1 111.-. 


i,:».".o 


(117 


:{o,llo 


•1-1 -iw. 


1 i , 


7 .McL;iiiitii' 


"l.d'.t." 


1 ,.»7'"' 


."lO. 


210 


!)10 


.".Ut 


122 


1.200 


i7r. 


! f!ll7 


■■!?> 


- 


li .Mdiiliiinrt'iu-i . 


.■ .,11! 


. 11,!I1L' 


1,1. -.( 


2.."..' Id 


I.: '00 




.-,.)!00 


1.000 


1117 


21 :t}!o 


11, (i.'.n 


= 


il Oil. Mils . , . 


.•{l.!lL> 


L'O.iilO 


2 00.' 


ld..'iOO 


;i,id.-. 


2.r.(M» 


:u.". 


2,10;". 


Id2 


l(ld,()(i.". 


Idl:;- 


Z 


lOl'ortiiciit' . . 


!il.:i.". 


i;i.7io 


(i.i;2! 


21i,(!0.'. 


I..".(.0 


I.OdO 


2,7:«o 


:{,i.'.o 


1, ().".:{ 


:M0.4.-.f! 


L'l'd.i 


1 L 


1 1 (Jih Iff . . . 


.■)!t.l>ll 


l.".i>(ii.-) 


1 1.2 1( 


2.".,77.'' 


l.)i.".l 


2.l;".0 


:i,io)! 


2.ld.". 


:{.".4 


;!:t 1,(127 


:!l,-ii!; 


^ 


IjHc u-^ki . . 


;ti..-.i'; 


1 l.lllO 


10.7!': 


(i.o7;i 


d.iio 


1.000 


do 


l.".,}id4 


72d 


{ li),ldO 


id.i.i: 




l,'!S,ii.ucii.iy . . 
Tut.il . 
[ 1 ('li;iiii|il.iiii . 


■)(i,7;;-j 


1(1, 73.". 


i2;$,(;oi 


-l,i:{.-. 
102,-ldsi 


M.IIIO 


2,000 


.•»,2!)7 


;{.2oo 


20(i d2,7:id 


2(l.,'iiii 




7!t:Ui7i 


(L'7,o.".:5 


:.2,!)a-i 


20,07:1 


:u;,077 


01,747 

4,:»!0 


}i,:ni 1,1141!, 104 


:mi :,!,:,-, 


:: 


■«l,77: 


(iii.:t(io 


do,' 


10.:)! 10 


1,100 


1.7(io 


(ilO 


:{|i(i 2:tii,."iid 


21.1:: 


;- 


J I)i uiniiiiiiul 


ii;,(»ji( 


; 1 .".o:{ 


I.O'.iJ 


2.!t:!l 


1.2:50 


170 


(i,:i:n 


.''..100 


\\w^ 27.:t:«o 


1711(1(1 


1 i' 


.'iXii'Ml.'l . . . 


7< >,;!.")( 


17.loii 


:r20( 


I7.d20 


4.2n;{ 




:no 


3,".00 


o;{()| (id,d2o 


;ii:. 1(111 


1 « 


■|.S;iiiit .Aliiiirii'f . 


;!it.(!(i( 


> !!.".,! 100 


i:tii:;( 


1 l.filO 


■•t.l.'JO 


2 .".00 


;5:!o 


4,2!iO 


(ill! 120,11110 


:i2(ii;(i 


' s 


.") .'^llCllu'lHlkd . 

(1 \'aiiia>.kii 

Total . 
I 1 liiiiiavi'iiturc 


}«I,!I71 


()-»,<ll(t 


;i,<iiit 


1I!.2II(I 


lii.oi;? 


2,2!) 1 


l.l,2dO 


:{,iiio 


700i io:<,iio 


;io„"i(iii 


: r. 


.'iC.'itK 


aiHioo 


:{,;m( 


17,l(Kt 


1,01.". 




(;;{ji 


(>,1.".0 


74:{ lo.iioo 


2',I.(I(N' 


.^ 


:i(L'!i7i 

ll.l.'U 


:tl7,7-'-' 


2.".,lill 


);i,2dl 

],dOO 


2!l.)i0I 


d,72I 


2:{,;".()0 


2d,.JilO 


:),72H (iod,;{dr. 


Idi):!:!; 


^ 


i:{,oit."i 








200 


(i'.O 


r.2i 


r.7.210 


4,(iii; 


.I 


» JCiaspr . . . 


}i7i 


:t,)!o;{ 




U^o:. 







lOit 


r.2o 


2do 


Hi2,dlO 


(i.iidii 


I 
1 




Total . 
(Jranil 'I'ot il 


12,0()j 
L>,!):?1,2I(I 


KMiilH 


2,}!0r) 

}t2.%ai» 




;ji»n 


1,170 


71!1 210,1120 


io,ii(i; 


1 

1 

1 
1 


2.: ill, .".2!) 

1 


\w^^\' 


2i7,r.J3 


1 21, .307 


n;w,i,".o 


i«4,fir.o 


24,;}20d,70d,:{io'i,22!iiM;; 



'■\A-2 



ii.:j;' 



III. '■ 



E STO( K. !)(». 



I 

lliinhi'lii. 



l(i!),.'>(HI 

I7(»,iti:» 
•J»7.l.'7 

l20l,.".71t 

i:i:»,:.(Mi 

Kll.diiO 
'_'."» ■J,(HI(» 

■i!t:.,i!:.7 

l.')(i.7!M» 

i-i(i:i(io 
(••t.iiii 

7(l(t(M> 

:i(»."), 7(1-2 
1117,(100 
:fj(!.7(ii 
:r)i»,:»(t7 



j,i'Ji,7i.>i (;!)-_Mii:ii 



II..). 

'J'nn . 



2U.!(Hi 

L'.V.'ll*! 
(il III 

111! 'JJii 

:t:(.iiiii 

i.'i; •.'••0 

ij.ii:,^ 

i;,"p:i; 
l:!.-jiHi 

t.'i.dlhi 

.'idiiiiii 
l.".,,-ii(; 
:ti.iiiii 
.vi.iic; 
it7.:n'ii 
:il.:;iii' 



iil,:t(K» 

•Kt.KlOl 

2I7.1M7 

2 II, (».■>(» 

:{(),> 10 

JI.1171 

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:ii 1,1(111 


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l>ll,(Kili 


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VMSTK M.Wri'ACTrUKS, ani. gi'ANTrM or \.\SD iNOKn C'l r/l'IVATlON is I.OWr.ll CANADA. IH27 



lilVK STOCK. 



YU\. I HiiiUT. 
Cwia. C'wu, 



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20.010 

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!l,.-id'.» 
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21,710, 
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.V ( ( l.ll\ .\llON, 



' KlllloW IIMll I 'I'llt ll 

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l.,iiiil. I I'liliiiir. I 
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17<»0it 

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102 
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21 (III:! 
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:i)! 7.i.'i 

lUldllK 

II.-. .Ill I 
ll.(i.-.o 
I Mill 
27.2)17 
1 17, (Hilt 

111,100 
.-.(l.dd.'. 



110 mi I 
djoii 

070711 
(;o.'.)io 

111 :;ito 
72 |d(i 
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71.!'7"' 
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10 100 
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I oil 2d0 
Id. I,) 100 
Id) .',00 

110 i.-.o 

loiloo 

100 .•.112 

I l(l.(l(lll 

01 2( ft 

140 Id.-. 



4112,1110 12(M'.« d.'.ll.ldil; 4.-j(i,2U4; .'.01 '.Mil d,7.-d .-.;;(i.(todl.diil.!id(il,Cdl,072 



l!i,}|('' 
41 I' 
21, .102 
110,110, 
2(1, 400 

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] 0,700 

12,127 

17,H0(i 



711,707 2411,042 



1!),I144 



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112 211! 



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11,11(12 
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i5,272 
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2.'., loo, 

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HO,! too! 

itl,oi;o| 

411,000 
HIt.llltl 
OH", 
111,1 10 
11,200 

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2l{,HIO 
21), 140 
2.-., 1(10 



lit 

ill 
10 

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4(111 
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Mill I 

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00 
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201 
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217:14 

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22 410 
dOl 
11.217 
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2 1, 1 1(17 

10, into 



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l!d.-.0(i :t:,2,2d4 2.'.ll,2.-.0 .HOOIIOIt 1:M:> 2!)l.4d:i dl2,44lV !l(ill,)lld 



5115,074 

111 12 
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152.(100 
111,100 
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000 
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010 



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till 



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,700 



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4 111 17 



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241,7li.-.,l,l.-.:5,(i7l5 lt(ll!.21(ll.0.-.l!,d;»d 115,2115 1,002, 101! 1,011,11117 2,!l4d,.-.d'. 



'%n 



if i 

1 1' I 



■■A'*" I 






;)()8 



LOWKR CANADA. 



IJy the I'olumn of land uiuler cultinv we find that there are nearly 
;i, ()()(), ()()() of acres of improved lands in the provinee, and that of tliis 
(juantnni abont l-.'jrd is aetnally nnder ero]), and the reniainin<;- i2-.'Jrds 
are ])artly left fallow, and partly enltivated as meadow land. Wc have, 
tiierefore, rather npwards of 1 ,()()(),00(), vi/. l,00!>,lf)8 aeres, that yield 
the grain of the eonntry. besides roots and vegetables, whieh may be 
considered as absorbing abont 12.5(),()()() aeres of that qnantnm. ITence 
it appears that the whole aggregate amount in busbels of wheat, oats, 
barley, pease, i^e., raised in the county, i. e. 7,-i);j,i)();J, is the produce of 
7.512,1 J)S acres of tillage lands, yielding an average of {)! bushels per acre; 
and this average, although higher than an estimate given by a very in- 
telligent citi/en * of Quebec, in his evidence before a connnittee of the 
assend)ly, is probably low, when it is considered that instances are not 
rire of one acre ])roducing 20 bushels of wheat, and considerably more 
oats, mai/.e, \;c. l?ut the ai)parent discrejiancy can be easily conciliated 
by a very Judicious remark of the gentleman alluded to, who considers 
the ])opulation of the ])rovince as having increased in a nuich more rapid 
ratio than the cultivation, which not oidy diminished the amount of the 
ex])ort of bread stidfs, but, owing to the advanced demand for them by 
the native ])opidation of the country, has rendered additional diligence 
necessary in the process of tillage, and, in some measure, forced the inha- 
bitants, though ahnost im|)erceptil)ly, into agricultural improvements. 

^\s a proof of the fact above stated, the fol]t)wing statements, taken 
from the jjrinted reports of the crown lands connnittee of the house of 
assembly, will show that, Avith few exceptions, the export amount of 
l)read stufts from the j)rovince has considerably diminished .since the year 
1 T!).'}. 



\\'illi;iiii ]Moiklc>Jiiliii, Em}. 



AcijK ri/rrnr. -nuKAi) sn ris. 



;5()<) 



Export of Bread Sfiifl'fifroui the Port o/'Qi/cIxrJ'ront 17!):) to 1S()!2 incliis'irc-. 



''XX 



\-\\i 



I "!•."■ 



U'licMt . . . I!!7,(MMI 11 l.(t(l(i;i!».".,(l(H) 



I7!i(;, 



17!)7- 



l"!lil. 



17!l!>. 



IIIOO 



\\m. 



1 1:0 J 



Flour ^lilils.) I 1 (),!>(»(> 
Miscuit icwt.) I J),liOO 



i:{.7(iOi lu.ood! 4.:t()(i| 1 1,(100 



;»,io() :n.oi)() n-j.ooo iiio.ooo-ji 7.000 i;:;. 000 ioio.o;i;v 

! ! ' . - i 

!),."iOO 11,100 20.000 ;«1,00(I -ji^moo 



i:).ooo i>o.ooo' .'i.itoo' }),ooo 



I'j.ooo 2i.."ioo 2r.,ooo ;i--',;<oo -i-i.iKA 

nii.sli. Whciit, IJIils. I'MiPiir, Cut Jli.sciiil. 

Aniountin!; to :{,'_>.". 1 ,1. Sit 171.10(t 1(10 1")1 

Aiiiiiial avcni';.' ;W.".,111 17,100 KI.Ol.'i 

Do. of Flax si'i'd 7, .■)(»() hu-lii'ls. anil of IVasc, Oats, and Harl.'V 1. <'<•<• 



The Exports of lirctid Stuffs from the Port of (•Quebec for seven i/ears, IHK) ta 
IH2^2 i/ic/nsire, in soiiiet/tiiii>- near round nnnd>ers, is as folloas* : 



iiiifi. 



Wheat (liusli. 



11117 \ 
IIIIM. 



Ill III. ' UIJI). 



11:-' I. 



."iJ(>,.")<M) :«",i{oo:52o,ooo.{iii,ioo 



lil-JJ. 



Flour (l)l)ls.) 1,1:17 (iO.lOO^ I'J.lOO 4i»,000| '22XM 



1 l.VCMIO 



I7.7<«»j 

liisfuit (cwt.) I l.'Wi 'J-\700 'l.'JOO; }l,){00i 1 1 ,>_'00 i:{,r)0(»| 

Hush. Wheat, Bills Flour, Cwt. Hiscuit, i 

.\niouiitinij; to I .;i(i7.700 1!17.(!:?7 (;7.!!."i(! 

Annual average li)."),;<){(> L>lt,-J;i:{ <»,()!» I 



Wliofit is tlu' diiof article cultivated by the Canadian farmer; yet 
it i.s not raised in inucli greater quantities than would he re(|uisite I'or 
the e()nsuni])ti()n of the inhabitants, were not the import of I'pper Ca- 
nada flour into the lower province so extensive as to make ii|) the de- 
ficiency that would arise by the export of corn from the port of Quebec 
to the British markets. The great and increasing tide of emigration to 
the country augments the demand for bread stuffs in a imich larger ratio 
than their ])roduction. and it cannot therefore be expected that a dense 
po])idati(»n, under the Canadian system of husbandry, can both supply 
their own wants and have at the same time the means of exportation. 
However, as the townshij) lands will |)rogressively be thrown op(>n, and 



EvidcncT of William Meiklojohn, Esi], 



'.i IS 



370 



LOWKR CANADA. 






w 



¥ 



new farms are brought under cultivation, tlie produce will gradually 
assume a greater pro|)orti()n to tlie jjopulation. ^Vnd sliould the distil- 
lation of whiskey and beer be eventually introduced into the country, 
there is no doubt that the increased demand for barley and wheat, con- 
sequent upon this event, Avoidd give a new impulse to the culture of 
those s])ecies of grain, and render the ])rovince, in a measure, independent 
of foreign markets, for the disposition of its surplus corn. The cheap- 
ness of whiskey and beer, that would naturally follow the general intro- 
duction of distilleries of this description, must be considered by moralists 
as leading to excesses in drinking, but admitting its tendency, we cannot 
lorget that the adulterated and deleterious beverage the people now uni- 
versally drink, in the slia])e of rum, is not only cheap but far more ])er- 
nicious than would be either whiskey or beer, and it is also without the 
redeeming advantage possessed by the latter, that of aHording a market 
to the wheat of the country, and thus encouraging its cultivation. 

'I'iie extent of the domestic manufactures of the province, exhibited 
by the table, will ])robably excite some surj)rise, but it serves to denion- 
strate, in a forcible manner, the resources of the country, and the inde- 
pendent condition of its inhabitants, as regards all the necessaries of life. 
Some counties arc rather more mamifacturing than others, and not only 
weave woollens and linens for their own use but also for sale ; generally 
speaking, however, the peasantry of the different ])arishes are satisfied 
with clothing themselves from the produce of their own looms, the 
operation of weaving universally devolving upon the female branches 
of the family, who are thus employed during the late autumnal wud 
the winter months. Few farmers cultivate more than half an acre in 
flax-seed, the growth of which supplies them with ample materials to 
manufacture their house linen, and only a few articles of ^\ earing apjjarel, 
most of these being n)ade of flannel. I'lax "rows with orciit luxuriance 
in Canada, and hemp has. in all cases in which it was fanly tried, suc- 
ceeded eciually well. It is ])articularly adapted as a first crop after the 
cleariii_ of new lands, the soil being generally too rich \u the outset for 
the ))roduction of grain, and there is no doubt, that in a country where 
the forests are daily making way for cultivation, a considerable ])ortion 
of the new lands would be appropriated to the growth of hemj). if a 



■V ^ '.SI 



MAN I'FACTUIM'S— MAPLE SICIAU. 



371 



market were ottered to the cultivator. That the encouraircincnt of that 
article in the colony is a matter of vast importance to the mother country 
cannot be denied, since with Canada, as the source of the naval sui)])lies 
of (ilrcat liritain, not only those of timber but of hemp, Enohmd nii<^ht 
consider herself far more independent than she now is in this particular 
of European connneroe, and remain unhurt by prohibitory treaties that 
may, sooner or later, supervene to check her trade with the iJaltic. The 
subject is one which Ave have alwavs esteemed of ijreat moment to the 
interests both of Cireat IJritain and of the British provinces, and havin<>- 
^iven nuich time to its serious consideration, we would call the attention 
of the reader, who is desirous of more |)articular information ui)()n this 
head, to the ^V])pendix at the end of this volume, in which is printed a 
plan submitted to the society of arts and sciences in Canada, for en- 
couraging the cultivation of hemj, in the province, with a vidiimts of the 
))robable advantages to be derived by a company that might be formed 
for the promotion of that object. 

An article in the productions of Ijower Canada, which deserves to 
be particularized, is maple ,si(<>ar, not oidy from the extent to which it is 
now manufactured in most ])arts of the ])rovince, but from the con- 
spicuous ])lace it holds in the estimation of the peasantry of the coimtry. 
The process of obtaining it is extremely simple, and is so far, generally 
speaking, from being considered laborious, that the sugar season, which 
usually conuuences and ends Avith yVpril, is rather deemed one of festivity 
than toil. The rapidity of vegetation, or more properly its cause, the 
almost sudden transition from cold to heat, appears essential to the ])ro- 
duction of the article, at least in any quantities, inasmuch as the copious 
exudatioii of sap fnmi the maple-tree is the cojisecpience of its being 
rapidly dissolved from a congealed state, and converted into a thin sac- 
charine serum, which exudes through a puncture or incision made in the 
rind of the tree, about three or four feet from the root : in this incision 
a slender s])igot is inserted to convey the licpiid into troughs ])laced 
beneath for its collection, and thus is obtained the fluid whence the sugar 
is manufactured. The process of converting the sap into sugar is ecjually 
sim])le, and merely consists in boiling it mitil a sutticient degree of eva- 
poration has taken ])lace, to convert the licpiid into a thick syrup which. 

3 B 2 









th 



i'lf 

If 



.'J72 



LOWER CANADA. 



^ \, 



if it he inteiuled to preserve tlie sugar in solid loaves, as is the most pre- 
valent practice, is transferred to wooden or hirch-hark vessels of various 
sizes, that heconic the moulds of the sugar when it has hardened. If it 
he meant that the sugar assume the ap])earance of muscovado, the sap is 
constantly stirred while l)oiling, until the moisture aj)pears to have (juite 
eva))orated, when the residuum hecomes friahle, anil perfectly resend)ling 
the West India sugar. 

The average weight of sugar yielded hy one tree is stated to be 
about .5 ; lbs., and in a country where, as in Canada, maple abounds, .some 
estimation may he made of the })ossil)le (|uantity of that article wliieh 
could be produced. AN'hether, however, it would be sound policy to 
encourage a systematic production of ma])le sugar in the province, is 
))erhaps (juestionable, not only from its tendency to affect the consump- 
tion of NN'est Indian conuuodities of that description, but also from its 
being a ))remium upon leaving large tracts of country in ft)rest land, 
instead of being converted into corn and hemp fields, which ajjpear to 
us the most valuable of the two ])urpo.ses to which ♦he soil could be 
devoted. Maple sugar will nevertheless ever continue a favourite luxury, 
if not a necessary, with the Canadian peasant, who has not unaptly been 
considered* as having for it the same sort of natural predilection that an 
Knglislnnan has for his beer, a Scotchman for his scones, and a ^lexical! 
for his pulque. 

Of late years agriculture has become a subject of particular solici- 
tude in the province, and there have in consequence been formed, in the 
various districts, very intelligent societies, under the patronage of go- 
vernment, for its promotion, Avhose endeavours have in general been 
attended with considerable success. The ))remiums offered by these 
societies extend to most articles of produce, and particularly to the amelio- 
ration of stock-farming, an inq)ortant branch of rural economy, which had 
hitherto been greatly neglected, but which is now become a subject of 
ahuost paramount interest in the estimation of the agriculturist. The ex- 
hibitions of cattle that take place every spring, muler the auspices of the 
agricultural societies in the three districts, show an obvious im})n)vemcnt 



* Political and Historical Afcouiit of Lower C'aiiaila !)v " A Native {'aiiailian." 



AGUICrLTURAI. AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 



373 



in the breed of horses, liorned eattle, sliee]), kc. The exhibition of produee 
is etjiially indicative of the progressive advancement of agriculture to 
higher perfection. Nor are the niainifactures of the country left without 
some encouragement, ])remiums being offered for tiie best manufactured 
straw-hats, woollens, linens, .Ivc. that usually bring out excellent spcciuiens 
of the manufacturing abilities of the Canadian peasantry. 

The annual and monthly reports of these societies usually contain 
hints and suggestions to the farmer, well calcidated to aid him in his 
labours, if attended to. There are likewise in both cities, Quebec and 
Montreal, associations for the encouragement of horticulture, which have 
led to considerable ameliorations in the cultiu-eof garden fruits and veo-e- 
tables. In fact, great ])ains are taken, as well by the h-gislature as by public 
associations and individuals, to promote the agriculture of the province 
in all its branches ; and there is no doubt, that the monies liberally voted 
by the house of assembly, to be laid out in premiums, under the judicious 
control of the agricultural societies, added to the influence of individual 
zeal and example, will ere long eradicate some of the older prejudices, to 
which the Canadian agriculturist remains still attached, and introduce 
the more enlightened system of cultivation now ap])lied so successfully 
in Europe. 



CHAl'TKR XIV 



renuii's in Lower C'aiiadji. 



AViir.N Canada was first cstablisluMl as a colony of France, tlic 
feudal system still ])revailed in Kuro])e, with much of its original Gothic 
vigour, aiul, as might naturally be expected, its s])irit as well as its 
practice wei'e at once transferred to those distant possessions, and the 
lands therein universally granted under the femlal tenure. However. 
as the settlements of the country progressively accjuired strength and 
conse(juence, and its government became a subject of more inuuediate 
solicitude to the French crown, a variety of modifications were, from 
time to time, introduced in the feudal code, that tended on the one hand 
to abridge the exorbitant ])rivilegcs of the seigneur, and on the otiier to 
add to the itulepciulencc of the vassal. These modifications, cond)ine(l 
with the tacit reliiujuislnncnt of several rights that formerly attached to 
feudality, but which have since become obsolete, have given to the feudal 
tenure in Ijower Canada peculiarities that belong to itself, and which 
seem singularly well adapted to the local circumstances of the coinitry. 

It was not until .'iO years after the concpiest, in 17.5}), that the temire 
in free and common soccagc was efl'ecttially introduced, although the 
most strenuous endeavours appear to have been usetl long before by the 
loyalists, who had emigrated from the revolted colonies to the ))rovince 
of Quebec, to obtain from the nu)ther coun':ry an abandonment of the 
seignorial temwes, and the adoption of those to which they had hitherto 
been accustomed. 

The remarkable delicacy manifested by the imperial goverinnent on 
this subject is an instance of the magnanimity of a concjueror that cannot 
fail to add lustre to the IJritish name, whilst its recollection nuist tend 
to draw the link still closer between the mother country and the colony. 
That it was intended to leave the inhabitants in the ample enjoyment of 



FI'IDAL TENUIIKS. 






their iiiU'ioMt usa<^c,s, i'(>li«^i()usly to resjjtrt and protect their hiws a:ul in- 
stitiitioiis, and in f'urtheranee of this intention, to pr()|)a<>ate the ori<4in;il 
tenures of the province, is evident from the .'JHth article of liis late most 
•gracious majesty Cieorti-e the Third's instructions to CJuy Carleton, l<'s(|., 
the governor of the countrv, in 1775 *. 

Nor ^vas this the only manifestation of his late majestys most 
gracious pleasure on tiiis subject, for we find that, in the 4()th article of 
the royal instructions, giyoji to liord Dorchester in 17H(), after directing 
that the loyalists and disbanded troops should receive, as a reward for 
their services, grants of the waste lands of the crown, his majesty distinctly 
])rescril)es that the lands so to be granted should be held cti .sciq-iienrick. 

\\y the .'Jlst Cieorge III. chap. .31, connnonly called in Canada the 
Constitutional Act, the province of (Quebec was divided into tlic provinces 



"' " lly our I'diiiiiiisNioii to y<'ii, iiudi r our ^rcat simI of (iri'ut liritain, voii arc iiii- 
thorizcd iiiul ciiiiiowcrcd, u illi tlie adviL'e ;iiid consent of our council, to settle and ajfree with 
till; inhabitants of our said jiroviuce of Qucliec, for such lands, tenements, and hereditaments, 
as now are or shall hereafter lie in our jiower to disjxise of; it is therefore our \\\\\ and jileasure, 
that all lauds uliieh now are or hereafter may he sulijcct to our dis[msal. he i;'raute(l iu (ief or 
seijj;neurie, in like uianuer as was practised antccediiit to the C()U(|uesi nf the said province, 
omittiuu; however, in any grant that shall he passed of sucli lauds, the reservation of any judicial 
jiowers or privileges whatever: — and it is o\ir further nill and j)leasnre, that all irrants in lief 
or seigueurie, so to bo passed by you as aforesaid, be made sidycct to our roval ratification or 
disallowance, and a due registry thereof «itliin a limited time, iu like manner as was practised 
ill regard to grants and concessions held iu fief and seignenrie under the French government." 

t " .Such lauds to be divided into di>tinct seiguetiries or fiefs, to extend from two to four 
leagues iu front, and from three to five leagues iu depth, if situated upon a navigable river, 
otherwise to be run s(jiiare, or iu such shape and in such (|uantities as shall be convenient and 
praetical)Ie, and iu eacli seigueurie a glebe to be reserved and laid out in the most convenient 
spot, to contain not less than three hundred acres, nor more than fw't' hundred acres; the pro- 
perty of which seigneiiries or fiefs shall be and remain vested iu us, our lieirs and .successors ; 
and vou shall allot such ])arts of the same as shall be applied for by any of our said loyal subjects, 
iion-commissioiied ofiieors, and private men of our forces, redueeil a> aforesaid, in the following 
]iroportions, that is to sav, ' iS.'e. 

" The saiil lands to he held under us, our heirs, and successors, seigneurs of the seignenrie 
or fief in which the same shall be situated, upon the same terms, acknowledgments, and services. 
as lands are held iu (Hir said province, under the res])ectivc seigneurs ludilin.ir and ])ossessing 
seigneiiries or fiefs therein, and reserving to us, <iiir heirs and successors, from and after the ex- 
piration often years from the admission of the respective tenants, a quit rent of one halfpenu) 
per acre." 



. ^'f\ 



!|; M 



\w 



■57^5 



I.OWI'.U (AN ADA. 



II 






of I.owcr and I'pjjor Ciinada, cv'ulontly with a view of dividiiii;- the 
t'ciulal from the sot'caffc lands of tlie country, in onh-r to ohviati' as nnicli 
as possihU' the eonfiision attendant upon a mixture of repugnant tenures. 
It is true that it is K'ft opfiotta/ witli the grantee, l)y tiie HJd sivtion of the 
aet, to ol)tain his huids uncU'r the free and eommoii soeeauje tenure, in 
the h)wer as well as in the n|)])er ]m>vinee, but thesi- grants were to l)e 
•' sid)ieet nevertheless to sueh alterations with respeet to the nature and 
eonse(|uenees of sueh ti'Uure of free and eonnuon soei'age. as might he 
estahlished hy any law or laws by his majesty, his lieirs and sueeessors, 
l)\ and Avith theadviee and eonsent of the legislative eouneil and assemhlv 
ol the proviiK'C." 

Notwithstanding these repeated and powerful manifestations of tiie 
desire of the erown, to ])erpetuate the tenin-e of Hef and seigniory in 
Lower Canada, as most consonant not t)nly with the habits and feelings 
of the people, but consistent with a more uniform anil systematic order 
of things, no fresh grants in lii'f were made after the conijuest, if we 
except those of Slu>'.)lbred and Murray Hay, and the whole of the lands 
of the colony, not previously granted under the feudal system, are now 
considered as soccage lands, and are almost wlu)lly laid out in townshii)s. 
IJy the ancient custom of Canada, lands were hi'ld innnediately from 
the king cuJicJ',ov en rotiirc, on condition of rendering fealty and homage 
on accession to the seignorial pro])eriy : and, in the event of a transfer 
thereof, by sale or otherwise, except in hereditary succession, it was 
subject to the ])ayment of u qti'nit, or the tilth part of the whole j)urchase 
money, and which, if paid by the ])urchaser innnediately. I'Utitled him 
to the rabat, or a reduction of two-thirds of the tjidiit. This custom still 
prevails. 

The tenanciers, censitaires, or holders of lands en roftin; are subject 
to some particular conditions, but they are not at all burthensome ; for 
instance, they pay a small annual rent, usually between !2.v. ()V/. and .5.v. 
for each arpent the farms have in front (though in many seigniories the 
rents of new concessions have been considerably increased); to this is 
added some article of provision, such as a couple of fowls, or a goose, or 
a bushel of wheat, or something else of domestic consumption. They 



i<l 



ITJ'DAL TKM UF,. 



;i 



( i 



are also bouiul tt) j^riiul tlu-lr corn at the nwn/lti Imiinl, or the lord's inill, 
^vlu•rt' onc-t'ourtft'iith * part of it is taken for liis use as moiitiirv, or pay- 
ment for •frindinu; ; to repair the hi<;h\vays and by-roads ))assin<i throu{;ii 
their lands, and to make new ones, whieh, when opened, nnist he surveyed 
and api)roved hy the <;rand voyer of the distriet, and estahlished hy 
proeess verbal f. I/mds are sometimes held by /w/'/ r/w/>///Ao//Vy//('. or 
lon<;' lease of 'JO, lU), 'A), or any mnnber of years, subjeet to a very small 
rent only. Franc alcit is a freehold, \mder whieh lands are exempt from 
all rights or duties to seiiiin'C's, aeknowleduiim' no lord but the kinu" ■ 
('(•n.siirh a feudal tenure, subjeet to an ammal rent, paid either in money 
or prod nee. 

The sei<fneurs, by the old laws that havi- now beeoine obsoU-te, were 
entitled to et)nstitute eourts, and preside as Judges therein, in what is 
denominated haute, iiioj/cniw, ct Iki.ssc Ju.stitr. whieii take eoiiui/aiiei' of 
all crimes connnitted within their jurisdiction, except nuu'der and treason. 
This ))rivilcge has lain dormant ever since the con(|uest, nor is it pro- 
bable that it will ever be attempted to revive it, as such ample 
provision is made for the rej;t"lar administration of the laws. The hnl.s 
vl vciitcs constitute part of the sei<>;r.eurs reveime. It is a rii>ht tt) a 
twelfth part of the purchase money of every estate within his sei<>- 
niory that changes its owm-r by sale, or other means i'(|uivalent to a sale. 
This twelfth is to be paid bv the purchaser, ami is exclusive of the sum 
agreed uj)on between him and the .seller; for prompt jjayment ol' it a 
reduction of a fom'th pcU't is usually made. In cases of a sale of this 
nature the lord ])ossesses the droit dv rctrait, which is the j)rivile<;i' ol 
pre-emption at the hi<;hest bidden ))rice. within forty days after the saU- 
has taken jdace ; it is, however, a pri\ile<;-e but seldom exercised. All 
the fisheries within a sei<;niory contribute to increase the proprietor's re- 
venue, as he receives a tithe of all the fish caught, or an e(|ui\aleiit sum. 

• It apjU'iirs tlmt tlio rate of moiiliirr is lii|jliiT in the I'liitt'd .States, where tlie jireate.sl 
cuni}R>titioii obtains, and that it stands at one-twelfth. — Land Ixfporls, II. .1. I.. ('. 

■\ In the A]ipendix will he found a formula of the rf«,v;7o/rt''s title, or Ixiil d ii'/a, v\hieh is 
best calculated to convey a knowledge of the preci.se conditions of the jjrant. 

t The only two (iefs in franc aleu in the province were those of C'harlesbourj.'. near (juebee. 
and 6(KI arpent.s near Three Kivers, granted to the late order of je.suits, and now reverted to tiie 
crown. — ('liquet. 

a c 



1 



Ufil 



'Mi\ 



I.()\VKI{ CANADA. 



! 



U , '( 






Iff 



Hi's'kU's these rights, lie is |)iivik<;e<l to fell timber anywhere within his 
seij^iiiory for ereetin^ mills, repairiiijj; roads, or eonstruetin^ new ones, or 
other works of puhlie and general ntility. liands held hy Roman ea- 
tholies, under any of the afore-mentioned tenures, are fmther suhjeet to 
the payment to their curates of one twenty-sixth part of all ^rain 
})ro(lueed upon them, and to oi'casional assessments for huildint;' and 
repairint;' ehurehes, parsonage-houses, or other works belonging' to the 
ehureh. 

It may hethou<;ht, from the forej^'oino; enumeration of theoblij^ations 
of the feudal tenant or (rihsit<iin\ that his eondition is by no means so 
happy as to render a ])ropau;iition of the sei^iiorial teniu'e very desirable : 
but, however these obli^iations may in theory ap|)ear numerous or o))- 
pressive, they are not at all etnisidered so in ])raetiee, and the haJiitaiit of 
the country would not willinuly fore<i,() his ])resent modified vassala<;e, 
if indeed the independent condition of the Canadian trnsitaire can be so 
called, for the most absolute freehold. In looking a little farther into 
the com) ttive advantages of both systems of tenure, at least as re<^'ards 
the early settlements of a country, it will ])erha])s be found that the 
feudal system is the best calculated to aid and ))romote the first steps of 
coloni/ation, from the circumstance of its recpiiriui;' less capital, and of its 
concentrating the ener<;ies of a new settlement, in such a way as to en.d)le 
the settlers mutually to assist one another, whilst, superadded to these ad- 
vantages, they collectively enjoy the eountcnance,aid, and ))rotection of the 
seigneur, who is himself interested in the prosj)erity of a rising colony, that 
is to give value to his property. Ihe seigneur is, in some instances, bound 
to open roads to remote ])arts of his lief, and is expected to ])rovide the 
settlers with the means of grinding their corn, by the erection, within 
the seigniory, of a competent mill for that ])urpose. 

The conditions of the title are also such as to forward the settlement 
of the country, from their being imperative upon the censitaire to eid- 
tivatc and reside on the land, tcu'irfvu ct lien, within a year and day from 
the date of the concession *. The seigneur cannot dispose, by sale, of 

• " Sunt temis tons iTnsitiiiros cii la province do dcfrichor, iiuttre en culture ct tciiir feu ct 
lieu sur les tcrres a eux coiiccdtcs jiar les seigneurs, dans Tan et jour, datee de leurs titres ; sous 
peine de reunion de leurs terres aux domuines des seigneurs. ' — CiigncI, art. 43. 



Ihl'DAL TKNIRK. 



.'579 



forest liiiids. but is Ijoiind to conci'di' tlioni, and, upon liis refusal to do 
W), the applicant may obtain from the erown the eoiu'cvssion he recpiires, 
under the usual seij^norial stijndations, in uhieh ease the rents a. id dues 
uj)pertain to the kin<4'*. We are not aware, however, of any reeorded 
instances of this having;- taken plaee in the colony. 

It has been observetl, in speakinj^; of the agriculture of the country, 
that a very minute subdivision of the feudal lands in Lower Canada has 
taken place, arising out of the e(|ual division of property by inheritance. 
Hut the tendency of the law which ])rescribes such a nn)de of succession, 
/. /'. that of reducing farms to mere shreds, was ])rovided against by an 
ordinance of the French king, dated the liHth April, n^'t, registered 
in the province f, the provisions of which were strictly enforced up to 
the period of ♦^hc eoncpiest. It formally prohibited all censitaires in the 
seigniories fror.i building their houses and stables upon lands that were 
less than one arpent and a half in front, by a dejjth of .'iO or K). under a 
penalty of, 1st, 100 livrcs toitnioiti, to be applieil to the relief of the 
poorer families of the place, and, 12ndly. to the demolition of such houses 
and stabling. They were, however, allowed to erect barns upon lots of 
inferior extent for the recejjtion of produce, and even these barns, it 
appears ';, were to be built of wood only. 

The effect of this salutary ordinance was to «)blige the junior branches 
of the family to repair to the new lands, to bring the seigneur's estate more 
rapidly under cultivation, to leave the iunnediate ancestor, or the co- 
heir, in a greater degree of ease and independence : in fact, its operation 
was attended with conse(piences bi'neficial to all ])arties. It was, how- 
ever, imperceptibly dej)arted from, and the condition of the hahitaiit has 
in most seigniories become evidently deteriorated, the increase of tillage 
not having kept pace with the increase of population. It is proper, ne- 
vertheless, to observe that, of later years, less reluctance has been ma- 
nifested by the younger members of the Canadian ])easantry to leave the 
paternal roof for the establishment of new farms, and the opening set- 
tlements in the remote concessions of the seigniories are evidence of the 



m 



m 






m 






\i4\ 



* C'lignot, art. 44. 
J C'ugiiet, art. 4;"). 



t Edits and Ordoiinanccs, vol. i. p. a;')!. 



3 c 2 



II. i (I 



:J«0 



l.nw I:r (ANA da. 



fact. Yd it cannot he said, that they have overcome all tlieir scruples 
relative to the oeeii])atioii of township !ii)i. with the te:uire of wliieh 
they are nnae(|uainte(l : hnt the strong* • . r«;it)n they have always 
lietrayed to removing- heyond the sight «)f the parish spire, or the sound 
of the parish hell, is graduiilly wearing away ; more, ln)wever, from 
haviny; lieeonie familiar with the suhject and eireumstanees of new set- 
tiement, than a diminution of those neighhourly and social hahits that 
characterize the honest and virtuous peasantry of the country. 

The total (|uantity of land granted c// .v«vi>7/c//Wc in the province 
eNceeds I'J. ()()(). 0(K) superficial French ar|)ents. or ahout I. ),.'{!)() scpiare 
miles: that laid out in townships, under fri'c and couunon soecage, 
amounts to (i,. '{()(). ()()() aerev, hut of this (|uantum not more than one-half 
is actually granted, and the residue of the province remains unsurveyed, 
and is generallv known lUKh-r the denomination oi' ira.s/c lauds at' the 
rrotni, and liahle as such to he granted c/z./Zc/'and .vc/i,'/"''///'*', or in soecage 
at his majesty's pleasure. 

The soeeage tenure, whieh is in fact tlu\//Y///r a/cu rottir'icr of the 
feudal system *. is prohahly uiore in accordance with the spirit of the 
age than the cciisivc, and it cannot he denied that in some respects it is 
well litti'd eminently to promote iiulividual industry and enter])rise, the 
landholder heing wholly uiisluirkled hy any e«)ndition whatsoever, neither 
rents, conucs. nuitation lines. hdiKiHtr or the ohiigation of arindinu' his 
corn at the seignorial mill ; in fact, the soecage freeholder is hound to 
no other ohiigations than those ol" allegiance to the king and ohediencc 
to the laws. The town>liip si-ttlements of the province, although the 
date of their eommi'ucement is comparatively recent (17f)H), now compose 
a verv Hom-ishing a'id interesting section of the countrv. and althouy-h 
their population at ])resent hears hut a small pro])ortion to the population 
of' the whole province, the rapidity of its inercasc, hoth natural and con- 
tingent, as arising- from emigration, must ere many years throw con- 
siderahle weight into the seale of tlu-ir importance. The iidiahitants of 
the townships have, however, been hitherto exposed to much end)arrass- 



diiit 



" FrniR' .ili'ii mniriiT c^t trrro >;iii> jii>tici' mi scii/inuric, imiir l:i(iiu'llt' le iluti-iituur iic 
■n^, rentes, lots, et veiites, iii atitres rodevaiiees." Cuiitiniie dv I'lirix, art. (Jl!, Liiiiiict 



llfdil. <!)■ 



I. {\-2 



FRKi: AND COMMON SoCCAfiK TKM KK. 



381 



!., 



nirnt, from tlip purtifiilar mode in uliicli sfjccafrc Innds wore nrl^iiiallv 
(listiihiitcd, cviM-y si'coiid and third lot. idtiTnatcix , in each ran^t" lu'in^' 
ri'si'rvi'd tor tlu' crown and the proti'stant clergy, wlirri'hy onc-sfvcntli 
of tlif whole township riniained, aj»propriated l)y law, for the fiitnrc 
disposition of his inaji-sty's ^overinnent, and one-seventh for the main- 
tenance and snpport of the church of I'liiMJiiiid in the provini'i'. W'r 
have already, in anotlier part of this work, noticed the tendency ol 
these reserviitions to interfere with the conliujnity and prospi-rity of the 
settlements of the townships, and remarked the judicious chan^^'c, in this 
respect, that took place under the administration of the Karl of Daliionsie; 
the checjuered system having", in numen)us cases, been supi-rsi-dcd hy 
the plan of ft/or/,! n<>-i\\v reserves, that is, the appropriation of twt) distinct 
tracts within each township, one of which contains the seventh reserved 
for the crown, and the otiur the seventh reserved for the clergy, and 
these tracts are <fenerally so situated as to prevent their interference with 
the settlements at a time when, fri)m their infancy, great injury is sus- 
tained hy the ititerlopin<f of unimproved lands. 

^\nother drawback upon the inhabitants of the townships, which 
has hitherto operated a<;ainst the advancement of the settlements, is to 
be found in the extensive tracts ori<;inally j;ranteil by jfovermnent to 
leaders ami their associates**, under c«)n(litions that were never fulfilled 
by the i^rantees, who have, nevertheless, by themselves, or their repre- 
sentatives, eontimied the ])roprietors of the soil, which is left uncultivated, 
and an almost insu])erable check to the progress of agricultural improve- 
ment. The indulgent forbearance of his majesty's govermnent towards 
the holders of these lands originated in the knowledge of the dilliculties 
that formerly attended the clearing and cultivating of forest land, but a 
due regard to the interests of actual settlers and to the prt)gressive im- 






4 

I. 

4 



* The ttTin Iciuler upplii's to tlio piTsoii who iimdi' the lU'ccssary rtjiplications, ami iiiciirii'il 
all the expenses previous to ohtaiiiiiif; tlu- patent, and also paid all fees that lieeanie due on the 
Lssuing of tlie patent for a grant of lanil. IJy tlie royal instructions whieli were nuule known in 
the year 17'''<>, each leader had a right to make an ap|ilication and ohtain for himself and thirty- 
iiiKe nssociateii twelve hundred acres of land each ; hut, in consideration of the heavy expenses 
wliicli the leader was ohliged to incur, j)revious to his ohtaining the grant, a bond was generally 
entered into between the leader and the associate, by w hieh the latter bound himself to convey 
to the former one tiiousund acres out of his twelve hundred. 



X 



I 



3»a 



LOWER CANADA. 



; j <i 



provcincnt of the ))r()vincc, has imliuxul his majesty's govcrnniclit to 
resort to measures ealeuhited to eompel the ])roprietors of the soil forth- 
with to settle their lands, under ])enalty of eaneelling their letters-])ateut, 
and re-annexiu"; the uraiits to the territory of the erowii. For this 
purpose the ereatiou of a eourt of eseheats is provided for by lOth 
section of an aet of tlie iin])erial })arliament, ()th (Jeo. IV. ehap. .59, which 
authorises the governor, lieutcnant-<j;overnor, or ])erson administering 



the <>()vernnient of the province, to constitute and appoint one or more 
connnissioners of escheats and forfeitures of land within the said province. 
These connnissioners are em])owered to in(juirc from time to time, on 
information being' made and liled by the attorney or solicitor-general of 
the province, into the liability of lands to esclieat, by reason of the non- 
performance of the conditions of settlement, and the verdict of a jury of 
twelve men. to be summoned in the usual way, is to be obtained of the fact, 
whereupon the forfeited lands become revested in his majesty ; but it is 
provided, tiuit the lands so forfeited shall not be regranted till after the 
expiration of one year from the date of their escheat, excepting " to the 
person or persons holding or claiming tlie same mider the former letters 
patent thereof, or by a lawful title derived under the same." Tlie clerk 
of the court is enjoined to give notice of the tiling of any information 
witlun foiu-teen days, through the n\edium of the ga/ettc, and moreover 
to have such notii'c ])oste(l in some ))ublic place, as near as ])ossil)le to 
the lands describiul in such information, notifying all persons interested 
of the nature of the ap])licati«)n. and the time of its investigation by the 
court, wiiich time is not to exceed four months, or be less than two from 
the date of pubMshing such notice. 

I 'nder this act a commissioner of escheats has been a])|)ointed, and the 
court otherwise organized, but we are not aware that any case of for- 
feiture has yet been brought undi'r its cognizance ; but, situated as are 
large sections of the townships, there is no doid)t tliat the functions of 
this court will not long remain inactive. 

The IJritish statute, by which the tribunal of escheats is created *, 

* (itli fiec. IV. cap. lix. An Act to provide for the extinction of feudal and sci^norial 
rights and burthens on lands, lield a litre de fief and a titrc de cens, in the jirovince of Lower 



AM. 



CANADA TI'NURES ACT. 



;383 



is not confined to that object alone, but extends to matters far more ge- 
neral and important, as respects the tenures of the country. Its princi|)al 
enactment has in contemplation the conversion of tiie feudal into the 
free and counnon soccaj;e tenure, for which ])urpose the proprietijrs of 
fiefs and seigniories are authorised to aj)ply to his majesty for a com- 
mutation of the burtiiens that attach to the tenure, and to receive a 
regrant of the same under free and conunon soccage. Tiiis comnmla- 
tion the seigneur is himself bomul to grant to his censitaires. should any 
application he made to tiiat efVict, in consideration of an indemnity to he 
amicably agreed upon or fixed by experts or appraisers. 






C"iiiiiiil:i, ;iii(l tor tlu' finitluiil cmivcrsidii of those tcmircs into tlic tcniirc of froi- and conmioii 
soccage, and for otlu-r |nir])oses rchitiiiu: to tlic said |)roviiK'i'. t2i2d Jumc, l!i2."i. 

§ I. ',\ (too. IV. c 11!). Hcciti'd, Persons lioldinf^ ticfs or scii;niorics niiiy, on :i|i|dii'atii)n to 
liis iniijc'sty, and, on snrri'ndcr of tlie niijirantcd jiarts tlu'rcof, olitain a coniinntation and release 
of feudalburtlien.s diie to his ni.ijesty thereon. Sneli lief or .seigniory may ho regranted to the 
proprietor in free and eoinnion soceage. 

1^ II. Kendal and seignorial riirhls on tlie granted jiarfs of sneh seigniory not to ho aireeted, 
until a eoinnnitation thereof shall lie ohlained as hereinafter provided. 

§ III. Persons holding land.s in fief, and obtaining a eoninintation as aforesaid, shall lie 
hound to grant the like eoninuitution to those Indding under them, if reiplired ; for sueh priee 
or iiuleninitv as sliall he fixed hv experts. 

§ I\'. .Seigniors or others refusing to grant suih entiinuitation may hi' impleaded in a eonvl 
of law, and sueh eonnnut.ition n.ay lie aisarded hy sueh eonrt to the party recpiiring the same, 
oil payment of the priee of indemnity. 

§ \'. Sueh eonnnutation having heen v(dnntari!y agreed upon, or awarded by a court of 
law, all feudal rights and burthens shall eease uj)on the lands for wliieh the saivu shall be 
granted, and the tenure lie converted into free and common soccage. 

§ \'I. Nothing herein contained to extend to discharge arrears. 

^ \'II. Persons applying for such eonnnutation v< give ])nblic notice to mortgagees and 
others having claims on sueh lands. 

§ \'III. Lands holden in free and conunon socciige in Lower Canada to be subject to the